***If you have any terms you wish to have added to the glossary, please email them to Andrea. ***
Science: materialism and naturalism based on observation, hypothesis, experimentation (methodology) = facts compiled into theories.
Naïve inductivism: General theories derived from a collection of facts
Deduction: Start with a theory and look for observations to confirm it
Objectivism: belief that mankind can be removed from or independent of his surroundings and experiences while making observations
Subjectivism: holds that man is not objective, but subjected to his surroundings, training, personal experience, etc.
Popperian falsification: a theory is proposed and subjected to rigorous empirical tests. The objective of testing is the refutation of the hypothesis-this leads to the rejection of the theory.
Life: quality that distinguishes a vital and functional organism from inanimate objects; a principle or force that underlies the distinctive quality of animate beings; an organismic state characterized by the capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction.
Death: absence of life, total and permanent cessation of all vital (living) function; absence of the characteristics of life
Irritability: an immediate response to stimulus = nervous system Adaptation: an inherited characteristic that enables an organism to survive
Reproduction: passing on the biochemical instructions (genes) to the next generation
Phytoplasma and Mycoplasma: the simplest cell, lacks a cell wall, DNA with ~200 functions Virus: RNA or DNA wrapped a protein coat
Viroid: Tightly wound DNA and RNA
Prions: 1/100 to 1/1000 the size of a virus, composed of proteins
prokaryote: an organism without membranes around its organelles
eukaryote: an organism or cell with a membrane around the nucleus and other organelles
carbohydrate: molecule of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, usually 1:2:1, has many functions
polysaccharide: "many sugars", a long chain of sugar molecules
monosaccharide: "one sugar", a simple sugar
fatty acid: molecule with up to 36 carbon atoms, a carboxyl group, and hydrogens at most other binding sites
carboxyl: a carbon bound to an oxygen-hydrogen group (OH) and double bonded to an oxygen = COOH
amino acid: the building blocks of life, the smallest structural feature of a protein
saturated fat: a fat with as many hydrogen atoms as it can hold
unsaturated fats: fats with one or more double bond
protein: a long chain of amino acids
triglyceride: "three sugars" another name for fats
chylomicron: the densest form of carbohydrate, with the most lipid and least protein
polypeptide: a long chain of amino acids
peptide: two or more amino acids linked together through a dehydration reaction
hydrophobic: "water fear" the part of a molecule that repels water
hydrophilic: "water lover" the part of a molecule that attracts water
disulfide bond: a chemical bond between two sulfide molecules
Oncogene: cancer causing genes
Benign cancer: undifferentiated cell division with no adverse effects
Invasive cancer: undifferentiated cell growth with adverse effects
Melanoma: cancer of the dermal epidermis ("skin")
Carcinogens: chemical that can cause cancer
Half-life: time it takes for one-half of a radioactive substance to degrade to a non-radioactive substance
Enzymes: biological catalysts
Hormones: biological messengers
Macromolecule: nucleic acids
Gene: Basic unit of inheritance
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
Nucleotide: Building block of nucleic acids; Phosphate + Sugar + Base
Benign: Not causing adverse effects
Invasive: Causing adverse effects (= Metastatized = Malignant)
Cancer: Undifferentiated cell growth
Morbidity: Death rate
Carcinogen: cancer-triggering agent
Oncogenes: genes that have cancer-causing potential
Meiosis: Cell division that produces sex cells
Mitosis: Cell division that produces two daughter cells
Karyotype: image of sorted chromosomes at the Metaphase stage of cell division
Hybridoma: Fused cancer and immune cells "the immortal cell line"
Nondisjunction: Abnormal sex chromosomes
Genotype: Genetic makeup
Phenotype: Physical expression of genes interacting with the environment
Fertilization: (conception) fusion of a sperm and egg
Cleavage: single cell becomes many
Implantation: blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall
Blastocyst: a multicellular stage of pregnancy (pre-embryonic)
Embryo: a non-free-living multicellular body
Fetus: a stage of development that extends from the third month of human development until birth
Resistance: Pesticide use is a powerful selection pressure for changing the genetic make-up of a pest population. In the last decade, the number of weed species known to be resistant to herbicides rose from 48 to 270, and the number of plant pathogens resistant to fungicides grew from 100 to 150. Resistance to insecticides is so common — more than 500 species — that nobody is counting anymore.
Resurgence: Pesticides often kill off natural enemies along with the pest. Without them, resistant populations experience unchecked growth.
Secondary Pests: Some potential pests which are normally kept to reasonable numbers by natural enemies become actual pests after their natural enemies are destroyed by pesticides. Mite outbreaks after pesticide applications are a classic example of this.
Residues: Only a tiny portion of any pesticide application will contact the target organism. The rest is often carried by water, wind and soil to non-target areas and organisms, affecting the health of human and wildlife populations.
Ribosome: organelle that translates RNA into protiens
Nucleus: organelle that contains DNA; replication, RNA synthesis goes on within
Mitochondria: organelle in charge of energy transformation (glycolysis) through the electron transport chain
Chloroplast: organelle in charge of energy transformation (photosynthesis) uses CO2 and H20 to make sugars
Lysosomes: an organelle that contains digesting enzymes and breaks down materials, can also induce apoptosis or cell death
Vacuoles: storage organelle that may contian a variety of chemicals or waste
Cytoskeleton: fibers that give a cell shape
Flagellum: a whip-like structure that aids in cell movement
Virus: contains double stranded or single stranded DNA or RNA and cannot reproduce by itself; has need of a host
Baculovirus: contains double-stranded DNA; has two morphologies, polyhedral occlusion body or viron
Fecundity: potential lifetime reproductive capacity
Fertility: ability to produce offspring
Polyembryony: multiple embryos that develop from one egg
Oviduct: female reproductive structure
Photoperiod: length of time the sun is visible; daylength
Generation time: time from reproductive adult to offspring reproductive maturity
Asexual reproduction: no interaction of sexes to produce offspring
Sexual reproduction: copulation (or exchange of DNA) for offspring production
Carrying capacity: number of individuals that can be biologically supported by an ecosystem
Innate behavior: "pre-programmed" knowledge
Metamorphosis: change in shape
Ocellus: simple eye, measures day length
Systematists: people who name species
Furculum: the elongate fork-like appendage on the end of the abdomen (folds under the body) of Collembola (e.g. springtails) which is used as a spring action for leaping
Lek: A bachelor-group of males hanging out and waiting for a female...animals other than insects do this, such as antelope. In humans, this may also be known as a fraternity. Just kidding!
Tarses: Last part of an insect's leg, 1- to 5-segmented and often with a terminal claw
Odonate: a member of the Family Odonata, i.e. a dragonfly
Chelicerae: First pair of appendages, can be modified into many forms--usually feeding appendages
Metamorphosis: a physical change from one form to another, usually including a change in habit, as well
Parthenogenisis: A form of reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual, occurring commonly among insects and certain other arthropods.
Cercus: a sensory appendage on the posterior end of an insect
Cephalothorax: head and thorax fused
Arthropodin: tans chitin to a hard crunchy substance after a molt
Remember: Surface area increases as the square while volume increases as a cube.
Luciferase: an enzyme in many bugs that live in the soil and makes the glowing color; ATP driven reaction
Molluskicide: a pesticide that kills snails, slugs and other mollusks
Outbreak: killing all natural predators of a pest via a pesticide then the prey experiences unimpeded growth
Resistance: the ability of a pest to overcome the control of man; an adaptation based on genetics that allows it to escape control
Biotic: biological organism affecting another biotic organism
Gene pyramiding: insert as many resistance genes into a single variety
Somoclonal variation: take a leaf and separate each cell and culture. Each cell will grow into a new plant. Somewhat the same, somewhat different because each cell is slightly different from each other.
Protoplast fusion: taking parts of cells and disassemble the membrane and force the chromosomes together to produce a new species
DNA particle acceleration: .22 round and instead of a bullet head has some plastic particles and DNA. It shoots the DNA into a leaf.
Nutracudicals: Plants with vitamins not usually produced in that species
Wasting: your enzymes start breaking down your bodies proteins for energy