***If you have any terms you wish to have added to the glossary, please email them to Andrea. ***

 

Science: materialism and naturalism based on observation, hypothesis, experimentation (methodology) = facts compiled into theories.

Nave inductivism: General theories derived from a collection of facts

Deduction: Start with a theory and look for observations to confirm it

Objectivism: belief that mankind can be removed from or independent of his surroundings and experiences while making observations

Subjectivism: holds that man is not objective, but subjected to his surroundings, training, personal experience, etc.

Popperian falsification: a theory is proposed and subjected to rigorous empirical tests. The objective of testing is the refutation of the hypothesis-this leads to the rejection of the theory.

Life: quality that distinguishes a vital and functional organism from inanimate objects; a principle or force that underlies the distinctive quality of animate beings; an organismic state characterized by the capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction.

Death: absence of life, total and permanent cessation of all vital (living) function; absence of the characteristics of life

Irritability: an immediate response to stimulus = nervous system Adaptation: an inherited characteristic that enables an organism to survive

Reproduction: passing on the biochemical instructions (genes) to the next generation

Phytoplasma and Mycoplasma: the simplest cell, lacks a cell wall, DNA with ~200 functions Virus: RNA or DNA wrapped a protein coat

Viroid: Tightly wound DNA and RNA

Prions: 1/100 to 1/1000 the size of a virus, composed of proteins

prokaryote: an organism without membranes around its organelles

eukaryote: an organism or cell with a membrane around the nucleus and other organelles

carbohydrate: molecule of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, usually 1:2:1, has many functions

polysaccharide: "many sugars", a long chain of sugar molecules

monosaccharide: "one sugar", a simple sugar

fatty acid: molecule with up to 36 carbon atoms, a carboxyl group, and hydrogens at most other binding sites

carboxyl: a carbon bound to an oxygen-hydrogen group (OH) and double bonded to an oxygen = COOH

amino acid: the building blocks of life, the smallest structural feature of a protein

saturated fat: a fat with as many hydrogen atoms as it can hold

unsaturated fats: fats with one or more double bond

protein: a long chain of amino acids

triglyceride: "three sugars" another name for fats

chylomicron: the densest form of carbohydrate, with the most lipid and least protein

polypeptide: a long chain of amino acids

peptide: two or more amino acids linked together through a dehydration reaction

hydrophobic: "water fear" the part of a molecule that repels water

hydrophilic: "water lover" the part of a molecule that attracts water

disulfide bond: a chemical bond between two sulfide molecules

Oncogene: cancer causing genes

Benign cancer: undifferentiated cell division with no adverse effects

Malignant: adverse

Metastasized: invasive

Invasive cancer: undifferentiated cell growth with adverse effects

Melanoma: cancer of the dermal epidermis ("skin")

Carcinogens: chemical that can cause cancer

Half-life: time it takes for one-half of a radioactive substance to degrade to a non-radioactive substance

Enzymes: biological catalysts

Hormones: biological messengers

Macromolecule: nucleic acids

Gene: Basic unit of inheritance

DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid

Nucleotide: Building block of nucleic acids; Phosphate + Sugar + Base

Benign: Not causing adverse effects

Invasive: Causing adverse effects (= Metastatized = Malignant)

Cancer: Undifferentiated cell growth

Morbidity: Death rate

Carcinogen: cancer-triggering agent

Oncogenes: genes that have cancer-causing potential

Meiosis: Cell division that produces sex cells

Mitosis: Cell division that produces two daughter cells

Karyotype: image of sorted chromosomes at the Metaphase stage of cell division

Hybridoma: Fused cancer and immune cells "the immortal cell line"

Nondisjunction: Abnormal sex chromosomes

Genotype: Genetic makeup

Phenotype: Physical expression of genes interacting with the environment

Fertilization: (conception) fusion of a sperm and egg

Cleavage: single cell becomes many

Implantation: blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall

Blastocyst: a multicellular stage of pregnancy (pre-embryonic)

Embryo: a non-free-living multicellular body

Fetus: a stage of development that extends from the third month of human development until birth

Resistance: Pesticide use is a powerful selection pressure for changing the genetic make-up of a pest population. In the last decade, the number of weed species known to be resistant to herbicides rose from 48 to 270, and the number of plant pathogens resistant to fungicides grew from 100 to 150. Resistance to insecticides is so common more than 500 species that nobody is counting anymore.

Resurgence: Pesticides often kill off natural enemies along with the pest. Without them, resistant populations experience unchecked growth.

Secondary Pests: Some potential pests which are normally kept to reasonable numbers by natural enemies become actual pests after their natural enemies are destroyed by pesticides. Mite outbreaks after pesticide applications are a classic example of this.

Residues: Only a tiny portion of any pesticide application will contact the target organism. The rest is often carried by water, wind and soil to non-target areas and organisms, affecting the health of human and wildlife populations.

Ribosome: organelle that translates RNA into protiens

Nucleus: organelle that contains DNA; replication, RNA synthesis goes on within

Mitochondria: organelle in charge of energy transformation (glycolysis) through the electron transport chain

Chloroplast: organelle in charge of energy transformation (photosynthesis) uses CO2 and H20 to make sugars

Lysosomes: an organelle that contains digesting enzymes and breaks down materials, can also induce apoptosis or cell death

Vacuoles: storage organelle that may contian a variety of chemicals or waste

Cytoskeleton: fibers that give a cell shape

Flagellum: a whip-like structure that aids in cell movement

Virus: contains double stranded or single stranded DNA or RNA and cannot reproduce by itself; has need of a host

Baculovirus: contains double-stranded DNA; has two morphologies, polyhedral occlusion body or viron

Fecundity: potential lifetime reproductive capacity

Fertility: ability to produce offspring

Polyembryony: multiple embryos that develop from one egg

Oviduct: female reproductive structure

Photoperiod: length of time the sun is visible; daylength

Generation time: time from reproductive adult to offspring reproductive maturity

Asexual reproduction: no interaction of sexes to produce offspring

Sexual reproduction: copulation (or exchange of DNA) for offspring production

Carrying capacity: number of individuals that can be biologically supported by an ecosystem

Innate behavior: "pre-programmed" knowledge

Metamorphosis: change in shape

Ocellus: simple eye, measures day length

Systematists: people who name species

Trogaderma:

Furculum: the elongate fork-like appendage on the end of the abdomen (folds under the body) of Collembola (e.g. springtails) which is used as a spring action for leaping

Lek: A bachelor-group of males hanging out and waiting for a female...animals other than insects do this, such as antelope. In humans, this may also be known as a fraternity. Just kidding!

Tarses: Last part of an insect's leg, 1- to 5-segmented and often with a terminal claw

Odonate: a member of the Family Odonata, i.e. a dragonfly

Chelicerae: First pair of appendages, can be modified into many forms--usually feeding appendages

Mandibles: Mouthparts

Metamorphosis: a physical change from one form to another, usually including a change in habit, as well

Parthenogenisis: A form of reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual, occurring commonly among insects and certain other arthropods.

Cercus: a sensory appendage on the posterior end of an insect

Cephalothorax: head and thorax fused

Arthropodin: tans chitin to a hard crunchy substance after a molt

Remember: Surface area increases as the square while volume increases as a cube.

 

Luciferase: an enzyme in many bugs that live in the soil and makes the glowing color; ATP driven reaction

Molluskicide: a pesticide that kills snails, slugs and other mollusks

Outbreak: killing all natural predators of a pest via a pesticide then the prey experiences unimpeded growth

Resistance: the ability of a pest to overcome the control of man; an adaptation based on genetics that allows it to escape control

Biotic: biological organism affecting another biotic organism

Gene pyramiding: insert as many resistance genes into a single variety

Somoclonal variation: take a leaf and separate each cell and culture. Each cell will grow into a new plant. Somewhat the same, somewhat different because each cell is slightly different from each other.

Protoplast fusion: taking parts of cells and disassemble the membrane and force the chromosomes together to produce a new species

DNA particle acceleration: .22 round and instead of a bullet head has some plastic particles and DNA. It shoots the DNA into a leaf.

Nutracudicals: Plants with vitamins not usually produced in that species

Wasting: your enzymes start breaking down your bodies proteins for energy