Relationships and Processes
States/Weak States/Sovereignty/Blood 14-47
Just War/War Crimes/Genocide 48-91
Human Aggression 92-125
Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism 149-180
Revolution/Internal Conflict 181-225
U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention 243-255
Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction 256-265
Syllabus and Course Information 266-269
*Old Tests 2000/1, 2000/3 270-278
1- Complex Emergencies
(1) are major humanitarian crises of a multi-causal nature
(2) have a singular ability to erode or destroy the cultural, civil, political and economic integrity of established societies
(3) protracted political crises resulting from sectarian or predatory indigenous responses to socioeconomic stress and marginalization
(4) all of the above.
2- In the 50-plus years since the United Nations was founded
in 1945, it membership has:
(1) increased only slightly (2) grown by more than 50 per cent
(3) doubled (4) tripled.
3- In the film "The Reason Why" the Woodchuck or VICTIM is
(1) as a worthy clever adversary (2) in bland, neutral and emotionless terms
(3) as exceedingly evil and dangerous (4) in unpleasant, dehumanizing, and prejudicial terms.
4- What is the meaning of the term "the COLD WAR"?
(1) chilly but friendly relations between the superpowers
(2) active competition between the superpower peripheries, never involving the centers
(3) an avoidance of competition because the danger of war was too great
(4) intense superpower rivalry and competition but without shooting.
5- AUTHORITY is LEGITIMATE when:
(1) the state has a monopoly of coercive force
(2) properly made and enforced rules are voluntarily obeyed
(3) the superior force of society produces obedience
(4) the threat of punishment prevents violations of the law.
6- In the film "The Reason Why" what role does the non-shooter
play in the killing of the woodchuck?
(1) none at all, it catches him by surprise
(2) he opposes it because he believes all hunters are stupid
(3) he helps spot the running target and challenges the rifleman's ability
(4) he questions the killing as an expensive way to protect a garden.
7- According to JUST WAR doctrines, "War Is Always Judged
Twice." The two judgements are:
(1) is it fought for a just reason and is it fought justly
(2) the amount of injury and killing and how the war was fought
(3) victory and was the war fought for a just reason
(4) is it fought for a just reason and the amount of civilian injury.
8- According to the legal doctrine of SOVEREIGNTY, a SOVEREIGN
(1) not be ordered to do anything against its will.
(2) interfere in the internal affairs of another state.
(3) is equal to all other states of similar size.
(4) be ordered to obey rules passed by 3/4 vote of the UN General Assembly.
9- Many countries in the Zones of Turmoil are WEAK STATES.
Which of the following is characteristic of their weakness?
(1) lack of control over significant parts of their territory
(2) unable to gather revenue and resources to carry out the normal functions of government
(3) low governmental legitimacy due to unstable, corrupt and incompetent governments
(4) all of the above.
10- One cause of WEAK STATES is "the unwritten law [that] it
is legitimate to rob the CIVIC PUBLIC in order to strengthen the PRIMORDIAL
PUBLIC." What is the PRIMORDIAL PUBLIC?
(1) family, village, clan, tribe, ethnic group (2) university, school, churches
(3) business, unions, factories (4) government, military, judiciary.
11- A country's THREAT is based on:
(1) the size and quality of its armed forces
(2) its military capabilities and its reputation for determination
(3) its current policies, positions and programs
(4) its actions and reactions to threats over a very long time.
12- What DEFENSE against a charge of WAR CRIMES was used by
the American soldiers who participated in the MY LAI MASSACRE?
(1) the killings happened in the frenzy and heat of battle
(2) they were forced to follow superior orders
(3) they had to retaliate for mines and booby-traps
(4) they didn't know they were following illegal or criminal orders.
13- Most of the new states were former colonies of European
empires. How did most of them GAIN THEIR INDEPENDENCE?
(1) the concept of 'colonialism' lost its legitimacy with the people of Europe
(2) military support from the Soviet Union allowed them to defeat the occupying armies
(3) as their numbers increased in the UN they were able to pass resolutions requiring that the remaining colonies be given their independence
(4) as a former colony the United States identified with their cause and provided massive economic and political support.
14- What was the fundamental root of the Cold War between
the U.S. and the Soviet Union?
(1) a natural rivalry between two powerful states.
(2) ideological competition with the Soviets fundamentally challenging world order.
(3) U.S. opposition to all non-democratic countries
(4) struggle for control of the oil resources of the Caspian Sea region.
15- The PEACE OF WESTPHALIA in 1648 marks the BEGINNING of:
(1) the religious wars of Europe
(2) religious competition between Protestants, Catholics, and Orthodox in Europe
(3) the modern sovereign state-centered system
(4) a Balance of Power system in Europe.
16- According to Luttwak in "Where are the Great Powers?" why
are today's Great Powers unwilling to accept even relatively low combat casualties?
(1) they lack a margin of superiority over potential foes that ensures victory
(2) low-birth-rate societies are unwilling to sacrifice their few kids for peripheral interests
(3) constraints by international organizations such as the UN
(4) the impact on their publics of television coverage of casualties.
17- According to Luttwak in "A Post-Heroic Military Policy,"
with the end of the Cold War "a new season of bellicosity is upon us."
Why has the danger increased that wars will be fought?
(1) the Cold War induced caution because of the danger of escalation to nuclear catastrophe
(2) many of the new states have not signed the Geneva Conventions and are not restrained by international humanitarian law
(3) the United Nations is weaker since the end of the Cold War and less able to restrain hostile states
(4) civilization-rallying gives potential aggressors substantially more resources and soldiers.
18- According to Luttwak in "Give War a Chance," What
has been the impact of United Nations Security Council imposed Cease-Fires
and Armistices on conflicts between lesser powers?
(1) reduces incentives for the weaker side to make concessions for peace
(2) allows the enemies to rest, reconstitute and rearm their forces
(3) prolongs and intensifies struggles once the cease-fire ends
(4) all of the above.
19- According to Maynes in "Relearning Intervention," in what
way does INTERSTATE conflict differ from INTRASTATE conflict?
(1) intrastate conflicts involve accountable governments that can be influenced by threats
(2) intrastate conflicts involve multiple actors who may not be linked in an authoritative hierarchy
(3) interstate conflicts involve internal behavior which is harder for external actors to influence
(4) compellence of intrastate actors is much easier than deterrence of interstate actors.
20- According to Fukuyama in "The End of History?", the
END OF HISTORY refers to:
(1) the conquest of the world economy by globalization and the market economy
(2) the failure and discrediting of other ideologies challenging Marxism-Leninism
(3) the victory of economic and political liberalism over other ideologies
(4) the failure of deterrence makes a global nuclear war more likely.
21- How does Fukuyama answer his question: "What are
the Implications of the End of History for International Relations?"
(1) great powers will return to traditional nationalist rivalries and territorial competition, particularly amongst the states of Western Europe
(2) tribalism will cause the nation-state to decline and wither away
(3) economics will be more important and there will be increasing economic cooperation among states
(4) nationalist economic competition will lead to the disintegration of many regional economic systems.
22- According to Huntington in "The Clash of Civilizations?"
Why will civilizations clash?
(1) civilizations differences are basic, rooted in history, religion, culture, language, etc.
(2) the world is becoming smaller forcing increased interactions between civilizations, thus intensifying civilization consciousness
(3) economic modernization and social change are weakening local identities leading people to adhere to civilizational factors, particularly religion
(4) all of the above.
23- According to Huntington in "The Clash of Civilizations?"
"The Next Pattern of Conflict" will be:
(1) each civilization will become a single, coherent, political entity
(2) great powers will return to traditional nationalist rivalries and territorial competition, particularly amongst the Christian states of Western Europe
(3) groups within a civilization will not fight each other
(4) conflict between civilizations will replace ideological and other forms of conflict as the dominant global form of conflict.
24- According to Ajami in "The Summoning," Huntington
is WRONG in his "Clash of Civilizations" because:
(1) modern Western ideas and economics have little impact on other societies
(2) states control civilizations rather than the reverse
(3) only the Islamic challenge to the West is real, the other civilizations are rapidly declining
(4) the West will collapse from its own internal contradictions and competition, rather than by challenges from others.
25- According to Ajami in "The Summoning," Huntington
is WRONG in his "Clash of Civilizations" because:
(1) Western modernity and secularism are far weaker than he indicates
(2) tradition and fundamentalism make noise and trouble because they are losing and bewildered
(3) the Confucian civilization will grow so strong it will submerge and defeat all others
(4) civilization rallying will be the most powerful force in the future.
26- In "The Coming Anarchy" Kaplan states: "To understand
the events of the next fifty years, then, one must understand environmental
scarcity, cultural and racial clash, geographic destiny, and the transformation
of war." In what way is war being transformed?
(1) civilization-wide armies will lead to clashes on a scale last seen in World War II
(2) war will be like crime, waged by re-primitivized non-state groups along communal lines
(3) the globalization of high-tech warfare will allow smaller entities to get weapons of mass destruction
(4) 21st century wars will be ideological campaigns to reinvigorate communism
27- According to Stedman in "The New Interventionists,"
the NEW INTERVENTIONISTS want to :
(1) avoid using economic criteria to decide when to intervene
(2) use the United Nations to intervene in domestic conflicts around the world
(3) intervene only in interstate rather than intrastate conflicts
(4) intervene only in situations where sovereign nations give their consent.
28- According to Betts in "The Delusion of Impartial
Intervention," limited and impartial international intervention in a conflict:
(1) does not resolve the conflict and prolongs the war and the killing
(2) allows the aggressor to get away with crimes against peace
(3) allows the weaker side to win without ensuring justice
(4) promotes compromises that allow for power-sharing and accountability.
29- According to Nye in "Redefining the National Interest,"
most of the threats and risks that confront U.S. today are from "the C List."
What are "C List" Threats?
(1) threats to our survival
(2) imminent threats to U.S. interests but not to our survival
(3) important contingencies that indirectly affect our security but do not directly threaten our interests
(4) disruptions in the global economic system.
30- According to Hagen in "The Balkans' Lethal Nationalisms,"
What was "the Prison-House of Nations?"
(1) Communist Yugoslavia (2) the Serbian Federation
(3) Greater Albania (4) the Russian Empire.
1- According to HYDRAULIC theories of aggression one is LEAST likely
to commit AGGRESSION when:
(1) weapons are readily available
(2) you have just committed some acts of aggression
(3) there is a lack of outlets for your aggressive instincts
(4) your aggressive energy is high due to frustration.
2- GROUP NARCISSISM:
(1) is a minor problem (2) develops only in poor and backward countries
(3) reduces the intensity of malignant aggression
(4) is often promoted in the poorer deprived classes by political leaders.
3- Which type of defensive AGGRESSION is generally
associated with WAR?
(1) Malignant (2) Narcissistic (3) Instrumental (4) Freedom.
4- According to FROMM, which category of AGGRESSION
is considered life serving, constructive, and biologically adaptive?
(1) Pseudo Aggression (2) Benign Aggression
(3) Malignant Aggression (4) Playful Aggression
5- DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION:
(1) normally ceases once it removes the danger
(2) can only be stimulated by threats to physical vital interests such as mate, young, food, space
(3) is primarily an animal activity rather than human
(4) once it is stimulated it produces a lust for destruction and cruelty.
6- According to the FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS:
(1) aggression is a learned response to frustration that all humans acquire very early in childhood
(2) whenever aggression occurs frustration will follow or be instigated
(3) the stronger the frustration the greater the instigation to aggress
(4) aggression is always directed at the frustrator.
7- Characteristic of ETHNOCENTRISM:
(1) loyalty to and identification with the group
(2) greed and self-interest are believed to promote group goals
(3) tolerance toward other cultures and societies (4) internal conflict within the group.
8- According to the Principle of Double Effect, one is permitted
to kill NONCOMBATANTS:
(1) if the enemy is to blame for unjustly starting the war
(2) to break enemy will and bring the war to an early end
(3) to reduce danger to your own troops
(4) as an unintended result of a proportionate attack on a military target.
9- The relatively permanent system of all non-instinctual strivings
through which humans relate themselves to the human and natural world.
(1) human character (2) instincts
(3) passions and customs (4) values and norms.
10- When U.S. General Bradley ordered the carpet bombing of
the French city of St. Lo, why was it NOT a violation of the rules of war?
(1) his intention was a surprise attack on the enemy, not an attack on civilians
(2) at the time the French were allies of the Germans
(3) those who win wars are not held to the rules (4) he was obeying superior orders.
11- What RULES OF WAR govern the behavior of military units
when INNOCENT CIVILIANS are in the area of the fighting?
(1) civilians can be harmed if the action is militarily necessary and proportionate to the goal
(2) no action can be taken that can harm civilians unless it is direct self-defense
(3) military needs justify all actions and civilian harm does not need to be considered
(4) self-preservation comes before any protection of civilians.
12- According to Fromm, humans are many times MORE LIKELY than
animals to engage in DEFENSIVE aggression because:
(1) mass impersonal modern society produces widespread alienation
(2) humans are instinctively more aggressive
(3) human drug and substance abuse lowers aggressive inhibitions
(4) human can foresee and imagine threats that are not clear and present.
13- LORENZ believes that the problem of AGGRESSION in
modern society is the result of our "EVIL INHERITANCE." What is it?
(1) we are warlike because centuries of war have made violence an established part of society
(2) selective breeding and survival of the fittest means that only those with aggressive genes survive; humans are thus becoming more aggressive each century
(3) aggressive instincts needed for primitive people to survive cause problems in modern society especially when paired with modern weapons
(4) modern life is inherently frustrating and thus produces higher levels of aggression.
14- What is the RELATIONSHIP between aggression and PREJUDICE?
Prejudice makes aggression more likely because:
(1) it creates an aggressive appetite where one actively seeks a conflict
(2) prejudice is directly connected to low status and low intelligence which contribute to higher levels of violence
(3) prejudice creates negative images of victims thereby reducing inhibitions
(4) prejudiced individuals have greater aggressive drives and instincts.
15- TERROR as a technique of revolution:
(1) is most effective in the very last stage of revolutionary activity
(2) works best when it is used alone without any connections to other revolutionary activity
(3) is supposed to prod or goad the police into massive and indiscriminate violence against the population
(4) should be indiscriminate and random hitting women, children, and other luckless civilians.
16- Greene concludes, with regard to ECONOMIC CRISIS as an
accelerator of revolution that:
(1) economic crises always lead either to collective violence or revolutions
(2) economic crisis plays a revolutionary role only in underdeveloped countries
(3) economic crises have no impact on revolutionary potential
(4) economic crisis, by itself, is unlikely to provoke collective violence with revolutionary intent
17- According to Greene, MILITARY DEFEAT:
(1) drastically lowers the legitimacy of government (2) indicates the government is incompetent
(3) suggests the government cannot inspire citizen loyalty and sacrifice (4) all of the above.
18- GUERRILLA WARFARE:
(1) must never establish any permanent bases
(2) requires a decentralized and weak organizational structure
(3) cannot succeed if the government has foreign support
(4) is used by native peoples to resist foreign invaders.
19- GUERRILLA WARFARE:
(1) relies on self-sufficient military units that have little contact with the peasants
(2) seeks to seize and hold isolated enemy bases and positions
(3) is a long struggle that wins by attrition and demoralization of the enemy not by military victory
(4) relies on external support and does not need to develop local peasant support, it is better to be harsh with the peasants to ensure their cooperation.
20- According to Greene, EXTERNAL SUPPORT of revolutionary
(1) is less likely the longer the struggle takes and the greater its geographic scope
(2) is frequently a determining factor in the success of the revolution
(3) is likely to prevent external support for the government under attack
(4) is most needed for quick revolutionary conspiracies such as coups.
21- According to Greene, "the range and intensity of VIOLENCE
are likely to vary from one revolutionary movement to another according to
several variables." Which of the following VARIABLES is likely to INCREASE
(1) high regime access (2) foreign support for either side
(3) strong popular support of the rebels (4) a brief revolutionary struggle.
22- According to Greene, ELITE FRAGMENTATION is:
(1) closely associated with military victory
(2) a visible symbol of declining government competence
(3) important only if it affects the military (4) likely to raise the regime's legitimacy.
23- According to Greene, Which type of CULTURAL CLEAVAGE is LEAST likely to be a precondition for revolution? (1) religious (2) gender (3) ethnic (4) racial.
24- According to Greene, COUPS D'ETAT are LEAST LIKELY to occur
in countries that:
(1) are economically underdeveloped (2) have been independent for a long time
(3) have gained their independence primarily through violent instead of peaceful means
(4) have a prior record of coups d'etat.
25- "In Search of a THEORY of REVOLUTION" Greene CONCLUDES
(1) there is no theory of revolution with empirically testable hypotheses and propositions
(2) only relative deprivation theory avoids tautology and nonfalsifiability
(3) both systems theory and relative deprivation theory have a high degree of conceptual utility
(4) the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale provides the basis for middle range theories.
26- According to Greene, the student of revolution may be fairly
certain that movements which rely exclusively on TERROR are:
(1) strong and getting stronger
(2) weak and lack significant support among the general population
(3) based on a regional rather than national plan for organization
(4) getting support from a foreign power.
27- According to Greene, Which of the following DEMOGRAPHIC factors
INCREASES revolutionary potential?
(1) large out-migration (migration to other countries) of enterprising citizens
(2) rapid population growth with limited agricultural and material resources
(3) slow urban growth combined with growing industries
(4) small to modest in-migration (from other countries) of ethnically similar people.
28- "When Women Find Love is Fatal." Many female murder
victims are killed by their spouses, ex-spouses, boyfriends and ex-boyfriends.
Research reveals a pattern: the risk of violence is greatest:
(1) in societies attempting to achieve economic gender equity
(2) when it is a mixed race or mixed religion relationship
(3) during process of leaving a relationship and shortly after
(4) when the male is of low socio-economic status.
29- "Nigerian Police Open Fire in Religious Clash." What
issue set off the violence?
(1) Muslims want to impose Islamic law, sharia, and Christians oppose it
(2) Christians feel they are cut off from national political power by the new Muslim president
(3) Muslim storekeepers dominate small businesses and Christians protested high prices
(4) Christian state governments are cutting funding for Muslim religious schools.
30- "New Tension Over Taiwan." What is the source of
the new tension?
(1) Taiwan's Government has begun steps to declare its independence of China
(2) Taiwan's missile sales to Iraq and N. Korea have angered Congress
(3) China has threatened trade reprisals if Congress approves greater weapons sales to Taiwan
(4) China has threatened force if Taiwan long delays reunification negotiations.
31- "Turks Hold 3 Kurdish Mayors As Hopes for Peace Recede."
Why were there hopes for peace?
(1) the Kurdish guerrilla leader, under arrest, has called for his followers to lay down their arms
(2) European Union diplomats are trying to assist the development of a nonviolent Kurdish movement
(3) Turkey's desire to join the European Union could lead to conciliatory policies toward the Kurds
(4) all of the above.
32- "NATO Chief Makes a Plea for More Kosovo Peacekeepers."
Why are they needed?
(1) to counter a Serbian threat to return its forces to the province
(2) to deal with ethnic tensions between Serbs and Albanians in northern Kosovo
(3) to prevent Albanian persecution of Serbs and Gypsies
(4) to protect Macedonia from the Kosovo Liberation Corps.