link to Prof. Stein's home page
link to ISS 325 War and Revolution syllabus                                                    stein@msu.edu
ISS 325 section 6
WAR AND REVOLUTION
 ISS325--WAR & REVOLUTION lecture Aggression pages
     spring 2003


TABLE OF CONTENTS

*Introduction: Relationships and Processes                             2-12
States/Weak States/Sovereignty/Blood                                  13-47
Just War/War Crimes/Genocide                                          48-94
Human Aggression                                                            95-131
Conquest/Authority                                                          132-154
Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism                                               155-184
Revolution/Internal Conflict                                               185-233
War/Threat/Aggression                                                      234-246
U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention                     247-259
Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction                 260-268
Kagan: article and Asmus & Pollack article                          269-295



 

AGGRESSION:

ALL ACTS THAT CAUSE, AND ARE INTENDED TO CAUSE, DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PERSON, ANIMAL OR INANIMATE OBJECT. [Eric Fromm]

AGGRESSION

NATURE V. NURTURE

1. INSTIGATION
2. INHIBITION
3. SITUATION
4. COMPETING RESPONSES
 

******

Ron Rosenbaum, "EXPLAINING HITLER," The New Yorker 1 May 1995.

What was the genesis of Hitler's evil?

Many theories ranging from:
-born with one testicle
-testicle and/or part of penis bitten off by a goat
-overindulgent mother
-abused child with low self-esteem
-abusive father whose family secret was he had been sired by a Jew
-mother died in 1907 from cancer unsuccessfully treated by Jewish doctor
-syphilis
-syphilis caused by Jewish prostitute
 
bad parenting
Jewish suspect
mental illness
physical illness
 
 

============================================
TABULA RASA

 The dominant picture of mind since the Renaissance--it is common to classical empiricism, which embraced consciousness, and modern behaviorism, which eschewed it--is the tabula rasa; the blank ledger upon which the environment leaves its trace as the mind is given whatever structure and content it finally possesses. Originally, the mind is conceived to be neutral, void, unbiased, plastic, undifferentiated--a mere vacuum awaiting the rush of sensory experience. The mind is able to copy experience, to detect its regularities, to order its deliverances into categories; but innately it is just a formless sponge soaking up environmental contingencies. Behavior, in consequence, is under no innate constraint or predisposition; it simply reflects the experience of the organism, whatever that may be. Everything mental is up for grabs. There is no human nature. Our essence is nothingness.

 AND IN THIS PRIMAL POVERTY LIES THE PROMISE OF UNLIMITED OPTIMISM ABOUT HUMAN LIFE AND SOCIETY. WE CAN MAKE OF OURSELVES WHATEVER WE CHOOSE, SO LONG AS WE SELECT AN APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT.
 

Colin McGinn, "The Know-It-All." The New Republic, Feb. 23, 1998. [review of Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works]

 
============================================
INSTINCT THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

[HYDRAULIC THEORIES]

1. FREUD:
THANATOS - DEATH INSTINCT

EROS - LOVE INSTINCT

instinct:
reduce life to its original condition of inanimate matter.

... The death instinct turns into the destructive instinct when it is directed outward.

Freud "Why War" 1932 letter to Albert Einstein

"Nevertheless I should like to linger for a moment over our destructive instinct, whose popularity is by no means equal to its importance.
 ...this instinct is at work in every living creature and is striving to bring it to ruin and to reduce life to its original condition of inanimate matter. Thus it quite SERIOUSLY DESERVES TO BE CALLED A DEATH INSTINCT...
 The DEATH INSTINCT TURNS INTO THE DESTRUCTIVE INSTINCT when ... it is directed outward, on to objects. The organism preserves its own life, so to say, by destroying an extraneous one.
 if these forces are turned to destruction in the external world, the ORGANISM WILL BE RELIEVED, and the effect must be beneficial. This would serve as a biological justification for all the ugly and dangerous impulses against which we are struggling.
 there is no use trying to get rid of men's aggressive inclinations.
 there is no question of getting rid entirely of human aggressive impulses; it is enough to try to divert them to such an extent that they need not find expression in WAR.
 If willingness to engage in war is an effect of the destructive instinct, the most obvious plan will be to bring Eros, it antagonist, into play against it. Anything that encourages the growth of emotional ties between men must operate against war.

============================================
 2. LORENZ:
AGGRESSION IS A FORCE FOR SURVIVAL AND EVOLUTION

Humans and Animals
a) defend their TERRITORY
b) fight for MATES
c) protect their YOUNG
d) engage in CONTESTS for order.

HEREDITARY EVIL OF MANKIND - humans acquire weapons and social organization c. 40,000 years ago. But instincts based on earlier dangers. Man is safer from environment but turns on other human groups.

PLUS development of weapons came so fast that it outstripped evolutionary mechanisms of restraint, rituals of conflict.
 

Militant enthusiasm

MOBBING reflex operates when a social unit is threatened. Great ferocity.

Four levels of organization -
anonymous crowd - herd, flock. Agg is not common
territorial group - nesting colony. defend the territory
tribal group - extended family. attack the outsider.

The three above involve a vague consciousness of kind
bonded group - individual identities. love and hate.

CROWDING AND AGGRESSION?
 In 1996 Japan had 15 handgun deaths, Great Britain 30, Canada 106; and the United States had 9,390. [more than one per hour]
 By the year 2001, gunfire injury will surpass motor vehicle injury as the leading cause of traumatic deaths in the United States, according to the Annals of Emergency Medicine, 1998.

============================================
the FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS

AGGRESSION IS ALWAYS A CONSEQUENCE OF FRUSTRATION.

1. AGGRESSION IS ALWAYS DUE TO SOME FRUSTRATION.

2. WHENEVER FRUSTRATION OCCURS AGGRESSION WILL FOLLOW OR BE INSTIGATED.

F-A is a HYDRAULIC model.

Not an instinct theory, just AUTOMATIC.

WHAT IS A FRUSTRATION?

**********************************
PROBLEMS WITH THE F-A HYPOTHESIS

CATHARSIS:
1) committing an act of aggression CONSUMES ENERGY and lessens the
aggressive drive.

2) the emotional outburst relieves pressure and makes you feel better.

DISPLACEMENT: STRONGEST INSTIGATION against the SOURCE

BUT INHIBITION OF a DIRECT ACT CAN LEAD TO a LESS DIRECT act of aggression
 

============================================
 BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY

WATSON
SKINNER
 

NOT CONCERNED WITH FEELINGS, EMOTIONS, IMPULSES, SUBJECTIVE FACTORS

BEHAVIOR IS EXCLUSIVELY SHAPED BY THE ENVIRONMENT

REINFORCEMENTS SHAPE HUMAN BEHAVIOR

 **************

 LEARNING

DRIVE, INSTINCT AND FRUSTRATION THEORIES STRESS A PRE-PROGRAMMED RESPONSE TO STIMULI

LEARNING THEORIES BELIEVE HUMANS CAN COGNITIVELY PROCESS EVENTS

KNOWLEDGE, MEMORY, EXPERIENCE

EVALUATE ALTERNATIVES, PICK BEST

HUMANS COPE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
 

tabula rasa

============================================
  LEARNING

1- CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
2- REINFORCEMENT
3- MODELING

 CONDITIONING

STIMULUS--------RESPONSE

NEUTRAL STIMULUS--UNCONDITIONED R

CONDITIONED STIM--CONDITIONED R

 REINFORCEMENT
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT - REWARD
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT - PUNISH

FOCUS ON BASIC HUMAN Needs
Love, Hunger, Fear, Pain, Approval, Self-esteem, Security, Praise

OPERANT CONDITIONING IS BASED ON SELECTIVE REINFORCEMENT

 MODELING

COPY BEHAVIOR
PRESTIGE OF MODEL
IMITATE
NORMS, VALUES, ATTITUDES

============================================
 FACTORS AFFECTING AGGRESSION

1- THE AGGRESSOR
2- THE VICTIM
3- CULTURAL VALUES
4- THE SITUATION
 *******

AGGRESSIVE PARENTS HAVE AN AGGRESSIVE CHILD
????HEREDITY OR LEARNING???

ALTRUISM
 

 VICTIM

PREJUDICE - VIEW OTHERS WITH SUSPICION; NOT BASED ON PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

ETHNOCENTRISM

PRESTIGE

VENGEANCE

DETERRENCE

REFORM

RECOVERY

============================================
HATE CRIMES
TEXAS DRAGGING MURDER
Congress DEFINES HATE CRIME as " a crime in which the defendant intentionally
selects a victim, or in the case of a property crime, the property that is the object of the crime, because of the actual or perceived race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person."

 Examples fall under the following categories: Attacks Upon:African Americans
Asian-Pacific Americans
Arab-Americans
Gays and Lesbians
Hispanics

Individuals With Disabilities
Jews
Native Americans
Whites
Women
Church Arsons
* Former fellow inmate William Matthew Hoover testified King often spoke of taking "out a black" by killing one in a secluded area. And in Hoover's prison scrapbook, King wrote extensively about a world made better by Aryan beliefs.
 "We, my Aryan Brother in arms, will rightfully claim what's ours and in the
end our feet will be washed in the blood of the Jews," King wrote.

* Mr. Lane's wife publicizes his violent supremacist philosophy through The
14-Word Press, a publishing house. The name refers to a phrase coined by Mr.
Lane that is now a separatist mantra for many racists.
 Mr. Lane's 14-word phrase - "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children" - appears repeatedly in Mr. King's Klan documents.
•Mr. King's writing style mimics that of Mr. Lane and Order founder Robert Matthews, whose death in an FBI standoff in the mid-1980s made him a martyr for radical racists.
 Mr. King could have easily been exposed to racist literature in prison.
 "FOR GUYS WHO ARE LOSERS, THIS STUFF MAKES THEM SEEM LIKE REALLY IMPORTANT, BRAVE WHITE MEN PROTECTING THEIR RACE INSTEAD OF THE LOSERS THAT THEY REALLY ARE,"
 
 
 
 
 

Hate Crimes p. 2
 In certain basic ways, the three men MATCHED THE STEREOTYPE OF
PERPETRATORS of hate crimes, according to experts who track such behavior.

 All three were high school dropouts who did not seem able to hold steady
jobs, working variously as yard workers and lumber company employees; they were
about to be evicted from the modest apartment they shared across from the local
Wal-Mart. But perhaps most significant in their downward spiral were the racist
influences they apparently encountered, and embraced, in prison.

 spokesman for Texas Criminal Justice, said all three men, while serving time, were suspected of belonging to the Ku Klux Klan and the Confederate Knights of America. But he could not confirm that they belonged to the Aryan Brotherhood, considered the most violent of prison hate groups. King, who was serving a sentence for burglary, was disciplined in 1995 for his involvement in a racial disturbance between whites and Hispanics at his prison unit, Fitzgerald said.

 "We find the reason most people join a group like that is for support, for safety, protection. And birds of a feather flock together, of course," Fitzgerald said, adding that out of a Texas prison population of 142,785, nearly 5,000 inmates have been identified as having hate-group affiliations.

 murder June 1998, trial February 1999

============================================
 FROMM's CATEGORIES OF AGGRESSION
The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness

1- BENIGN AGGRESSION
  A. PSEUDO AGGRESSION
 a. Accidental Aggression
 b. Playful Aggression
 c. Self-Assertive Aggression
   B. DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION
 a. Freedom & Aggression
 b. Narcissistic Aggression
 c. Conformist Aggression
 d. Instrumental Aggression
 
 

2- MALIGNANT AGGRESSION
 A. SPONTANEOUS AGGRESSION
 a. Vengeance
 b. Ecstacy

 B. DESTRUCTIVE CHARACTER
 a. Sadism/Masochism
 b. Necrophilia
 
 

============================================
 1- BENIGN AGGRESSION:

BIOLOGICALLY ADAPTIVE, LIFE-SERVING, CONSTRUCTIVE.
•NOT SPONTANEOUS, BUT REACTIVE & DEFENSIVE
•AIMS AT REMOVING THREAT

 A. PSEUDO AGGRESSION IS WITHOUT INTENT TO DO HARM
 B. DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION IS REACTION TO THREATS TO VITAL INTERESTS
 

 2- MALIGNANT AGGRESSION:

•ROOTED IN HUMAN CHARACTER
•BIOLOGICALLY NON-ADAPTIVE
•NOT DEFENSIVE
•AIMS AT CRUELTY & DESTRUCTION
•SOCIALLY DISRUPTIVE & HARMFUL
•CRUELTY THAT GIVES PLEASURE & IS W.O. PURPOSE
 

============================================
 DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION:

BIOLOGICALLY ADAPTIVE, REACT WITH ATTACK OR FLIGHT WHEN VITAL INTERESTS - SPACE, FOOD, MATE, YOUNG - ARE THREATENED.
 •AIM IS TO REMOVE THE THREAT
•NO LUST FOR DESTRUCTION
•ONCE AIM IS ATTAINED, AGGRESSION STOPS

Both animals and humans engage in defensive aggression. But
HUMAN BRAIN IS SUPERIOR
so
Many times more defensive aggression by humans than by animals

1. ANIMALS ONLY SEE CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER.
• Humans Have Foresight And Imagination

2. HUMANS CAN BE BRAINWASHED, PERSUADED, LIED TO, TO RESPOND TO NONEXISTENT THREATS

3. HUMANS HAVE A MUCH GREATER RANGE OF VITAL INTERESTS THAN THOSE OF AN ANIMAL.
 Animal Defends Space, Food, Mate, Young, ...
 HUMANS HAVE PHYSICAL NEEDS BUT ALSO NEED PSYCHIC EQUILIBRIUM
 4. HUMANS NOT RULED BY INSTINCTS.
 HUMAN CHARACTER DETERMINES BEHAVIOR.

============================================
HUMAN CHARACTER -
 THE RELATIVELY PERMANENT SYSTEM OF ALL NON-INSTINCTUAL STRIVINGS [PASSIONS] THRU WHICH HUMANS RELATE THEMSELVES TO THE HUMAN NATURAL WORLD.
 GREEDY-GENEROUS
HUMOR-DOUR
ADVENTURE-CAUTION
ACTIVE-LAZY
LOVING-ALIENATED
ALERT-BORED
COLORFUL-BLAND
PESSIMIST-OPTIMIST
CONFIDENT-INSECURE
SUSPICIOUS-TRUSTING
SHARING-DOMINANT
DEPENDENT-INDEPENDENT
 
 

============================================
DOCTORS SEEK WAY TO MEASURE EVIL
 May 11, 2001 NEW ORLEANS (AP) -- ``Evil'' is not a word most psychiatrists like. But some are trying to find a way to measure it.
 During a symposium Thursday at the American Psychiatric Association convention, Dr. Michael Welner, a forensic psychiatrist, asked more than 120 psychiatrists to help create a depravity scale which could be used by the courts to judge criminals.
 Every day, judges ask juries to decide whether crimes are heinous, atrocious, cruel, outrageous, wanton, vile or inhuman -- aggravating factors which can increase sentences and even lead to the death penalty in some states.
 But there are no universal standards to define such terms, Welner told the overflow audience. The interpretations often depend on judges' and jurors' emotions and biases, and politics or media attention can influence whether a prosecutor asks for execution, he said.
 In his effort to create a scale to measure depravity in defendants, Welner, who has testified as both a prosecution and defense witness, created a list of 26 indications of intent, actions and attitudes which could be used to rate crimes.
 Among the intents are whether the person meant to cause emotional trauma, cause permanent disfigurement, or terrorize or target the helpless. Actions include whether an attack was unrelenting or the attacker prolonged the victim's suffering. Attitudes include blaming the victim, having disrespect for the victim or taking satisfaction in the crime.
 Welner is asking judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, psychiatrists and theologians to go to his Web site and rate each indicator for whether they believe it is especially, somewhat or not at all representative of depravity.
 The object is to find indicators which all or most experts agree on, a ``consensus morality'' which could be used in court.
 Thursday's symposium, titled ``How Psychiatry Defines Evil,'' was held on the final evening of the convention.
 Dr. Michael Stone of Columbia University also showed slides of nearly three dozen killers and others whom he considers evil.
 A woman who burned one of her three daughters alive and starved another to death was ``at the extreme edge of evil ... one of the most clearly evil persons'' of more than 400 whose biographies he has read, Stone said.
 However, he added that ``the bulk of evil on a world scale is committed by ideologues and their followers.'' Wars and persecutions, from the Spanish Inquisition to the fighting in Bosnia, show people are capable of ``bottomless cruelty to those outside the tribe, especially in times of hardship and hunger,'' he said.
 Welner also discussed other research that has highlighted problems with trying to measure depravity in criminals, primarily that some traits associated with people who cannibalize, mutilate or torture their victims also can be found in people who don't commit such crimes.
 Dr. Cleo Van Velsen, a forensic psychiatrist from London who was in the audience, said another challenge is determining why people commit acts that can be described as evil.
 ``We know they exist, but not why they are produced,'' she said.
 Dr. John L. Young of New Haven, Conn., said he found ``depravity'' a more acceptable term than ``evil.''
 Trying to create a fairer, more reliable measurement for a word used in court is one thing, he said, but ``I'm not holy enough, not saintly or godly enough to tamper with evil.''
 On the Net: Welner's site: http://www.forensicpanel.com

============================================
HUMAN CHARACTER

SECOND NATURE

PROBLEM OF REALITY HAS TO BE CONTINUALLY FACED.

WE MUST COMPROMISE BETW:
A- WHAT WE WOULD LIKE TO DO
B- OUR OWN SELF INTEREST

CHARACTER IS NOT NECESSARILY REASONABLE OR RATIONAL.
--IT IS PART OF OUR DECISIVE DRIVEN AUTOMATIC RESPONSE.
--CONNECTED TO VALUES and MUTUAL EXPECTATIONS OF BEHAVIOR.

CHARACTER IS SOCIALLY CONDITIONED, DEVELOPS FROM CULTURE AND SOCIETY.
--PARENTS, SOCIALIZATION, GENES
--ORIENTATION AND DEVOTION

SOCIAL CONDITIONS
--PHYSICAL CONDITIONS WHEN YOUNG - starvation, love, sickness, freedom
--SOCIALIZATION - prejudice, authority, poverty, stimulation

homeless, foster homes, divorce, single parent, working parents, poverty, prejudice, violence, unemployment, mass media,
 

nyt 10/17/94 John Paul II, "Why So Many Religions?"
 "Men turn to various religions to solve mysteries of the human condition, which today, as in earlier times, burden people's hearts: the nature of man; the meaning and purpose of life; good and evil; the origin and purpose of suffering; the way to true happiness; death; judgment and retribution after death, and finally, the ultimate ineffable mystery which is the origin and destiny of our existence."
 

============================================
SERBS: "the product of Dalmatian history: the conquest by Rome, of Rome by the barbarians; then three hundred years of conflict between Hungary and Venice; then four hundred years of oppression by Venice, with the war with Turkey running concurrently; a few years of hope under France; a hundred years of misgovernment by Austria. In such shambles, a man had to shout and rage to survive."

"leftover bitterness of the war, which was raged here with a ferocity and a cost in blood not equaled.

CCOB "there are places where a lot of men prefer war and the looting and raping and domineering that go with it to any sort of peacetime occupation. One such place is Afghanistan. Another is Yugoslavia."

"under communism the spirit of critical, rational inquiry could not develop, the nations of Yugoslavia failed to free themselves from pseudo-romantic images of themselves and negative stereotypes of each other. . . . mythologizing ethnocentrism that could envisage full rights only for members of one's own group."
 After hearing Croatian nationalists claim only tens of thousands of Serbs had been exterminated, not hundreds of thousands, and that it could be explained and historically justified: "More than their assertions, their warped, poisoned sentiment of 'historical injury' chilled me. It testified to a paranoid inferiority complex and a total indifference to the consequences of such blind urges. Complete insensitivity to the suffering of other Yugoslavs. . . explained only by an all-consuming hatred--at the same time swaggering and paranoid, defensive and aggressive."

"These texts present the role of Serbia and its armies in both Balkan wars as exclusively noble and humane. If they are accused of inflicting suffering, Serbs merely reply that they are just and virtuous avengers of far worse popular suffering at the hands of others." "in the popular culture the idea of viciously hostile Albanians killing exhausted Serbian soldiers and civilians is carefully and persistently nurtured. . . This culture carefully preserves the myth of Serbs as innately the most magnanimous of peoples, straightforward and hospitable, naive and brave, and perpetually the victims of others"

============================================
October 4, 1998
 HEARTS OF DARKNESS An American journalist traces the authors of Rwanda's genocide.
 Related Link First Chapter: 'We Wish to Inform You . . .'
 By WOLE SOYINKA
 Given the levels of unrepentant participation, including the social ostracism of the dissenting or critical bystanders even till now, can the two main components of the Rwandan nation be expected to live together -- that is, to bring to realization the rehabilitation that is the third leg of Gourevitch's tripod? Reflecting upon that ever intrusive proposition, I could not fail to recall one account that was narrated to me, variations of which are abundantly supplied in Gourevitch's book.
 A Hutu, a leading citizen of a small Rwandan town that I visited, felt personally indicted after a visit from a Government official, who accused the citizenry of being lax in the task of ''bush clearing'' -- one of the many euphemisms for the task of eliminating the Tutsi. A day after his departure, the notable, whose wife was Tutsi, called a meeting of the villagers for some soul-searching. He took his four sons with him. He began his address by revealing that, having taken to heart the rebuke from their visitor, he had decided to set an example, and thus slaughtered his Tutsi wife before leaving home.
 But that was only a first step, he said. It was not enough to kill off all Tutsi, they must eliminate every vestige of Tutsi blood that contaminated the purity of the breed. In earnest of which, he announced, I publicly set you all a further example. And with one stroke of his machete, he lopped off the head of his eldest son. One by one, his three other sons were led out of the hut in which he had kept them, and slaughtered. And with that, yet another village that, until then, had withstood the hate rhetoric of the interahamwe dived headfirst into the sump of bloodletting.

============================================
THEY HAVE TO BE CAREFULLY TAUGHT

1994 Rwandan Genocide of ethnic Tutsi by ethnic Hutu

Hutu Mayor of Kigali: "The Tutsi are originally bad. They are murderers. Physically they are weak--look at their arms and their legs. No Tutsi can build; they are too weak. They just command. The others work." "Determined not to allow the Tutsi to repeat history and slay the Hutu as they had 400 years ago and again in 1959 and 1972."

illiterate Hutu--"I did not believe the Tutsis were coming to kill us, but when the government radio continued to broadcast that they were coming to take our land, were coming to kill the Hutus--I began to feel some kind of fear."

"The stations were always telling people that if the RPF comes, it will return Rwanda to feudalism, that it would bring oppression. We didn't know the RPF. We believed what the government told us."

Radio Milles Collines had been terrorizing the Hutu with warnings about the evil Tutsi-led RPF: "enemies" "traitors" "deserved to die." Accused RPF of planning 'ethnic purification.' To Hutus: "The enemy is out there--go get him." "The graves are only half full."
 Blurs the distinction between RPF and ethnic-Tutsis: "change their clothing trying to be confused with ordinary people."
 Claims of atrocities by RPF [that were actually done by Hutus]: "gathering people in a village and killing them with bullets, gathering people in a mosque and killing them with machete. . . . killing a pregnant women and taking out the fetus, which is ground and given to the family to eat before they are killed."
 "We hate them, we are disgusted with them and nobody will accept that they take power. These people do not deserve to live."

============================================
RWANDA - independent 1962 [Belgium]
10,000 square miles - Maryland
•7 million people - Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
 •60% literacy & 39 years life exp; $720 per capita income
 •July 1994 Tutsi rebels [Rwanda Patriotic Front RPF] defeated Hutu regime
 •April - July 1994 Hutu regime committed genocide against Tutsi, roughly 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu were murdered
 •July 1994 Tutsi RPF victory leads to 2 million Hutu refugees fleeing to Zaire [Congo], leading to its destabilization in 1996
 •1994-96 genocidaires [xFAR (former Armed Forces of Rwanda) and Hutu militia (Interhamwe)] control huge refugee camps in Zaire, steal relief aid, buy weapons, and attack Rwanda and Zairian Tutsis.
 •1996 - to end raids by Hutu genocidaires from refugee camps in Zaire, Rwanda invades and supports Zairian rebel group led by Laurent Kabila.
 • 1998 - feeling betrayed by Kabila intervenes in and supports another rebel group in Congo, touching off a seven nation war in Congo
 Background
 •1959 - 3 years before independence Hutu rebels, the majority ethnic group, overthrow Tutsi King. Thousands of Tutsi killed, 150,000 go into exile in Congo, Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda.
 •1990 - children of the 1960s Tutsi exiles mount an invasion from Uganda culminating in 1994 with the Hutu genocide of Tutsi and Tutsi victory in civil war.
 •Colonial legacy: Belgian converts a fluid 'caste' system of elite cattle-owners "Tutsi" and peasant farmers "Hutu" into a rigid ethnic identification system. Issues ID cards. Treats Tutsi as a natural aristocracy, favors them in education and military.
 •Rwanda [and Burundi] history: centuries ago invading Tutsi pastoralists established domination over Hutu agriculturalists based on system of patron-client relationships and loyalty to the Mwami, the king.
 
 

============================================
Alan J. Kuperman RWANDA IN RETROSPECT. (1994 genocide was fast and efforts to stop it may not have worked). Foreign Affairs, Jan-Feb 2000 v79 i1 p94

what a realistic U.S. military intervention could have achieved in Rwanda:
•finds insupportable the oft- repeated claim that 5,000 troops deployed at the outset of the killing in April 1994 could have prevented the genocide.
 •some lives could have been saved by intervention of any size at any point during the genocide, the hard truth is that even a large force deployed immediately upon reports of attempted genocide would not have been able to save even half the ultimate victims.
• Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the genocide was its speed.
•the majority of Tutsi gathering sites were attacked and destroyed before April 21, only 14 days into the genocide.
 • a large portion of Rwanda's Tutsi had been killed by April 21 -- perhaps 250,000 in just over two weeks.
 •That would be the fastest genocide rate in recorded history.
 •only three weeks after the president's plane crash, almost all the large massacres were finished.

 THE KNOWLEDGE GAP
•review of international reporting -- strongly suggests that President Clinton could not have known that a nationwide genocide was under way in Rwanda until about April 20.
•conclusion is based on five aspects of the reporting during the first two weeks.
 violence was initially depicted as a two-sided civil war -- one that the Tutsi were winning -- rather than a one-sided genocide against the Tutsi
 violence was reported to be waning when it actually was accelerating.
 most early death counts were gross underestimates and never suggested genocidal proportions.
 focus of reporting was Kigali and failed to indicate the broader scope of violence
 no credible and knowledgeable observers, including human rights groups, raised the prospect that genocide

 THE MILITARY SCENE
•Rwanda hosted three military forces -- those of the government, the rebels, and the United Nations.
• Government forces totaled about 40,000, this force was largely hollow, 15,000 to 30,000 Hutu were in militias, but many did not possess firearms
•UNAMIR had about 2,500 peacekeepers, in Kigali or in the north.
 •presence was subject to the consent of the government.
 •Rules of engagement were generally interpreted to bar the use of force except in self-defense
• Rebel forces, estimated at 20,000

 POTENTIAL U.S. INTERVENTIONS : maximum, moderate, and minimal.
•MAXIMUM INTERVENTION -- all feasible force to halt large-scale killing and military conflict throughout Rwanda.
•MODERATE INTERVENTION -- to halt some large-scale killing without deploying troops to areas of ongoing civil war, to reduce U.S. casualties.
•MINIMAL INTERVENTION would have relied on air power alone.
 MAXIMUM INTERVENTION deployment of roughly one U.S. division -- three brigades about 15,000 troops and their equipment -- with rules of engagement permitting the use of deadly force to protect endangered Rwandans
 The time required to deploy such a force would have depended mainly on its weight. Rwanda-- landlocked country; speed is critical in stopping a genocide, the entire force would have been airlifted-- required 33 days to airlift
 Advance units, however, could have begun operations much sooner.
•four days-- a battalion or two of Army Rangers could have parachuted in and seized Kigali airport at night.
•two weeks-- halt the fighting betw FAR and RPF in Kigali NW Rwanda
•Only later, could the intervention force have turned in earnest to stopping the genocide in the countryside as helicopters, vehicles, and troops arrived.
•large-scale genocide stopped during the 4th or 5th week by mid-May 15. Based on the genocide's progression, such an intervention would have saved about 275,000 Tutsi, instead of the 150,000 who actually survived.
•Maximum credible intervention thus could not have prevented the genocide, as is sometimes claimed, but it could have spared about 125,000 Tutsi from death, some 25 percent of the ultimate toll.
 MODEST INTERVENTION -avoid areas of active fighting.
• A single reinforced brigade would have sufficed given the reduced territory, population, and threat of potential adversaries.
•Moderate intervention thus could have spared about 100,000 Tutsi from death, or 20 percent of the ultimate toll. Surprisingly, moderate intervention in this case would have saved almost as many lives as the maximum alternative, because by avoiding combat areas the interveners could have turned sooner to counter genocide in the zone where most Tutsi lived.
 MINIMAL INTERVENTION-- to mitigate the genocide without U.S. ground troops relying on airpower alone from bases in neighboring countries.
• help the Rwandan Tutsi escape to refugee camps in bordering states -- Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, or Zaire -- by using helicopter patrols to ensure safe passage
•it could have spared about 75,000 Tutsi from death, or 15 percent of the genocide's ultimate toll.

 A WESTERN FAILURE OF WILL?
 Conventional wisdom still holds that 5,000 well-armed reinforcements could have prevented the genocide had they been deployed promptly. The West's failure to stop the slaughter resulted exclusively from a lack of will. Rigorous scrutiny of six prominent variations of this assertion, however, finds all but one dubious.
 •Human Rights Watch makes the boldest claim: Diplomatic intervention could have averted the genocide without additional military deployment.

 •The second claim is that 5,000 U.N. troops deployed immediately upon the outbreak of violence could have prevented the genocide. But this assertion is problematic on three grounds.
 •assumes deployment virtually overnight. In reality, even a U.S. light-infantry ready brigade would have required about a week to begin significant operations in the theater
 •Even if ordered on April 10, as requested at the time by Dallaire, reinforcements probably could not have begun major operations to stop genocide much before April 20.
 •unrealistic -- given that international community did not realize genocide was under way until at least ten days later.

 •A third claim is that U.N. headquarters had three months' advance notice of genocide and could have averted the killing simply by authorizing raids on weapons caches. Even if the U.N. had acquiesced to Dallaire in January 1994, it is unlikely the weapons cache could have been seized or that doing so would have prevented the genocide.

 •A fourth claim -- quickly jamming or destroying Hutu radio when the violence broke out could have prevented the genocide.

 •fifth, the Western forces sent to evacuate foreign nationals the first week could have restored order in Kigali -- and prevented the genocide
 •some 1,000 lightly armed Western evacuation troops, mainly French and Belgian soldiers, had arrived in Kigali, where Belgium's 400- troop UNAMIR contingent was already stationed.

 •sixth claim is most realistic: Had UNAMIR been reinforced several months prior to the outbreak of violence, as Belgium urged at the time, genocide might have been averted. More troops with the proper equipment, a broad mandate, and robust rules of engagement could have deterred the outbreak of killing or at least snuffed it out early.
 •required about 3,500 additional high-quality troops in Kigali, armored personnel carriers, helicopters, adequate logistics, and the authorization to use force to seize weapons and ensure security without consulting Rwandan police.
 •Under the U.N.'s peacekeeping rules, Rwanda's government would have had to consent to such a change -- and probably would have.

 LESSONS
The most obvious lesson of Rwanda's tragedy is that intervention is no substitute for prevention.
•Although the 1994 genocide represents a particularly tough case for intervention in some respects -- such as its rapid killing and inaccessible location - - it would have been a relatively easy mission in other respects, including the limited strength of potential opponents.
•Yet even an ideal intervention in Rwanda would have left hundreds of thousands of Tutsi dead.
 SG Kofi Annon [2001 Nobel Peace Prize] in 2000 commissioned the BRAHIMI REPORT "Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations" a/55/305. Most far-reaching, critical analysis.
 •Repudiates UN's adherence to traditional peacekeeping doctrine
 •calls attention to pathological decision-making by the SC willing to authorize missions but not willing to help them succeed
 •castigates Secretariat & SG for frequently reporting to SC what it thought it wanted to hear.
 •raise issue of TRIAGE: some cases are too difficult, lack major power support, and thus should be avoided.
 •Brahimi Report goes beyond PK & pacific means: calls for robust missions with resources and rules of engagement.
 •Raises the issue of SPOILERS: potential for strategic deception by warring parties in civil wars; leaders and factions who oppose a peace settlement and use violence to undermine it.
 •PK missions must be professionally managed and robust enough to be able to defend selves and to engage those who renege on their commitments to a peace accord or otherwise seek to undermine it by violence.

 •UN must gauge the likely difficulty of missions - robustness must parallel difficulty
 •must be prepared to deal with spoilers, troublemakers

 •THREE CHALLENGES
 •before a mission is authorized, its configuration and funding must be adequate to the level of difficulty
 •Secretariat needs ability to gather info and inform likely troop-contributors of dangers
 •missions must have quickness and flexibility to respond to challenges

 •REACTIONS TO REPORT
 •differential response by SC will lead to ignore more problems
 •money better spent on development
 •concern about robustness-will lead to enforcement and HI
 BENIGN AGGRESSION: DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION

1- AGGRESSION AND FREEDOM
POWERFUL FORM OF DEFENSIVE AGG
 MAY BE BIOLOGICAL, RATHER THAN LEARNED
 FIGHT WITH NO CHANCE OF SUCCESS
 CONTROL - STRONG DESIRE TO CONTROL ONE'S OWN LIFE
DIE FIGHTING

2- NARCISSISTIC AGGRESSION
THREAT TO OVERBLOWN SELF-IMAGE
 GROUP NARCISSISM
 ETHNOCENTRISM
CHEAP WAY TO PROMOTE GROUP COHESION & SOLIDARITY
MASSACRES

3- CONFORMIST AGGRESSION
OBEDIENCE

 ORDINARY MEN IN EXTRAORDINARY TIMES
1- refused to kill, commander allowed them other duties;
2- simply obeyed orders;
3- enjoyed killing--joke and brag.
 War crimes, claimed "under orders" but commander did not force them to kill. Killed due to PRESSURES OF CONFORMITY, didn't want to be disloyal, concerned with how they looked to others.

BANALITY OF EVIL-- Hannah Arendt wrote about the Eichmann trial, he was 'normal', not an inner Schweinehund: a dirty bastard in the depths of his heart. Not driven by anti-Semitism, his prime motivations were a sense of duty, a willingness to obey authority, and a bureaucrat's drive for advancement. [banal = trite, common, ordinary]

4- INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION
TO GET WHAT IS NECESSARY & DESIRABLE
AIM IS NOT TO DESTROY
???WHAT IS NECESSARY???
 GREED CONQUEST POWER

============================================
MALIGNANT AGGRESSION
 A. FACTORS CONDUCIVE TO OR PROMOTING MALIGNANT AGGRESSION

1. ORIENTATION AND DEVOTION
2. RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PEOPLE
3. ALIENATION OR UNITY
4. EFFECTIVENESS - POWERLESSNESS
5. EXCITATION - BOREDOM

B. TYPES OF MALIGNANT AGGRESSION

1. SPONTANEOUS

2. DESTRUCTIVE CHARACTER

 MALIGNANT AGGRESSION
 FACTORS CONDUCIVE TO OR PROMOTING MALIGNANT AGGRESSION

1. ORIENTATION AND DEVOTION

2. RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PEOPLE
  NORMAL - LOVE, FRIEND, CARE,
 SHARE, TEAM, ROOTS,
 SECURITY, FAMILY,
 BUDDIES, PARTNERS
  ABNORMAL - STRANGERS, LONELY,
 ISOLATED, LOST,
 DEPENDENT
  SADISM
 MASOCHISM
 NARCISSISM
 OBJECTS

============================================
 MALIGNANT AGGRESSION [cont.]
FACTORS CONDUCIVE TO OR PROMOTING MALIGNANT AGGRESSION
 3. ALIENATION OR UNITY
  HOW DO YOU RELATE TO SOCIETY
  UNITY - IDENTITY, A PERSON, FAMILY, RELIGION, A SENSE OF BEING PART OF THE SOCIETY AND WORLD, SOLIDARITY, BROTHERHOOD
 ALIENATION - SEPARATED, EXCLUDED, A COG IN A MACHINE,
BUREAUCRACY, DRUGS, DEPERSONALIZED
 4. EFFECTIVENESS - POWERLESSNESS
 A SENSE OF WILL, I DID THAT, OF ACCOMPLISHMENT FROM WORK, FAMILY, ACTIVITIES
 LIFE OPERATES ON YOU, FATE IS IN THE HANDS OF OTHERS
ABNORMAL: FEEL EFFECTIVE THROUGH POWER AND CONTROL
 5. EXCITATION - BOREDOM
 ALIVE, HAPPY EXCITED. IT'S A GOOD DAY, HAVING A BALL
 BORED, DEPRESSED - ONLY FEEL EXCITEMENT FROM EXTREME ACTS:
RAGE, ANGER, DESTRUCTION
 
 

============================================
 MALIGNANT AGGRESSION
 TWO TYPES
A- SPONTANEOUS DESTRUCTIVENESS
 a - VENGEANCE
 b - ECSTASY
 B- DESTRUCTIVE CHARACTER
 a - SADISM/MASOCHISM
 b - NECROPHILIA
 *********************************
 SPONTANEOUS DESTRUCTIVENESS:
 IS NOT REALLY SPONTANEOUS
 CAUSED BY EXTRAORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCES AND CONDITIONS
  - EXTREME GROUP NARCISSISM
 - DRUGS OR TRANCE
 VENGEANCE - reaction to intense and unjustified suffering inflicted on you or your group.

NYT - "PHALANGIST CALLS MASSACRE A RETALIATION IN KIND."
 Lebanese Phalangist Christians kill thousands of Palestinian civilians in SHATILA and SABRA camps, after the assassination of their leader, President-elect Gemayel.
 Asks why is world so upset by these killings. World was asleep and ignored killings of Christians by Palestinians. The refugee camp killing was a Lebanese reaction from the relatives and parents of our martyrs.

 ECSTASY - a frenzy of destruction, rage for the sake of rage.

DONE BY THE POWERLESS AND ALIENATED WHO ARE BRIEFLY POWERFUL.

============================================
 MALIGNANT AGGRESSION
 B- DESTRUCTIVE CHARACTER
 a - SADISM/MASOCHISM
 b - NECROPHILIA
 PERMANENT PERSONALITY TRAITS AND TENDENCIES
A PASSION TO HAVE ABSOLUTE AND UNRESTRICTED CONTROL OVER A LIVING BEING
 to be their GOD, to hurt and humiliate, to inflict pain
SADISM - control of others
MASOCHISM - to be controlled
  SEXUAL }
 PHYSICAL } CRUELTY
 MENTAL }
  CHILD ABUSE, SPOUSE ABUSE
 INSTITUTIONS -
 MENTAL CRUELTY, RULES & BUREAUCRACY,
 mental asylums, hospitals, jails, boarding schools
 BOTH SADIST & MASOCHIST NEED ANOTHER PERSON TO BE COMPLETE
 S/M is really weak & impotent, afraid of life & its surprises, excessive orderliness, a submissive coward
 
 

============================================
 NECROPHILIA - love of the DEAD
 LOVE OF DESTRUCTION
 A PSYCHOLOGICAL [and often a PHYSICAL] CRIPPLE
WHO WANTS OTHERS
CRIPPLED & DESTROYED
 INTEREST IN THE MECHANICAL, NOT IN HUMAN RELATIONS
 

Milosevic--both parents committed suicide. Serb tendency toward self-destruction. Unfeeling and manipulative, exceedingly cruel, led to death or ruin of hundreds of thousands. Did not lift a hand when several hundred thousands Serbs were chased from Krajina.
 

SADDAM HUSSEIN
MALIGNANT NARCISSISM

NARCISSISM:

Childhood - severely beaten and witnessed cruelty

FOUR CONDITIONS
 EXTREME SENSE OF GRANDIOSITY -

 SADISTIC CRUELTY - take pleasure in hurting others

 SUSPICIOUSNESS TO THE POINT OF PARANOIA -

 UTTER LACK OF REMORSE -
 
 
 

============================================
THE BULLY

BOYS - COMMON LIFETIME PATTERN OF DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR.

the BULLY - set apart by his quickness to start fights, to use force to get his way and his general belligerence. Extremely aggressive.

"BULLIES SEE THE WORLD WITH A PARANOID'S EYE."
FAULTY THINKING AND A PENCHANT FOR RETALIATION THAT VERGES ON THE PARANOID.

"COMPENSATING FOR DEEP FEELINGS OF INFERIORITY.
THEIR NEED TO BE DOMINANT MASKS AN UNDERLYING FEAR THAT THEY ARE NOT IN CONTROL.
MASK THE SENSE OF INADEQUACY BY BEING A BULLY."
 "THEY CAN'T THINK OF A FRIENDLY RESPONSE THAT PRESERVES THEIR OWN DIGNITY AND SELF-IMAGE."

AS A CHILD:
PUNISHED SEVERELY.
WORTHLESSNESS.
PARENT IS A MODEL OF AGGRESSIVENESS TO THE CHILD.

PARENTS ARE CAPRICIOUS ABOUT PUNISHMENT--
 MAKES WORLD UNPREDICTABLE AND THREATENING.
 PARENTS PUNISH BY THEIR MOOD, RATHER THAN WHAT CHILD HAS DONE.

 PARANOID--SENSE THAT THREATS ARE ALL ABOUT AND MAY STRIKE AT ANY TIME.
 

============================================
INSIDE THE WORLD OF THE PARANOID

Paranoid - extremely fearful; systemized delusions of persecution or grandeur; excessive or irrational suspiciousness or distrustfulness of others.

OKLAHOMA CITY - Timothy McVeigh
RUBY RIDGE - Randall Weaver
MICHIGAN MILITIA

RAGE AND CONSPIRACY

BETRAYED BY GOVERNMENT
 TYRANTS
CONSTITUTION SUBVERTED
 gun control

UNITED NATIONS TAKEOVER
 NEW WORLD ORDER

ANTI-SEMITISM

PARANOID PATTERN:
1- The conspiracy is international:
2- add new conspiracies to old ones:
3- seeming enemies are really secret friends:
4- takeover by an international godless government ignited by economic collapse:
5- it's in the bible:
6- see inconsequential organizations as all-powerful [Trilateral Commission]

============================================
PARANOIA. EXTREME LANGUAGE.
 
 

Oklahoma City
Michigan Militia
Anti-Abortion Militants - murder doctors, bomb clinics

Assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Rabin by an orthodox Jew
Sadat in Egypt - soldiers opposed to peace, Islamic fundamentalists
Ghandi in India - killed by a Hindu militant

Hate speech
Violent Rhetoric
Demonize -- the Great Satan
Stereotypes

Farrakhan "blood suckers"

nyt 11/7/95 Yigal Amir, assassin of PM Rabin: "It's very interesting how an entire people never noticed that he's setting up a Palestinian state with an army of terrorists." Government polices had "brought on all the terrorist attacks."
 Right-wing settler: "if anyone bore moral guilt it was Mr. Rabin himself for pressing his peace initiative onto what they depicted as an unwilling population."
 1994 Dr. Baruch Goldstein, a settler at Qiryat Arba, killed 29 Arab worshipers at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron. Settler: "I don't think Baruch Goldstein would ever have touched another Jew. The people he killed were potential murderers."
 
 
 

============================================
 SERIAL KILLERS

 At any given time, there may be as many as 100 serial killers at large. These
killers may murder between 3500 and 5000 people every year.

 1."Killings are repetitive, occurring with greater or less frequency, often
escalating, over a period of time, sometimes years; and will continue until the
killer is taken into custody, dies or is himself killed."

 2."In common with 'normal' homicides, killings tend to be one-on-one."
These are usually broken down into
  (1) crimes of passion - "committed during a moment of intense anger or
frustration"
  (2)"cold-blooded" murder - motive of personal gain These can be done not only by single individuals, but also by couples, partnerships, and groups.

 3."There is no (or very little) connection between the perpetrator and the
victim, the persons involved rarely being directly related"

 4."Although there may be a 'pattern,' or 'victim trait,' individual murders
within a series rarely display a clearly defined or rational motive."

 5."Increasingly greater spatial mobility since the advent of the automobile
has enabled a killer, if he wishes, to move rapidly from one place to another
often before a murder has been discovered."

 6."There is usually a high degree of redundant violence, or 'overkill,'
where the victim is subjected to a disproportionate level of brutality."
 
 

============================================
 MOTIVE
serial killers

 1. VISIONARIES - act in response to voices and are instructed by these
voices to perform the act of murder. These are used to justify and legitimize
the act.

 2. MISSIONARIES - they think it is their responsibility rid society of
unwanted elements.

 3. HEDONISTS - kill because murder causes them pleasure
 a) Lust Killers - kill for sexual gratification and the acts are
usually sadistic
 b) Thrill Killers - kill because of a desire of a "thrill" or
"experience"
 c) Gain Killers - kill for personal gain - usually financial

 4. POWER SEEKERS - kill for the desire to have control over the life and
death or others SERIAL KILLERS

 A Russian serial killer known as the "Red Ripper" managed to kill 52
victims in 12 years before he was caught; called the "Red Ripper" because of
his penchant for mutilation and stabbing his victims in the eyes. He was Andrei
Chikatilo.
 "The purpose of life is to leave your mark on this earth." -The Red Ripper
 

 "I am a monster... I feel like an outsider. I am on a different wavelength
than everybody else, programmed to kill. However, to stop me you must kill
me... I'll be back! Yours in murder, Mr. Monster."
 from "Son of Sam" David Berkowitz's taunting notes to the police.

 "For heAVens SAke cAtch Me BeFore I Kill More I cannot control myselF."
 Found scrawled on the wall of the Frances Brown murder scene.

============================================
INTIMATE HOMICIDES
 "Women worry when they go out. They should worry when they stay in."
 FBI: in 1998 32% of 3,419 women killed in USA died at hands of husband, x husband, boyfriend, or x boyfriend. Many estimate real figure exceeds 50%

WHY?

•REFLECTS A SOCIETY in which men feel entitled to exercise power and control over women
•EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGISTS see men as a whole as the problem. Biology, rather than culture, developed a strategy for men to exert proprietary control over women, and in particular over their reproductive capacities.
•PSYCHOLOGISTS focus on the personality characteristics and life histories of men who batter and kill.

SYSTEMATIC STUDY - PATTERNS
•SEPARATION: greatest risk during process of leaving a relationship and shortly after.
 •THREATS: husbands had made threats to kill if spouse left
 •RAGE: "how dare you think you can live without me."
 •INTIMACY: stabbed or strangled, emotional crime

•KILLERS: terror of being abandoned
 •DEPENDENCY: extreme jealousy and controlling behavior

•WARNING SIGNS
 •PAST VIOLENCE & ABUSE
 •STALKING
 •POSSESSIVENESS: "I can't live without you." "You only need me."



link to Prof. Stein's home page
link to ISS 325 War and Revolution syllabus                                                      stein@msu.edu