link to Prof. Stein's home page
link to ISS 325 War and Revolution syllabus                                                   stein@msu.edu
ISS 325 section 6
WAR AND REVOLUTION
 ISS325--WAR & REVOLUTION lecture Nationalism pages
       spring 2003


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction: Relationships and Processes                             2-12
States/Weak States/Sovereignty/Blood                                  13-47
Just War/War Crimes/Genocide                                          48-94
Human Aggression                                                            95-131
Conquest/Authority                                                          132-154
*Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism                                               155-184
Revolution/Internal Conflict                                               185-233
War/Threat/Aggression                                                      234-246
U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention                     247-259
Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction                 260-268
Kagan: article and Asmus & Pollack article                          269-295


NATIONALISM AS THE STRONG FORCE

BASIS OF THE NATION-STATE IS
(1) SOVEREIGNTY &
(2) NATIONALISM

SOVEREIGNTY IS THE DOMINANT ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE OF THE WORLD SYSTEM.
Veto
Equal
No Interference in Internal Affairs
Can't Be Ordered Against Their Will
BASIS OF SOVEREIGNTY IS: IMPENETRABLE TERRITORY

TODAY: MOST STATES ARE PERMEABLE; NO MORE HARD SHELL.
MILITARY
ECONOMY
COMMUNICATIONS
IDEOLOGY

HOWEVER, NATIONALISM--THE LIVING WILL OF A PEOPLE--HAS PROVIDED A NEW FOUNDATION FOR SOVEREIGNTY

SACRIFICE
COOPERATION
BLOOD
COST, COST, COST

AFGHANISTAN
VIETNAM

============================================
THE STRONG FORCE

IMMENSE POWER AND UNPREDICTABILITY OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM.

 HUGE APPEAL. SUBJECT TO ELITE MANIPULATION.
OFFERS A VISION THAT IS VIBRANT AND SHARP,
ELEVATES THE 'CHOSEN',
HARNESSES POPULAR MYTHS TIES, LEGENDS, SENTIMENTS
 That Are Older, Deeper, Denser And Closely Attuned to Popular Perceptions And Needs.

Social Discontent And Cultural Alienation
Impact of Relative Economic Deprivation
Secession And Irredentism
Force And Interstate Rivalries

"IMPOSSIBILITY OF ENVISAGING A REALISTIC ALTERNATIVE TO A WORLD OF NATIONS" - ETHNIC NATIONS
 

 COLLAPSE OF MULTIETHNIC STATES - YuS, SOVIET, CzS, ETHIOPIA.

 FLEXING THE ETHNIC MUSCLE:
 Kashmiris, Sikhs, Tamils, Nagas, Moros, Uigurs, Tibetans, Karens, Shan, Kurds, Shi'a, Palestinians, Maronites, Sudanese, Kikuyu, Shona, Ovimbundu, Zulu

IRREDENTISM
SEPARATISM

============================================
IRREDENTISM

Irredenta = a territory historically or ethnically related to one political unit but under the political control of another.

Irredentism = a political principle or policy directed towards the incorporation of irredentas within the boundaries of their historically or ethnically related political unit.

Irredentism = [Chazan] "refers to attempts by existing states to annex adjacent lands and the people who inhabit them in the name of historical, cultural, religious, linguistic or geographical affinity."

"The state and its elites seek to reclaim irredentas, territorially-based minorities contiguous to a state controlled by their co-ethnics" [Esman]

Related to the principle of self-determination of peoples.

 Hagen: "the Balkans' Lethal Nationalisms."
 The new states were all also mere fragments of the ideal territorial nations in the minds of the new nationalist elites. These ideal nations-Greater Serbia, Greater Albania, Greater Greece, and the like-encompassed outlying regions populated by still more national minorities and coveted as well by one or more neighboring states.
 In other words, the Balkan states were all born in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as irredentist nations-that is, as nations committed to the recovery of their 'unredeemed' national territories. Their legitimacy rested entirely on their ability to embody the national 'imagined community.'

============================================
new 98 Tellis, Szayna, Winnefeld Rand 1998
ANTICIPATING ETHNIC CONFLICT

3 STAGE MODEL

1- FORMATION OF AN ETHNIC GROUP
2- GROUP MOBILIZATION FOR POLITICAL ACTION
3- GROUP COMPETITION WITH THE STATE
Communitarian Strife
Ethnic Conflict

VIOLENCE OR ACCOMMODATION
depends on state and group strengths and weaknesses relative to each other

ETHNICITY IS NOT A GIVEN
CONSTRUCTED SOCIAL PHENOMENON

Ethnicity--
idea of shared group affinity and
a sense of belonging that is
based on a myth of collective ancestry and a
notion of distinctiveness.

group is larger than a kinship group but
its cohesion stems from constructed bonds that have similarities to kinship

CONSTRUCTED Bonds based on distinguishing cultural or physical characteristics: language, religion, or regional differentiation. They are incidental and case-specific

ETHNIC ACTION is a subset of political action; requires mobilization and direction
social competition with great violence and viciousness

[greatest loss of life in 20th c. is state-sponsored and ideological rather than ethnic-soviets, China, Cambodia]

============================================
[HANS KOHN]
"NATIONALISM IS A STATE OF MIND, IN WHICH THE SUPREME LOYALTY OF THE INDIVIDUAL IS FELT TO BE DUE TO THE NATION-STATE"

 NATIONALITY

DISTINGUISHING COMMON CHARACTERISTICS

COMMON:
 LANGUAGE

RELIGION

HISTORY

TERRITORY

RACE

POLITICAL ENTITY

COMMON STATE OF MIND

REJECT THOSE WHO ARE THE WRONG KIND:
NATIONALISM IS OFTEN
EXCLUSIVE
XENOPHOBIC
RACIST

EXTERMINATE, ENSLAVE, EXPEL

ALSO FORCIBLY ASSIMILATE
 
 
 

============================================
ETHNICITY

new term appearing in 1950s, uncertain meaning; but, the essence of an ethnic group or the quality of belonging to an ethnic community.

related terms:
ETHNOS--Greek term used for others: tribes, races, peoples, castes, etc.
Idea of a number of non-Greek people who SHARE SOME CULTURAL OR BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS and who live and act in concert.
[Similar usage to Christian term gentile referring to non-Christian and non-Jewish pagans {when used by Jews gentile would usually refer to Christians} or to Hebrew goy referring to non-Jews.]

"Ethnic group" [ethnie] as a term is usually used to refer to others, not yourself. See others as ethnic minorities [implying migrants, foreigners, outsiders] and your group as "the people" or "the nation".

"Ethnic identity" and "ethnic origin" are concepts that refer to the individual level of identification with a culturally defined collectivity:
the sense on the part of the person that he/she belongs to a particular cultural community.
"Ethnic origin" further refers to a sense of ancestry and nativity thru one's parents, grandparents.

"ETHNOCENTRISM" is used in social psychology on the interpersonal level as a synonym for disdain of the stranger.
 collective historical referent: sense of uniqueness, virtue and centrality of an ethnie in its relations with other ethnies.
group identity sustains members in times of adversity

Diaspora: Indians, Greeks, Jews, Armenians, ethnic Chinese.
Ethnies away from their homeland.
Home may be intact, suppressed, or destroyed.
Diaspora ethnie may be largely assimilated in host or marginalized.

============================================
ETHNICITY [2]
Handelman: "The Organization of Ethnicity" 1977

Levels of Incorporation in named human culture communities
Ethnic category: loose incorporation, perceived cultural difference with outsiders and a sense of boundary between us and them
Ethnic network: regular interaction between ethnic members such that resources are distributed between them
Ethnic association: members develop common interests which are expressed collectively thru political organizations
Ethnic community: possesses permanent, physically bounded territory plus interactions plus organizations
 

Ethnies: some highly durable have lasted millennia, some rise, some disappear. People have multiple identities

Modern bureaucratic state:
difference between territorial [civic] nationalism and ethnic nationalism
 France [1791] "To the Jews as a nation we give nothing, to the Jews as individuals we give everything."
 Homogeneous cultural nation allows one to practice ethnicity in private; but requires one to assimilate into body politic as equal citizen.
 No special rights for ethnic group. [works for a relatively homogeneous state such as France; can have severe consequences for Kurds and Kosovars.]
 
 
 

============================================
NATIONALISM and PATRIOTISM

TWO DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT LOYALTIES

LOYALTY TO ONE'S NATIONAL GROUP - Webster: loyalty and devotion to a nation; a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.

LOYALTY TO ONE'S STATE [COUNTRY] - Webster: love for or devotion to one's county.

In an ethnically homogeneous nation-state [rare, such as Japan, Korea, Czech] these two overlap and merge

But what about a Kurd in Turkey, an Arab in Israel, Albanian in Serbia, Welsh in England, Basque in Spain, Britain in France, Tajik in Afghanistan?

Native American in USA or Canada
Scotsman in UK
Québécois Nationalism With Canadian Patriotism

ONLY ABOUT 200 STATES
THOUSANDS OF ETHNO-NATIONAL GROUPS

When The Two Potent Loyalties Come Into Irreconcilable Conflict--NATIONALISM CUSTOMARILY WINS

War veterans and heroes of the SOVIET UNION rallied to the 70-year old country in 1991; but it broke into pieces.
 *YUGOSLAVIA

============================================
 KENNAN'S COUNSEL By Geneva Overholser August 3, 1999
And now, with a much-needed word about humility, comes one of the nation's wisest old men, George F. Kennan -- scholar, historian, diplomat, statesman.
Kennan's counsel, in the current New York Review of Books, flies in the face of our current habit of sounding -- to friends and adversaries alike -- like schoolyard braggarts. "The indispensable nation," our president and secretary of state call us, assisting us in our ongoing national pat on the back.
In an interview with Princeton's Richard Ullman, the 95-year-old Kennan -- former ambassador to Russia and Yugoslavia -- recommends some stocktaking. "What we ought to do at this point is to try to cut ourselves down to size in the dreams and aspirations we direct to our possibilities for world leadership.
 "We are not, really, all that great. We have serious problems within our society these days, and it sometimes seems to me that the best help we could give to others would be to allow them to observe that we are now confronting those problems with a bit more imagination, courage, and resolve than has been apparent in the recent past."
The gift for seeing ourselves as others see us is not the first trait that others associate with Americans. Take the fact that we are confident these days that we're seen by all as the benign superpower. On the contrary, Harvard's Samuel Huntington warned in a recent issue of Foreign Affairs, elites in countries representing two-thirds of the world's population -- Chinese, Russians, Indians, Arabs, Muslims and Africans -- see us as "the single greatest external threat to their societies." Not a military but a political and cultural threat -- intrusive, interventionist, hegemonic, hypocritical, engaging in "financial imperialism" and "intellectual colonialism."
 One antidote for our lack of self-awareness is reading portrayals of us from abroad -- as in the "international papers" feature of the online magazine, Slate. An example is this mid-July editorial from the Straits Times of Singapore, urging greater understanding of Russia's plight:
"Russia means to be taken seriously, and the U.S. owes it that respect. American cockiness over its display of military technology in the Gulf and Yugoslavia, and smugness over its longest postwar prosperity streak, can blind it to a need to cultivate its relations with Russia beyond promoting democratization. Russians cannot eat democracy. The U.S. should snap out of its hubris over Kosovo -- or the world could become very dark indeed if Russian hurt turns to mischief-making."
 A second antidote is to listen to wise old men such as Kennan. "This whole tendency to see ourselves as the center of political enlightenment and as teachers to a great part of the rest of the world strikes me as unthought-through, vainglorious and undesirable. If you think that our life here at home has meritorious aspects worthy of emulation by peoples elsewhere, the best way to recommend them is, as John Quincy Adams maintained, not by preaching at others but by the force of example," he says in the New York Review.
 "I would urge a far greater detachment, on our government's part, from [other nations'] domestic affairs," he told Ullman. Comparing China to France, Kennan said both are proud bearers of a great cultural tradition, and both like to be left alone. We should treat the Chinese "with the most exquisite courtesy and respect on the official level, but not expect too much of them. . . . They are not going to love us, no matter what we do. They are not going to become like us."
National humility, a foreign policy that respects our own limits and rests on a deeper understanding of friends and adversaries: Kennan has long counseled such a course. Now -- as the Russian prime minister visits Washington, Congress debates trade relations with China, and our nominee for ambassador to the United Nations remains stuck in the Senate -- would be a very good time to listen.
© Copyright 1999 The Washington Post Company

============================================
 ETHNOCENTRISM
Loyalty to and identification with one's culture and group
WE-THEY, US AGAINST THEM

A PERSON'S PERSONAL IDENTITY AND SELF IS TIED TO CULTURE.
 You exist as you relate to the culture of your society, group or subgroup.
 FERAL CHILD: isolated child fails to develop full humanity
 MYTH OF ROMULUS [wolf], MOWGLI [wolves, bear & panther], TARZAN [apes]
 DEEP ATTACHMENTS AS YOU LEARN YOUR CULTURE.
 INTERNALIZED.

1- GROUP PRIDE
2- IDENTITY
3- COOPERATION
4- SACRIFICE

WILLING TO COOPERATE AND HELP TO ACHIEVE GROUP GOALS.
INTERNAL PEACE
 BUT THINK OF YOUR CULTURE AS SUPERIOR
 TEND TO DOWNGRADE AND BE INTOLERANT TO OTHER CULTURES.
BLOCKS CROSS CULTURAL COOPERATION, UNDERSTANDING, OBJECTIVITY

Plutarch writes of the legend of Romulus and Remus suckled by a she-wolf. [8th c. BC ]

BARRETT
HOW IMPORTANT IS CULTURE [i.e., SOCIAL CONTACT, CONTINUOUS LEARNING, MEANINGFUL SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION] FOR HUMAN INFANTS?
 Without culture human infants would
be unworkable monstrosities,
mental basket cases with few human characteristics

Based on the evidence of profoundly neglected children raised in the absence of adult contact, A human raised in isolation would be a wholly dysfunctional mental defective

============================================
PRINCIPLE OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION

UNIVERSALLY ENDORSED AND ACCEPTED, HOWEVER, APPLICATION OFTEN MEANS WAR

1974 UN definition of aggression - loophole:
 "nothing in this definition could in any way prejudice the right to self-determination, freedom and independence of peoples forcibly deprived of that right, particularly peoples under colonial and racist regimes or other forms of alien domination; nor the right of these people to struggle to that end and to seek and receive support, in accordance with the principles of the Charter."

 PRINCIPLE OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION
1- THE NATION-STATE IS THE ONLY LEGITIMATE FORM OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATION.

IT IS THE RIGHT OF A NATIONALITY:
2- TO HAVE ITS OWN INDEPENDENT NATION-STATE

AND FOR THAT NATION-STATE:
3- TO INCLUDE THE WHOLE NATIONALITY
 
 

============================================
NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION

Farer, 93. THERE HAS BEEN "A SEA CHANGE IN THE NORMATIVE ORDER" REGARDING SECESSION.
 Third World demand for national self-determination was "historically contingent," limited to European colonies separated by sea, race or culture. "It could be exercised only once." The right was basically limited to the UN list of "non-self governing territories."
 During Cold War the West shared the Third World hostility to secession because the Soviet Union loomed as an alternative patron. CONGO is held together by the UN.
 UN and Third World opposed Biafra and East Pakistan. Today, "the widespread recognition of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina without the consent of the Yugoslav government . . . represents a sea change in the normative order."

 As the General Assembly's Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) concluded consideration of racism and the right of peoples to self-determination this afternoon, the representative of Liechtenstein warned that the right to self-determination, if viewed narrowly as the right to secede, could threaten international stability and the territorial integrity of States.
 Thus interpreted, he continued, the right to self-determination was more likely to create problems than to offer solutions. However, viewed more broadly as entailing various forms of self-administration and self-governance, it could offer new perspectives on peaceful coexistence falling short of secession and separate statehood.
  Many conflicts occurred because people seeking ways of asserting their distinctive identity found that they had no means by which they could give expression to their distinctiveness, he said. As a consequence, they viewed independence as their only option, even though it was the one option the State of which they were part was likely to resist to the end -- by force, if necessary. Such internal conflicts, whether smouldering or escalating, had the capacity to spread beyond the borders of the State in question, with consequent dangers for international peace and security.

============================================
 NATIONALISM

1- BELIEF THAT THEY ARE A CHOSEN PEOPLE.

[or A SPECIAL PEOPLE WITH A CREATIVITY NOT SHARED BY OTHERS]

2- EMPHASIS ON PAST GLORIES AND FUTURE HOPES
 

3- NATIONAL MISSION - A DUTY TO CARRY THE TRUTH TO OTHER NATIONS

 **************************
RECENT UN Members 51 189
1984 - Brunei
1990 - Liechtenstein, Namibia

1991 - North Korea, South Korea
 Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
 Marshall Islands, Micronesia

1992 - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldava, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, San Marino

1993 Czech, Slovak
 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
 Eritrea
 Monaco, Andorra

1994 Palau

1999 Tonga, Nauru, Kiribati
2000 Tuvalu

============================================
VARIETIES OF NATIONALISM

1- LIBERAL [HUMANITARIAN] NATIONALISM - 17th & 18th centuries

2- MASS NATIONALISM - French Rev.

3- TRADITIONAL NATIONALISM - early 19th century

4- REVOLUTIONARY [LIBERATION] NATIONALISM - 19th & 20th

5- INTEGRAL NATIONALISM - 20th century

*****
VARIETIES OF NATIONALISM

1- LIBERAL [HUMANITARIAN] NATIONALISM - 17th & 18th centuries, time of divine right of kings
--RENAISSANCE, REFORMATION
--ENLIGHTENMENT: Exalted Reason, Rights, Democracy, and Progress

PRINCIPLE OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION: people in any region should be able to determine
(1) their own government
(2) what state they belong to

********************
 

============================================
2- MASS NATIONALISM -
FRENCH REVOLUTIONARIES UNDER SEVERE CHALLENGE--ENGAGED IN CIVIL WAR AND FOREIGN INTERVENTION
democratic, but also suspicious and intolerant of internal dissent
relied on force not reason [leaders know what is right]* [Robespierre & black book]
fanatically religious: the religion of the nation
missionary goal: spread the revolution

THE NATION IN ARMS; SOLDIER AS CITIZEN, 5X LARGER ARMY
 DEMOCRATIC BUT INTOLERANT UNITY IS VITAL
"The nation may do whatever it will; the individual may do only what the national state determines."

3- TRADITIONAL NATIONALISM
A REACTION TO MASS NATIONALISM AND TO FRENCH REV. AND ITS CONQUESTS
> Russian 'Great Patriotic War' of 1812
> Spanish 'guerrillas'
> German 'War of Liberation' of 1813

MASSES SHOULD NOT LEAD; THE BEST CLASSES [TRADITIONAL ELITE] SHOULD LEAD THE NATION

ACCEPTED NATIONALISM AND ITS SYMBOLS
BUT REJECTED: Enlightenment, Popular Sovereignty, Individualism, Liberty, Equality, End of Aristocratic Privileges

WINS AT WATERLOO

A ROMANTIC NATIONALISM ROOTED IN THE SOIL OF HISTORY, FOLK, SOUL, SPIRIT, THE PEOPLE, NATIONAL CHARACTER

> Creative Force Comes Not from the Individual, but from the Community and Collective
 
 

============================================
4- REVOLUTIONARY [LIBERATION] NATIONALISM
MIX OF MASS AND TRADITIONAL

EMPHASIS ON PRINCIPLE OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION BUT AS LIBERATION NOT LIBERTY.
Fighting Against the Great Empires: Russian, Ottoman, Prussian, Austro-Hungarian
 Also: Italy and Germany Fragmented

Redraw World Map on National Lines,
Not Interfere in Internal Affairs,
Many Uprisings

Failures Reduce the High-mindedness; less Liberal, More Nationalistic

Spreads to Other Continents

============================================
WILSONIAN SELF-DETERMINATION

1919 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
PRESIDENT WILSON
uphold the liberty, self-government, and undictated development of all peoples
no people forced to live under sovereignty under which it does not wish to live
no territory must change hands except by self-determination

ROBERT LANSING, WILSON'S SEC OF STATE:
 convinced of the danger of putting such ideas into the minds of certain races. . . impossible demands on the peace conference and create trouble.
 "Will it not breed discontent, disorder and rebellion? The phrase is simply loaded with dynamite. It will raise hopes which can never be realized. It will, I fear, cost thousands of lives."
 "What a calamity that the phrase was ever uttered! What misery it will cause."

VERSAILLES AND OTHER PEACE CONFERENCES MADE HUGE COMPROMISES ON HUNGARY [ROMANIA, SERBIA, CzS].
 PLEBISCITES

ONLY IN EUROPE
NOT IN LEAGUE COVENANT

UN CHARTER ART. 1 the Purposes of the UN Are: . . . based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.
 
 

============================================
5- INTEGRAL NATIONALISM:
DRASTIC FORM OF NATIONALISM

NATION DECLINES W.O. MILITARY POWER

NATION SHOULD BE FREE TO GROW: THE NATION IS AN END IN ITSELF
--ALL CITIZENS MUST CONFORM

Warlike,
Suspicious,
Quick to Use Force,
Imperialistic
Unreasoning

1- Use of the Sword for "Good",
Free the Oppressed,
Spread God's Word,
Glorify Military Action

2- Feeling of superiority brought on by victory and success
once humble and oppressed but now arrogant and proud

3- Use of nationalistic symbols to unite people
sacrifice,
cooperate
 

============================================
PROFESSOR ANTHONY SMITH [LSE]
"THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ETHNIC NATIONALISMS"
also "The Ethnic Sources of Nationalism," Brown, ed. Ethnic Conflict and International Security. 1993.
NATIONALISM

'CORE DOCTRINE' OF NATIONALISM
1- The world is divided into nations @ w. peculiar character & destiny
2- the nation is the sole source of political power
3- supreme loyalty to nation
4- real freedom for indiv. Only realized in and thru the nation
5- global peace & security can only be based on free nations

 RECURRING THEMES:
•Distinctive identity
•National character
•National unity
•Cannot tolerate internal divisions
•Fraternity and vast family
•Nation must be truly free, living by its inner laws
•Autonomy, autarchy
•Perhaps expansion and conflict

Defines NATIONALISM:
A DEFINITE IDEOLOGICAL MOVEMENT FOR ATTAINING AND MAINTAINING AUTONOMY, IDENTITY AND UNITY OF A SOCIAL GROUP, SOME OF WHOSE MEMBERS DEEM IT TO BE AN ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL 'NATION'
 

The state is not an intrinsic part of the doctrine or movement

Two Kinds of Nationalism:
1) Territorial
2) Ethnic

============================================
 TERRITORIAL NATIONALISM regards
the nation as a form of rational association that an individual can choose to join

 FEATURES
1- definite, compact territorial homeland
2- common legal codes and equality before the law
3- social and political rights of citizenship
4- a shared 'civic religion' and mass, public culture

recent failures: USSR; YuS; CzS; Ethiopia

 ETHNIC NATIONALISM conceives of
the nation as a 'community of culture and history,' with a familial bond of solidarity

FEATURES
1- MYTH OF COMMON ANCESTRY

2- GENEALOGY RATHER THAN TERRITORY DEFINES THE NATION

3- VERNACULAR CULTURES--LANGUAGE & CUSTOM--MORE IMPORTANT THAN LEGAL EQUALITY

4- POPULAR MOBILIZATION RATHER THAN CITIZENSHIP

5- EXTOLS NATIVE HISTORY AND ETHNIC CULTURE RATHER THAN MASS CULTURE.

Both nationalisms can be homogeneous and exclusive, but this is more marked of ethnic nationalisms. Ethnic nationalism is much more common.
 
 

============================================
 SOCIAL GROUPS

1- SOCIAL Group:
A) persons whose relationships are based upon a set of inter-related roles and statuses
B) interact in a standardized fashion due to values and norms they accept
C) united by a common sense of identity

•patterned interaction
•shared beliefs and values
•conscious identity

2- SOCIAL Category:
Persons who have the same status and role
But the patterned interaction is missing

3- STATISTICAL Aggregate:
Persons who possess a similar social attribute so they can be thought of together
 
 

 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY GROUPS

•PRIMARY SOCIAL GROUP:
CLOSE AND INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS

--personal, long-lasting, spontaneous
--based on broad, diffuse mutual expectations
--has no explicit goal
--roles are inclusive and unlimited

•SECONDARY SOCIAL GROUP:
SEEK SOME COMMON GOAL OR INTERESTS

--formal relationships, impersonal, little spontaneity
--rules and procedures
--roles are segmented
 
 

============================================
NATIONALISM -
 ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FORCES

A movement of collective protest & self-assertion against the existing distribution of power within and betw states

PARADOX:
•most dangerous force--creates local tyrannies
•insures humanity and guarantees pluralism

ONLY A FEW ETHNIC COMMUNITIES, OUT OF MANY, HAVE DEMANDED AND OBTAINED STATES OF THEIR OWN.

HUMANS LIVE IN A MULTIPLICITY OF COMMUNITIES AND SIMULTANEOUSLY HOLD MANY IDENTIFICATIONS
 •DIFFERENT IDENTITIES INVOKED FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES AND ON DIFFERENT OCCASIONS
 • IDENTITY IS SITUATIONAL
 • IDENTITY IS INDIVIDUAL

But, identity can become collective,
An aggregate of individual identities.
 Then,
Individuals are no longer the key,
The collective cultural identity is central

NATIONALISM - the key to the explosive power of ethnic nationalism is in the ethnic community or ethnie.
 
 

============================================
DISTINGUISH 'ETHNIC CATEGORY' FROM ETHNIC COMMUNITY [ethnie].
 CATEGORY may be seen as distinct by outsiders, but possess little or no sense of common ethnicity or identity.
 COMMUNITY, however, even in diaspora, has a sense of belonging. Jews, Greeks, Armenians, Chinese.

THE TASK OF THE NATIONALIST IS TO TAKE THE RAW MATERIAL OF AN ETHNIC CATEGORY AND TURN IT INTO AN ETHNIC COMMUNITY, TO TURN THE COMMUNITY INTO A NATION.
 There are thousands of ethnic categories--langauage, customs, religion--but only a few possess, coalesced or are endowed with collective self-awareness based on a name, ancestral myth, ethnohistory, cultural elements, homeland.

INVENTING ethnies REQUIRES CERTAIN PREEXISITING ELEMENTS AND THE RIGHT CONDITIONS.

============================================
 ethnie = ETHNIC COMMUNITY
IS A NAMED HUMAN POPULATION
WITH MYTHS OF COMMON ANCESTRY,
SHARED HISTORICAL MEMORIES,
AND ONE OR MORE COMMON CULTURAL ELEMENTS;
A LINK WITH A HISTORIC TERRITORY OR HOMELAND;
AND A MEASURE OF SOLIDARITY AMONG AT SOME OF ITS MEMBERS.

Define 'NATION':
A named social group, with common historical memories and mass culture, occupying an historic territory or homeland, and possessing a single division of labour and common legal rights and duties for all members.

1- names are important

2- belief or myth of common ancestry, fictive kinship

3- historical memories

4- shared elements of common culture, normally language, customs, religion

5- attachment to specific territory or homeland, may be symbolic for diaspora peoples

6- solidarity
 

*myths and memories are important
 *subjective identification with the community
 *myths and memories engender solidarity

*orientation to the past
 *unique shared past
 *golden age

============================================
ETHNIC GROUP - ethnie

SHARED IDENTITY BASED ON NON-KINSHIP PRINCIPLES

(1) COMMON ANCESTRY AND
(2) A COMMON CULTURE.

VAGUE NOTIONS OF BLOOD RELATIONSHIP, BUT
MYTH--common ancestry is rarely genetic or biological. Most people are of mixed ethnicity but choose one

MINORITY GROUP AMIDST A DOMINANT CULTURE: LANGUAGE; RELIGION; HISTORY; VALUES & NORMS; GEOGRAPHY

SHARED CULTURE AND LANGUAGE
COMMON 'TRIBAL' MEMBERSHIP
SIMILAR ECONOMIC POSITION

HIGH LOYALTY AND ADHERENCE TO CERTAIN BASIC INSTITUTIONS
--family patterns
--religion
--language
--distinctive folkways & mores
--dress, art, ornaments
--moral code
--recreation

DEFINES A GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS AS A DISTINCT PEOPLE

AMONG THE MOST POWERFUL PRINCIPLES OF GROUP FORMATION IN THE WORLD

ETHNICITY AS A PRINCIPLE OF ASSOCIATION AND MEMBERSHIP

NON-RATIONAL Symbolic and emotional appeal

============================================
ETHNIC CRYSTALLIZATION

HOW DOES A COMMUNITY BECOME SELF-AWARE?

DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CONDITIONS IN PREMODERN AND MODERN TIMES
 

MODERN CONDITIONS
 1- CULTURAL AND CIVIC ACTIVITIES OF THE MODERN STATE -
Incorporate and homogenize peoples, impart sense of civic solidarity, break down barriers between ethnic categories.
 Foster a sense of identity based on territorial unit.

 REACTION - some communities develop their identity by fighting against the intrusions of the modern state.

 CATEGORIZATION by the state can create a community [Rwanda by Belgians]

2- IDEOLOGIES OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM
 INTELLECTUALS -  PROPOSE, 'REDISCOVER' AND GLORIFY THE ETHNIC NATION
 INTELLIGENTSIA - Are active in promoting and disseminating idea of ethnic nation. Struggle against empire.
 Creates new networks and opportunities for ethnic activists
 minority ethnics within empire or colony are subjected to contradictory forces of assimilation and discrimination. Professionals' status and careers benefit.

*********
 

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IDEOLOGY OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM
 Western Europe--modernization led to preexisting ethnie becoming a nation with civic and territorial values.
 Elsewhere--nationalists forged a nation on a preexisting ethnie.
 Chicken and egg - ethnie and ethnic nation.

Popular mobilization both
Creates the ethnic nation in the image of the ancestral ethnie
And
Helps to recreate that ethnie.
 Builds ethnic nation on preexisting ethnie.

 But the nationalists supply some features that are lacking:
--delimited homeland
--centralized economy
--mass, public culture
--common rights and duties

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FROM MOBILIZATION TO PURIFICATION
 1) 'Vernacular Mobilization' intellectuals gather and revere indigenous traditions, symbols, wisdom, memories, traditions, customs, foods, language
•elevate a former 'low' oral culture into a 'high' literary culture.
•peripheral and neglected cultures can be internationally celebrated. Plays, dance, music

 2) 'Cultural Politicization' in the past the heritage was respected and venerated but not used as a political tool.
 •history used to be a record of dynasties and battles.
 •for the nationalist it is to be used politically -
 •examples of national virtues and will,
 • founders of the nation,
 •national prophets.
 Used against outsiders and also against the guardians of the tradition who are not on the nationalist bandwagon.
 Heritage is a potent source of explosive ethnonational energy. Connects to the mass.

 3) 'Ethnic Purification' glorifying ethnic vernacular culture leads to wanting it unadulterated, pure--
•preserved against contamination,
•aliens,
•undesirables.

What do you do with those who are of the wrong kind?
•expel, segregate, deport, exterminate, enslave, assimilate, . . .
 

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CONSEQUENCES

HOW DO YOU SERPARATE AND TERRITORIALIZE ethnies IN ETHNICALLY-MIXED AREAS.

TERRITORIALLY DEFINED CIVIC NATIONS CAN HAVE TROUBLES - BELGUIM, INDIA, INDONESIA, NIGERIA.
 But
ETHNICALLY DEFINED 'GENEALOGICAL' NATIONS CAUSE FAR MORE BITTER AND PERSISTENT TROUBLES.

PROLONGED ETHNIC ANTAGONISM -

1- ETHNIC CATEGORY COMES AN ethnie
2- VARIETIES OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM EXIST IN REGION
3- ETHNIC INTELLECTUALS APPLY IDEALS OF NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION TO THE ethnie.

PROCESSES THAT EXIST AT DIFFERENT TIMES IN DIFFERENT AREAS.
 

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SUFFERING AND VIOLENCE

the most basic human need of all is SECURITY.
--PRIMARY because everything else that is valued can be lost if they are unable to defend themselves from violence.

SELF HELP - "When people struggle to achieve statehood, they do so on the rational supposition that no one can be counted on to protect them as well as they can protect themselves."
 believe that statehood is their only security for the future.
--All stateless peoples ground their case for self-determination on the argument of suffering
--fear and violence accounts for the desperation of nationalist struggles

why some nationalist movements press on toward statehood and some do not.
--Some content with autonomy or self-government within existing states, because they have not been grossly victimized or exterminated by those with whom they share the nation-state.
--But autonomy hardly likely to satisfy a people . . . who . . . have a long experience of violence at the hands of their neighbors.

 "VIOLENCE IS THE DIFFERENCE.
It is not enough for a people to feel oppressed . . . THE DEMAND FOR ACTUAL STATEHOOD CAN ONLY BE BASED ON AN EXPERIENCE OF VIOLENCE,
protracted and widespread so that such people can only be secure if they have an effective means of self-defense, that is, a state of their own.
 



link to Prof. Stein's home page
link to ISS 325 War and Revolution syllabus                                                     stein@msu.edu