Page 2: Classroom-based accommodations and interventions for written expression difficulties
One method for supporting children with written expression difficulties in the classroom is to provide accommodations and/or interventions for the specific challenges. The following are some features of effective written instruction that you can use in your classroom:
-A literate classroom environment
-Make writing motivating
-Set regular teacher/student conferences
-Create a predictable writing routine
-Display overt teacher modeling
-Include cooperative arrangements
-Include a broad range of instructions
-Integrate writing activities across the curriculum
Below are ten classroom-based accommodations and interventions. Each accommodation/intervention is briefly outlined, and you may click on the item(s) you wish to further explore. The items are each linked to a MS Word document that can be printed out for quick reference. You may wish to modify the interventions to better fit your students' particular needs.
1) Susie Can Write! The purpose of this intervention is to help a beginning writer increase his or her writing fluency and to provide a model for correct sentence construction. A benefit of this intervention is that it allows students to experience writing success while building their skills.
2) Increasing Writing Productivity with Self-Monitoring The purpose of this intervention is to increase word production through self-monitoring of word counts. The rationale behind this intervention is that the more students write, the more effect they will become at writing, and the idea is that if students monitor their amount of writing output, they will strive to increase that amount. A benefit of this intervention is that it improves students' motivation for writing.
3)Proofreading with Scope As students get older, error free work becomes more and more important. This intervention offers students a mnemonic device for remembering the steps involved in thorough proofreading.
4) The Peer Tutoring Spelling Game This intervention is based on increasing active academic responding in the classroom. This strategy targets spelling accuracy by combining classwide peer tutoring with public posting in a game-like format. In addition to providing increased opportunities for each student to practice spelling without increasing the total amount of time set aside for spelling instruction, it prevents reinforcement of errors because peer tutors provide immediate feedback for responses.
Written Expression Probes The purpose of this intervention is to determine
students' level and type of skills in writing, relative to their peers; to provide
specific information for developing written expression goals in the classroom;
to assess the effectiveness of writing interventions; and to provide data for
6) Curriculum-Based Spelling Probes The purpose of this intervention is to provide information regarding a student's level of spelling skill development compared with that of peers; to set short- and long-term goals for spelling instruction and remediation; to evaluate the effectiveness of spelling interventions; and to provide information for program evaluation.
7)Writing an Autobiography Writing an autobiography gives students the opportunity to practice writing and to learn more about themselves and their families. In particular, it helps them to think about the structure of writing and the use of different sources of information. Beyond that, having a relevant topic makes writing more interesting and meaningful.
8) Copy, Cover, & Compare This method of teaching and learning spelling words allows the students practice at visualizing and producing the weekly spelling words through a sequence of easy to remember steps. This is a reasonable intervention to implement on an individual level, as self-monitoring is facilitated by having the correct spelling of the word readily available.
9) What would you do if? This classroom activity gives students an opportunity to develop ideas for narrative writing. It also demonstrates the appropriate way to follow simple story structure. It allows children to use drawings to stimulate their imaginations and to help them generate story ideas, which helps engage students who see writing as something that is boring and always challenging.
10)Step-by-Step Cartoon Writing This intervention gives beginning or reluctant writers experience sequencing steps, using transition words, and writing a paragraph. The novel format makes the task more engaging and relevant. It also takes away the anxiety associated with writing and capitalizes on strengths in other areas like drawing.
Page 1: Definition, characteristics, and causes of written expression difficulties
Page 3: Handout for parents describing written expression problems and web resources
Page 4: Resources for written expression difficulties
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