link to Prof. Stein's home page
link to ISS 325 War and Revolution syllabus                                                    stein@msu.edu
ISS 325 section 6
WAR AND REVOLUTION
 ISS325--WAR & REVOLUTION lecture Revolution pages
         spring 2003


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction: Relationships and Processes                             2-12
States/Weak States/Sovereignty/Blood                                  13-47
Just War/War Crimes/Genocide                                          48-94
Human Aggression                                                            95-131
Conquest/Authority                                                          132-154
Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism                                               155-184
*Revolution/Internal Conflict                                               185-233
War/Threat/Aggression                                                      234-246
U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention                     247-259
Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction                 260-268
Kagan: article and Asmus & Pollack article                          269-295


GREENE: "REVOLUTION MEANS:
 •AN ALTERATION IN THE PERSONNEL, STRUCTURE, SUPPORTING MYTH, AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
 •BY METHODS THAT ARE NOT SANCTIONED BY THE PREVAILING CONSTITUTION.
 •THESE METHODS ALMOST INVARIABLY INVOLVE VIOLENCE OR THE THREAT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST POLITICAL ELITES, CITIZENS, OR BOTH.
 "REVOLUTION MEANS A RELATIVELY ABRUPT AND SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND SOCIAL STATUS."

*REVOLUTIONS: ARE CHANGES IN THE CONSTITUTION OF SOCIETIES ATTEMPTED OR ACHIEVED THROUGH THE USE OF FORCE
  * * * * * * * *
 VIOLENCE - ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
 ILLEGAL USE OF FORCE
 VIOLENCE WITH A SOCIAL PURPOSE
 MUTUAL EXPECTATIONS OF BEHAVIOR
 

============================================
*POLITICAL IDEOLOGY

•IS A BELIEF SYSTEM THAT EXPLAINS AND JUSTIFIES A PREFERRED POLITICAL ORDER FOR SOCIETY, EITHER EXISTING OR PROPOSED,

•AND OFFERS A STRATEGY [PROCESSES, INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS, PROGRAMS] FOR ITS ATTAINMENT.

•IT IS "A VERBAL IMAGE OF THE GOOD SOCIETY AND THE CHIEF MEANS OF CONSTRUCTING SUCH A SOCIETY."

•IT OFFERS "A REASONABLY COHERENT BODY OF IDEAS CONCERNING PRACTICAL MEANS OF HOW TO CHANGE, REFORM (OR MAINTAIN) A POLITICAL ORDER."

•MOVES PEOPLE INTO ACTION TO BRING ABOUT CHANGES IN THEIR WAY OF LIFE

•A GIVEN POLITICAL IDEOLOGY EITHER RATIONALIZES THE STATUS QUO OR CHALLENGES IT.

IDEOLOGY IS AN OVERSIMPLIFIED VIEW OF THE WORLD. TRIES TO EXPLAIN THE WORLD IN TERMS OF A FEW BASIC BELIEFS
 
 

============================================
* POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES ARE UTOPIAN - THE GOOD LIFE HERE ON EARTH. FIGHT, COOPERATE, SACRIFICE, FOLLOW ME. IDEOLOGIES HAVE A BELIEF - ACTION FACTOR.

1. IDEOLOGIES ARISE IN CONDITIONS OF CRISIS AND IN SECTIONS OF SOCIETY TO WHOM THE HITHERTO PREVAILING OUTLOOK HAS BECOME UNACCEPTABLE.

2. IDEOLOGY HAS A BROAD BUT VARYING SCOPE

3. IDEOLOGY IS A SYSTEMATIC PATTERN OF POLITICAL THOUGHT.

4. IDEOLOGY TENDS TO BE EXCLUSIVE, ABSOLUTE, AND UNIVERSAL

5. IDEOLOGY IS PERSUASIVE.

6. IDEOLOGY IS PERSONALIZED AND SCRIPTUALIZED

============================================
"THE GREAT LEAP BACKWARD"
The story behind Mao's policies of the late 1950's which led to the STARVATION OF TENS OF MILLIONS." Nicholas Eberstadt. Book review of Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine by Joseph Becker. nyt 2/16/97

 Late 1950s to early 1960s China suffered the WORST FAMINE IN HUMAN HISTORY. Approximately 30 MILLION died. It was a time of good weather and during the famine "China doubled her grain exports and cut her imports of food." Also rebuffed all offers of assistance.
 China "liberated" in 1949. Build new society based on "scientific socialism." Mao Zedong.
 "MAO AND HIS ACOLYTES BELIEVED THEMSELVES BOUND NEITHER BY THE LAWS OF MEN NOR EVEN THE LAWS OF NATURE. They held that with will power, sweat and a superior ideology the rules of biology, chemistry and physics could be rewritten: according to their bizarre world view, infant piglets could be made to spawn litters, broken glass could fertilize crops and earthen embankments could be put to the same exacting use as concrete dams."

 In 1958 MAO decreed "THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD." Impoverished China would overtake Britain in 15 years; later changed to just two years. China would become wealthy overnight.

 THE PLAN: Peasants reorganized into gigantic "People's Communes." Huge collectives that socialized feeding as well as farming. Peasants were permitted to eat only in the commune's public mess halls. Part of the goal was to destroy the family as an institution.  Peasants--promised that China was about to become rich--gorged themselves on grain, even that meant for seed. Nothing belonged to the peasants anymore, so they might as well consume it.
 Collective/Commune REMOVED PEASANT'S INCENTIVE for hard work. Production fell. Government, believing its own propaganda about production, increased its exactions of grain from communes. STARVATION BEGAN. Government, led by Mao, did not believe reports of shortages. Believed sabotage by 'rightists' and 'kulaks' who were hoarding grain. TERROR in the countryside as government police tortured peasants to reveal "nonexistent caches of secret food." Government refused to allow peasants to move about to search for food.

Sen on famine

============================================
nyt 2/14/97 "A Defector from Korea is a Hot Potato for Beijing"
  Kwang Jang Yop, 72, ideological theorist of JUCHE--self-reliance,
associate of the late leader Kim Il Sung, and tutor of current leader Kim
Jong Il.

 STARTING WITH MY FAMILY, PEOPLE WILL JUDGE
THAT I'M MAD. BUT THE QUESTION IS: AM I THE ONLY
MAD PERSON?
 HOW COULD YOU CALL PEOPLE SANE WHO LOUDLY
TALK OF BUILDING AN IDEAL SOCIETY FOR WORKERS AND
FARMERS WHILE WORKERS AND FARMERS ARE STARVING?

 About NK leader Kim Jong Il:
THE GREAT GENERAL'S SELF-ADMIRATION HAS GONE SO FAR THAT HE NOW REALLY BELIEVES HE IS A GENIUS, REQUIRING THE PEOPLE TO RESPECT AND OBEY HIM ONLY.
*************
*REVOLUTION INSURRECTION
 REBELLION TERRORISM
 GENERAL STRIKE RIOT
 INTERNAL WAR CIVIL WAR
 PEASANT REVOLT COUP D'ETAT
 ANTI-COLONIAL WAR REVOLT
 LIBERATION WAR TURMOIL
 GUERRILLA WARFARE MUTINY
 INTERNAL DISTURBANCE UPRISING
 PALACE REVOLT JACQUERIE
 

============================================
 RIOT, TURMOIL:
RELATIVELY SPONTANEOUS, UNORGANIZED, LACK IDEOLOGY, MASS, LOCALIZED
  CONSPIRACY:
HIGHLY ORGANIZED POLITICAL VIOLENCE WITH LIMITED PARTICIPATION
  INTERNAL WAR:
HIGHLY ORGANIZED POLITICAL VIOLENCE WITH WIDESPREAD POPULAR PARTICIPATION
 ----------------------------
 REBELLION -
ORGANIZED VIOLENCE AGAINST ESTABLISHED AUTHORITY BUT LACKING IDEOLOGY FOR THE MOST PART
  IDEOLOGICAL REBELLION -
AIM AT RETURNING SOCIETY TO A FORM THAT EXISTED OR SUPPOSEDLY EXISTED IN THE PAST
--------------------------
 SIMPLE REVOLUTION -
CHANGE ONLY A FEW VALUES
  TOTAL REVOLUTION -
CHANGE THE ENTIRE STRUCTURE OF VALUES AND THE DIVISION OF LABOR IN SOCIETY
 

============================================
EQUILIBRIUM = BALANCE
 PERFECT EQUILIBRIUM IS NEVER ACHIEVED.

BALANCE IS WHERE MOST NEEDS AND DESIRES ARE SATISFIED
 OR
THE EXPECTATION EXISTS THAT THEY WILL BE SATISFIED.
 SOCIETIES ONLY ACHIEVE IMPERFECT OR HOMEOSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM
 Societal equilibrium requires adaptation and change of values, institutions, power, etc. over a long period of time - decades, centuries
 Societies and their cultures have to adapt to their environment.
If the environment changes, they must change

 REVOLUTIONARIES FEEL CURRENT CONDITIONS ARE WORSE THAN WAR
 •SOCIETY HAS FAILED THEM,
 •THEY TURN TO VIOLENCE AS A LAST RESORT,
 •AN ACT OF HOPE
 REVOLUTION IS HOPE

============================================
CULTURAL ADAPTATION:
CULTURE RESPONDS TO ITS ENVIRONMENT

CULTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
CULTURAL PERSISTENCE
CULTURAL CRYSTALLIZATION
 
1) CULTURAL FUNCTIONALISM & ADAPTATION
 Majority of human customs can be explained in practical, materialist terms, and customs that do not contribute in some way to efficiency or accommodation tend rather quickly to be discarded.

Environmental adaptation: culture responds to its environment
 2) CULTURAL PERSISTENCE:
Continuation of customs that do not contribute to the successful adaptation of a society to its environing context.
Existing sociocultural structure is a constraint on change
--vested interests
--processes of regularization to impose order, pattern, stability on everyday experience.

CULTURAL CRYSTALLIZATION:
 once a set of sociocultural relationships becomes integrated into a set pattern or structure, it is difficult to modify any of the elements without affecting other parts of the whole.
Structure Is a Conservative Influence
Wide Margin for Cultural Diversity.

Change and consequences-the ripple effect:
•mid-20th century control of epidemic diseases in the Third World
•lowers death rates sharply
•birth rates remains high-cultural persistence
•population explosion-increases of 4x or more in ½ century
•women's liberation
•environmental degradation
 
 
 
 

============================================
THREE CHARACTERISTICS
 OF
REVOLUTIONARY SITUATIONS

1- POWER DEFLATION:

BECAUSE OF ATMOSPHERE OF CHANGE THE LEGITIMATE AUTHORITIES RELY HEAVILY ON FORCE TO STAY IN POSITION.
FORCE IS OVERUSED AND POWER IS DEFLATED.
 2- LOSS OF AUTHORITY:
 LEADERSHIP, ELITE, INSTITUTIONS, VALUES, ALL SUFFER A LOSS OF AUTHORITY.

INEFFECTIVE, CORRUPT, INCOMPETENT.

NOT CREATIVE ENOUGH TO MEET PROBLEMS.

3- CATALYST:

LUCK, FORTUNE

THE FINAL IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF THE REVOLUTION IS A MATTER OF LUCK

CORRUPTION: Nigeria has long been a serious contender for #1
 •the CEMENT FLEET
 •Office Buildings-BUILD & BURN
 •Sabotage oil refineries to create fuel shortages
 •control of licenses to buy/sell FOREIGN EXCHANGE
 •MULTIPLE DAMS on same river

http://www.transparency.org/documents/source-book/summary.html

============================================
KURAN: "SPARKS AND PRAIRIE FIRES:
UNANTICIPATED POLITICAL REVOLUTION,"
MAO: "A SINGLE SPARK CAN START A PRAIRIE FIRE."

PEOPLE WHO DISLIKE THEIR GOVERNMENT APT TO HIDE THEIR HATRED IF THE OPPOSITION SEEMS WEAK.

PREFERENCE FALSIFICATION--
GOVERNMENT APPEARS UNSHAKEABLE
BUT ITS SUPPORT CRUMBLES DUE TO INSIGNIFICANT EVENTS
 SURPRISES: FRENCH 1789, RUSSIAN 1917, IRAN 1978-79

PREFERENCE FALSIFICATION:
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS' PRIVATELY HELD POLITICAL PREFERENCES AND WHAT THEY ESPOUSE IN PUBLIC.
 RESULT: PEOPLE AND GOV'T DON'T REALIZE THE REGIME'S VULNERABILITY.

"NO VILLAGE HAS EVER REVOLTED
MERELY BECAUSE IT WAS HUNGRY."
TO REVOLT, MUST BELIEVE THAT REVOLTING IS A REMEDY.
 
============================================
RELATIVE DEPRIVATION THEORY

 DISCONTENT ALONE DOES NOT PRODUCE REVOLUTION.

 INTERDEPENDENCE OF PEOPLE'S POLITICAL CHOICES.

 CHANGE-ORIENTED POLITICAL ACTION REQUIRES SOME DEGREE OF HOPE AND EXPECTATION OF SUCCESS.

•GREAT DISCONTENT IS REVOLUTIONARY POTENTIAL.

•THE GREATER THE RESERVOIR OF LATENT REVOLUTIONARY ENERGY,
 THE SMALLER THE TRIGGER NEEDED TO START THE REVOLUTION.

•A CRACK IN REGIME'S APPEARANCE OF INVULNERABILITY
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

============================================
RELATIVE DEPRIVATION =
A PERCEIVED DISCREPANCY BETWEEN PEOPLE'S VALUE EXPECTATIONS AND THEIR VALUE CAPABILITIES.

•VALUE EXPECTATIONS ARE THE GOODS AND CONDITIONS OF LIFE TO WHICH PEOPLE BELIEVE THEY ARE RIGHTFULLY  ENTITLED.
•VALUE CAPABILITIES ARE THE GOODS AND CONDITIONS THEY THINK THEY ARE CAPABLE OF ATTAINING OR MAINTAINING, GIVEN THE SOCIAL MEANS AVAILABLE TO THEM.

************
VALUES ARE THE DESIRED EVENTS, OBJECTS AND CONDITIONS FOR WHICH PEOPLE STRIVE [ORIENTATION & DEVOTION]
 MATERIAL WELFARE VALUES -
ECONOMIC & PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, self-realization, food, shelter, medical, skill, education
 POWER VALUES - INFLUENCE & AVOID UNWANTED INTERFERENCE, security, fear, participation, voting, corruption
 INTERPERSONAL VALUES - PSYCHOLOGICAL SATISFACTION IN INTERACTIONS WITH OTHERS & GROUPS, family, religion, discrimination, injustice, community, status, MORALS, ETHICS
 

============================================
VALUE HIERARCHY
 SUBSISTENCE HIERARCHY [traditional societies]
 ECONOMIC VALUES
SECURITY
COMMUNALITY
COHERENCE
STATUS
PARTICIPATION
SELF-REALIZATION
  MODERN HIERARCHY
 ECONOMIC
SECURITY
PARTICIPATION
SELF-REALIZATION
STATUS
COMMUNALITY
 

============================================
COLLECTIVE VIOLENCE
COLLECTIVE POLITICAL VIOLENCE

HYPOTHESIS: THE POTENTIAL FOR COLLECTIVE VIOLENCE VARIES STRONGLY WITH THE INTENSITY AND SCOPE OF RELATIVE DEPRIVATION AMONG MEMBERS OF A COLLECTIVITY.
   1. •the greater the discrepancy between expectations and capability the greater the discontent.

    •the greater the importance of the values affected, and the fewer the other satisfactions, the greater the discontent.
     •the greater the number of alternative ways of satisfying our expectations, the longer we will defer discontent
    •fewer alternatives, more likely to feel desperation.
    •the longer anger is denied expression, the greater the intensity.
    •the intensity varies strongly with the degree of commitment to the deprived value.
 
 

Ted Gurr

============================================
DECREMENTAL DEPRIVATION - LOSE WHAT YOU HAVE
 
 Declining Production or Ability of Elite,
Foreign Rule,
Lose Faith in Ideology,
Lose in Conflict with Other Segments of Society,
Tax of Rich or Poor,
Lose Pol. Influence,
Loss of Unskilled Jobs
Loss of Status as Poor Rise
  ASPIRATIONAL DEPRIVATION - NOT ABLE TO GET WHAT YOU WANT
    Demand for Political Participation by Minorities, Upwardly Mobile, Colonial Subjects
Knowledge of a Better Way of Life
Demonstration Effect
 PROGRESSIVE DEPRIVATION - WHEN THE GOOD LIFE SLOWS DOWN OR ENDS
 
 

  Depression in a Growing Society
Modernization in an Inflexible Society

============================================
SOCIETY AND VIOLENCE
(1) NORMATIVE JUSTIFICATIONS FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE -
•Is political violence proper?
•Is it a good idea?
•What are attitudes about intrinsic value of political violence?

USA--normative justification for interpersonal violence, THE ABUSE EXCUSE

(2) UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATIONS FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE -
•is political violence useful?
•Does it work, produce results?
•How will public react?
•Will violence help our cause?
 (3) COERCIVE BALANCE - HOW STRONG IS REGIME & HOW STRONG ARE DISSIDENTS
 ****
 COERCIVE INSTITUTIONS
POLICE
MILITIA
ARMY
JUDGES
PRISONS
EXTERNAL SUPPORT

 INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT
UNIONS
PRESS and TV
SCHOOLS
UNIVERSITIES
RELIGION
POLITICAL PARTIES
BUSINESS
FACTORIES
COOPERATIVES
BUREAUCRACY
FARMERS
VETERANS
 

============================================
 COERCIVE BALANCE
 REGIME & DISSIDENTS EQUAL
 HIGH VIOLENCE
 INTERNAL WAR
  REGIME MUCH STRONGER THAN DISSIDENTS
 TURMOIL, CONSPIRACY
 TERROR
 RIOTS
 UNDERGROUND
  REBELS MUCH STRONGER THAN REGIME
 COUP
 LOW VIOLENCE
 

 REPRESSION:
Unless it is based upon extremely good intelligence, and unless its application
is sensible, ruthless, and continuous, its effects may be quite opposite to
those intended. Incompetent repression leads to a combination of disaffection
and contempt for the elite. Also, repression may only make the enemies of a
regime more competent in the arts of conspiracy; certainly it tends to make
them more experienced in the skills of clandestine organization and sub rosa
communication

============================================
 GUERRILLAS AND TERRORISTS

VERY DIFFERENT CONCEPTS.

GUERRILLA--ONE WHO ENGAGES IN IRREGULAR WARFARE, AS A MEMBER OF AN INDEPENDENT UNIT CARRYING OUT HARASSMENT AND SABOTAGE.
target is military units of the regime.
Coherent political and ideological challenge.
 

TERRORISM--A FORM OF COERCION. Systematic use of terror, violence committed by groups in order to intimidate a population or government in granting their demands.
 Kidnapping, hijacking, bombing, assassination

CONTROVERSIAL AND LOADED TERM:
"ONE MAN'S TERRORIST IS ANOTHER MAN'S FREEDOM FIGHTER."
 ACTION--TERRORISM
 ACTOR--TERRORISTS
 EFFECT--TERROR

RULES OF WAR: TARGETS AND MEANS OF ATTACK.

 (1) DON'T ATTACK THOSE NOT ENGAGED IN THE BUSINESS OF WAR--NONCOMBATANTS.

 (2) Proportionality--minimize civilian losses.
Terrorism often deliberately violates these two rules.
Attack civilians--noncombatants, indiscriminately.
 Who is a noncombatant?

 WHAT IS INDISCRIMINATE? ASSASSIN, BOMBING.

 IDEOLOGY IDENTIFIES TARGETS
 

============================================
 TERRORISM'S FUNCTIONS: SPREAD FEAR

--TERROR IS NOT SENSELESS
--CONVINCE PEOPLE STATE IS WEAK AND REBELS ARE STRONG
--RECRUIT FIGHTERS AND MOBILIZE MASSES
--PROPOGANDA, get rebel message out
--GOAD REGIME INTO OVER-REACTION, provoke massive and indiscriminate violence by police and military
--DISRUPT GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONING

--INTIMIDATE AUTHORITIES, CULTURE, INTELLECTUAL LIFE

•TERRORISM ALONE IS WEAK.
•USED IN INITIAL STAGES OF REVOLUTION TO RECRUIT, MOBILIZE, PROPOGANDIZE.
•NEED IDEOLOGY
•MUCH LESS EFFECTIVE IF ONLY TO EXPRESS FRUSTRATION/RAGE.

REDEMPTION: FANON argues that the oppressed are psychological cripples who can regain their self-respect thru violence.

 ATTRACTIVE TO SADISTS AND NECROPHILLIACS

REVOLUTIONARIES WHO USE TERROR TO ACHIEVE POWER MAY ALSO USE IT AFTER TAKING POWER OR TO CONTROL THEIR OWN ORGANIZATION.
 
 

============================================
 RANGE OF TERRORISM:

 •PSYCHOTIC: RANDOM, INDIVIDUAL, IRRATIONAL.
a) doesn't stress political goals in public statements;
b) follow their own defined code of behavior;
c) terrorism is the end sought--ultimate satisfaction.

 •CRIMINAL: LACK IDEOLOGY.
Narcoterrorists use terror to protect their criminal activities. Rather than destroy establishment they are trying to shoot their way in.

 •NIHILIST: DESTROY, DESTROY, DESTROY.
 No systematic political agenda other than destroy existing order.
 Vague hope that good will arise from ashes. Anarchists.
 [rare today, but many individual terrorists may be nihilistic.]

 •SINGLE-ISSUE:  too narrow to be a revolution.
 Animal rights, abortion, environment.
---------------------------------------------------------
All of the above are too narrow,
lacking in ideology to be considered revolutionary terrorism.

 •NATIONALIST: IDEOLOGY IS PARTICULARISTIC, limited only to certain people. Communal solidarity. Liberation and self-determination. Anti-colonialism. Secession.

 • REVOLUTIONARY: SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION OF A STATE, BUT IDEOLOGY MAY BE UNIVERSAL--MARXISM, ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM. [MAY BE MIXED WITH NATIONALISM.]

 ALSO TO CONSOLIDATE POWER--REIGN OF TERROR
 
============================================
ANARCHISTS

Anarchists killed six heads of state in the twenty years preceding WWI [1914]

President Carnot - France - 1894
Premier Canovas - Spain - 1897
Empress Elizabeth - Austria -1898
King Humbert -Italy - 1900
President McKinley -USA -1901
Premier Canalejas - Spain - 1912

The Idea and the Deed

The Idea: "daydream of desperate romantics."

 Property was the root of all evil, government the servant of property.
 "Whoever lays his hands on me to govern me is a usurper and a tyrant."
 Replace the state with voluntary associations amongst individuals.
  Ruling class will never give up property/powers/laws peacefully.
 Violent, revolutionary upheaval necessary.
 Once old structure was in rubble, a new social order of equality/plenty/no government would appear.

The Deed
 Awaken the masses to the Idea by the propaganda of the Deed.
 Workers-untrained, unorganized, illiterate, with no understanding of their wants, would be ready to rise because they have nothing to lose.
 Violent Deeds would make the workers ready.
 Each strike, local protest, or bread riot might be the SPARK.

Anarchism's paradox-rejected the political party as a "variety of absolutism." Anarchists cannot submit to authority, organization or discipline.

The Idea was the province of intellectuals.
The Deed was done by those who heard the Idea.

============================================
THE STRATEGY OF TERRORISM
David Fromkin, Foreign Affairs, July 1975
Too small to impose their will by military force, terrorist bands nonetheless are capable nowadays of causing enough damage to intimidate and blackmail the governments of the world.
•Only modern technology makes this possible--the bazooka, the plastic bomb, the submachine gun, and perhaps, over the horizon, the nuclear mini-bomb.
•The transformation has enabled terrorism to enter the political arena on a new scale, and to express ideological goals of an organized sort rather than mere crime, madness, or emotional derangement as in the past.

Political terrorism is a distinctive disorder of the modern world. It originated as a term and, arguably, as a practice, less than two centuries ago and has come into the spotlight of global conflict in our lifetime.
•political terrorism emerged as a concept only in 1793. As a political strategy, it is both new and original; and if I am correct, its nature has not yet fully been appreciated

 Force usually generates fear, and fear is usually an additional weapon.
•terrorism employs the weapon of fear in a special and complicated sort of way.

"Though the terrorists seemed romantic, until recently they also seemed ineffective. Until the Irish Treaty of 1921, they scored no significant political successes."
•Lenin and the Bolsheviks won because they "had seen more clearly in placing their emphasis on mass organization rather than on individual terrorism."

"Brutality is an induced government response that can boomerang.
•It is this ability to use the strength of repression against itself, in many different ways, that has enabled terrorist strategies to succeed in many situations that have, rightly or wrongly, been described as colonialist in the modern world."
 Revolutionist-terrorists have failed to perceive the special characteristics of the colonialist situation that facilitated success.
•Attacked liberal-pluralistic regimes to force them to become repressive and alienate the masses.
•Regimes did not react as hoped and defeated the terrorists.
•Strategy failed in open societies.
•closed societies govts may collapse but the terrorists were too weak to step in.
 

============================================
EXAMPLES USED:
Greece -- 1973 Athens Airport, passengers bound for NYC, Palestinians [Greece friendly to Palestinian cause]

France -- 1793-1794 Reign of Terror French Revolution. Robespierre & Faction [triumvirs] on Committee of Public Safety of National Convention. Caused c.40,000 deaths and 300,000 arrests. Only 22 people used threat of accusation of treason to hold power. Robespierre's "power was unreal; it was an illusionists trick." Lost power on 9 Thermidor [27 July 1794]

USA -- Senator Joseph McCarthy 1950-1954.

Ireland - 1921 independence for southern Ireland. Guerrilla warfare campaign. "Little doubt that terrorism played a major role in causing Britain to tire of the struggle." "Terrorism can also make heroes out of gunman . . . problem this creates . . . when the time comes to make the compromises necessary in order to negotiate the terms of their victory."
 "Terrorism provocations can also make policemen into villains." "Black-and-Tan methods made the cause of repression so odious that Britain was induced to choose another course of action."

Palestine - 1945-1948 Irgun Jewish militants in British-mandated territory of Palestine. Attack property interests, give advance warning to evacuate before blowing up buildings. British would overreact by garrisoning the country, financial strain in Britain, economic pressure would cause them to withdraw from Palestine. FLAWS: [1] "it would have failed had the British not reacted . . . as they were expected to do." [2] "attacking property without hurting people proved to be unrealistic." King David Hotel.
 "Despite its flaws, the strategy was sufficiently ingenious-using an opponent's own strength against him." "React to his fear by increasing the bulk of his strength, and then the sheer weight of that bulk would drag him down."

Algeria - 1950s - "minuscule band of Algerian nationalists [FLN]." Population was not homogeneous-Berbers, Arabs, European descent. "Algeria" of recent origin, "no more than the middle part of North Africa, with no distinct history of its own." Legally part of France.
 Was Algeria a nation or a genuine part of France? Could the FLN persuade the people to think of themselves as a nation.
 STRATEGY: "goad the French into reacting in such a way as to demonstrate the unreality of the claim that there was no distinct Algerian nation." Random violence, bombs in markets and other crowds. "The instinctive French reaction was to treat all persons of non-European origin as suspects." "All the Muslims felt excluded from the existing community." France showed it "regarded no Algerians as Frenchmen." Hopeless "for no amount of force can keep an unwilling population indefinitely in subjection."

Uruguay -1960s-1970s - Tupamaro urban guerrillas attacked model democracy. Result was a military dictatorship and destruction of the terrorists. Failure.
 
 
 

NO MERE TERRORIST
 By THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN March 24, 2002
"Historically, there has always been a gap between people's individual anger and what they could do with their anger," said the Harvard University strategist Graham Allison. "But thanks to modern technology, and the willingness of people to commit suicide, really angry individuals can now kill millions of people if they can get the right materials. We can't change their intentions overnight, but we can make sure that the materials that can transform their rage into something that threatens us all are locked away in places as secure as Fort Knox."

============================================
TERRORISM
 ONE MAN'S TERRORIST IS ANOTHER'S FREEDOM FIGHTER

There is no official international definition of terrorism.
•1998, 160 countries established permanent International Criminal Court to try individuals for the most serious offences, such as genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
•"A giant step forward in the march towards universal human rights and the rule of law." [Annan] BUT "countries could not agree in Rome on a definition of terrorism."
•Many international conventions dealing with terrorism, but no definition.
•Many states want all terrorism condemned as criminal. No goal could legitimize the murder of civilians and other innocents.
•Others feel that the legitimacy of a cause - nationalism, revolution, liberation, jihad - justifies terrorism in certain cases.
 •Iraq: "necessary to distinguish terrorist acts from the right of peoples to self-determination and to resist occupation-a right that had been established in many United Nations resolutions."

 TERRORISM
DEFINITION:
 DOD definition: "the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological."

CALCULATED:
 Terrorists know what they are doing. Selection of target is planned and rational. They know the effect they seek. Not spontaneous nor random. Intend to produce fear in someone other than the victim. Terrorism is a psychological act.

GOALS:
 Political goals. Extremists driven by religious or ideological beliefs to seek political power to compel society to conform to their views.
 Objectives of terrorism distinguish it from other violent acts such as crime aimed at personal gain.
 Essence of terrorism is to induce fear in people other that the victim to make a government change its political behavior.
 

LAW & HIGHER LAW
 Terrorism is common in insurgencies, but insurgents are not necessarily terrorists if they comply with the rules of war. [Doherty case]
 Legal distinction is clear, but it rarely inhibits terrorists who convince themselves that their actions are justified by a higher law.
 Single-minded dedication to a goal renders sanctions relatively ineffective. Terrorists recognize no rules. No person, place or object of value is immune from terrorist attack. There are no innocents.

HISTORY:
 Throughout history, terrorism has been used to generate fear and compel a change in behavior. Usually it was incidental to other forms of violence, such as war and revolution.
 Terrorists usually granted certain categories of people immunity from attack-innocents not involved in the conflict.
 Late 19c. Russian radicals aborted several assassination attacks on Tsar Alexander II due to risk of harm to innocent people.
 Modern, bureaucratic government is different. Continuity, even immortality of impersonal government means that death of an official, even the king or president, will not necessarily produce policy changes. Terrorists reacted by turning to indirect attacks. By early 20c., terrorists began to attack those previously considered innocents to generate political pressure.
 Public anxiety can undermine confidence in government. Unpredictable, random attacks make it virtually impossible for govt to protect all. Public demands protection. Frustrated and fearful people may demand concessions.
 Terrorism is easier if you don't recognize innocents-infinite # of targets. Terrorists select target and when, where, how to attack. High probability of success with low risk.
 Democracy makes it easier. Freedom, due process, impartial justice; easier to operate in an open society.
 1- anyone can be a victim.
 2- attacks are NOT random or senseless. They make perfect sense to the terrorists.
 3- terrorists need publicity. No news, no fear. Publicity drives target selection-targets with high symbolic value.
 4- can't protect all targets; terrorist can shift from more protect to less protected ones.
 
 
 

THE TERRORISTS
MOTIVES ARE 1) RATIONAL, 2) PSYCHOLOGICAL, and 3) CULTURAL

RATIONAL MOTIVATION:
 Thinks thru goals and options - a cost-benefit analysis. Target's defences vs. groups capabilities. Will terrorism achieve desired purpose?
 Problem: induce public anxiety without stimulating a backlash that can destroy the cause. To misjudge is to court disaster. 1970s Tupamaros in Uruguay and Montoneros in Argentina pushed beyond the threshold of public tolerance and were destroyed.

PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVATION:
 terrorist's personal dissatisfaction with his life and accomplishments. Raison d'etre in dedicated terrorist action. Clarity of purpose. Crave violence to relieve their constant anger. Need to belong to a group, social status defined by group acceptance.
 "TRUE BELIEVERS"
•do not consider that they may be wrong
•do not consider that others' views have merit
•project their own antisocial motivations onto others
•polarized "we versus they" outlook
•attribute evil motives to all outside their group
 •dehumanizes their victims
 •removes any ambiguity about actions

 JUSTIFICATION OF THE GROUP'S EXISTENCE: a terrorist group must terrorise. Commit violent acts tp maintain group esteem and legitimacy.

 INTENSE GROUP DYNAMICS: tend to demand unanimity/be intolerant of dissent. Enemy is identified and unequivocally evil-thus pressure to terrorise.
 Terrorist groups lean toward maximalist positions. Have placed selves beyond the pale, forever unacceptable to ordinary society-cannot accept compromise; negotiation is dishonorable/treason. Many groups fracture and splinters are often more violent than the parent.

 FEAR OF SUCCESS: achieving goal means group is no longer needed. As it approaches its goal, terrorist group is inclined to redefine it or reject the deal as inadequate or false or a trick by "them." Define goals so broadly and grandly that they are impossible to achieve. Basque ETA, Palestinians.

CULTURAL MOTIVATION:
 cultures shape values and motivate actions. Normal in one culture may seem unreasonable to a foreigner. Americans: rational, greedy, individualist, multicultural, violent, friendly, powerful, wealthy.
 Treatment of life in general and individual life is cultural.
•Group membership [family, clan, tribe] may promote self-sacrifice.
 •martyrs eager to give life for the cause
 •no remorse at destroying the "others" who are wholly evil

 CULTURE & VIOLENCE: ambient level of violence in society/ provisions for transfer of power. USA is very violent society with low tolerance for political violence. France and Germany have low crime rates but a history of political violence.
 THREATS TO CULTURE: cultures do get exterminated. [Soft power] Self-defense of culture from threats to its values and survival. "Others" are the source of the threats.
 RELIGION: intense and volatile cultural identifier; deeply held values. Threats to one's religion threaten the past, present and future. Religions are confident they are right and have used force to obtain converts. Terrorists can have moral certainty and divine sanction. Terrorism becomes a religious duty/high level of commitment and willingness to face death.

TERRORIST ORGANIZATION:
 Few general organization principles.
 Security is a primary concern/cellular structure limits knowledge and defection in case of capture/defection.
 Defection is rare; but intense group dynamics may lead to internal dissension and security leaks.

 SUPPORT:
 State-supported or sponsored.
 Sympathizers and those coerced to support.
 Support structure provides money, recruits, logistic support, intelligence, dissemination of propaganda.

 RECRUITMENT
 security-sensitive
 NON-ETHNIC-based groups aim at high school and college students committed to the cause.
 ETHNIC-based groups work with those personally known, family ties, extremely difficult to penetrate.

 TRAINING
 great range-"throw away" operatives get little more than inspirational talk. Key operatives may have military experience plus get specialized, sophisticated training. [Qaeda had substantial infrastructure of facilities, organisation, recruitment and trained thousands at various levels of skill.]
 use of weapons-small arms and explosives
 intelligence collection

 September 11th - WTC & Pentagon revealed a sophisticated terrorist organization capable of inflicted substantial damage.

 COMBATING TERRORISM

ANTITERRORISM [defense] - defensive measures to reduce vulnerability of individuals and property. Includes limited response and containment by local military.

COUNTERTERRORISM [OFFENSE] prevent, deter and respond to terrorism.

DEFENSE-neutralizing and weakening terrorist groups. Prevent attacks, minimize damage.
 Unified effort-interagency action required.

Tedious, patient, perseverence, restraint. Anti-terrorism is difficult and slow. Few terrorists relative to the population. Identify/capture is difficult. Tedious police work filled with frustration. Low-key, inglorious; success is hard to identify. Did you prevent an attack or was one never intended?
 RESTRAINT-premature action can be counterproductive; catching small fry and letting big ones get away. Overreaction can undermine legitimacy.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
============================================
 COUNTER-TERRORISM and STATE TERRORISM

ESTABLISHMENT TERROR: repression, oppression
 death squads, paramilitary, private groups.

PART OF THE SYSTEM OF RULE--state terror is not a "crime". Monopoly of legal coercion.

 • VIGILANTE: private or "off-duty" violence aimed at "deviants"--racial, political, cultural. Mobs. US lynching
 RWANDA AND BURUNDI, INDIA v. SIKHS AFTER GHANDI ASSASSINATION.

 • COVERT OFFICIAL TERROR:  officials know they are violating formal rules.
 ARGENTINA, CHILE, BRAZIL, URUGUAY, EL SALVADOR, GUATEMALA--disappearances, nonjudicial torture and execution.

 • OVERT REGIME TERROR: Brazen regime openly embraces terror. STALIN, HITLER, POL POT, SADDAM.
 TYRANNY--an inability to be safe.

 • GENOCIDE: COMPLETE ELIMINATION OF A GROUP. RWANDA, SERBIA.

ZIEGLER: INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

    • STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM could not exist w.o. supply, recruitment and direction by a state

    • STATE-SUPPORTED Terrorism would exist independently w.o. outside aid but is supported by gov'ts

    • STATE-TOLERATED TERRORISM independent, not supported, but also not stopped.
 

============================================
GUERRILLA WARFARE--INSURGENCY
guerrilla--term from Spanish resistence to Napoleon, little war, it was said that the huge French army only controlled the ground its soldiers were standing on.

GUERRILLA--ONE WHO ENGAGES IN IRREGULAR WARFARE, AS A MEMBER OF AN INDEPENDENT UNIT CARRYING OUT HARASSMENT AND SABOTAGE. ANCIENT TACTIC OF THE WEAK.--target is military units of the regime.

COHERENT POLITICAL AND IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGE.

TERROR may be a component, but many guerrilla wars don't use it.

PEASANT SOCIETIES, strong popular support--win hearts and minds, physically integrated with people, daily contact, work side by side.
 Native resistence to invasion and colonialism.
 People provide shelter, rest, food, information, recruits.

GEOGRAPHIC BASE OF OPERATIONS IN:
REMOTE, INACCESSIBLE AREAS, NEAR BORDER.
SANCTUARY WHERE GOV'T IS WEAK.
REBEL ECONOMIC SELF-SUFFICIENCY.
 "LIBERATED ZONE" DEMONSTRATE RULE AND REFORMS

LEFTIST IDEOLOGIES, LOW REGIME ACCESS

STRONG REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION - THE PARTY MUST CONTROL THE MILITARY.
 Requires sacrifice, discipline, endurance. The cadre
 Cultivate support and sympathy, spread revolutionary message.
 Respect peasant property and rights, never plunder
 
============================================
GUERRILLA WAR [continued]

PROTRACTED STRUGGLE THAT WINS BY ATTRITION AND DEMORALIZATION, NOT BY MILITARY VICTORY.
 Treat prisoners humanely, recruit.

HIT AND RUN, do not fight for territory--altho likely to have a remote base area.
 Highly mobile, concentrate forces at weak points, avoid direct confrontations. Ambush, booby trap, surprise and maneuver.
 Regime is stronger in weapons and miltary organization

FOREIGN INTERVENTION AND FOREIGN SUPPORT

LEVELS OF GUERRILLA WAR
--pinprick raids
--continuous operation in some areas
--political infrastructure, counter-government in some areas
--control some regions, move toward conventional war
 
 

============================================
COUNTERINSURGENCY

COUNTERINSURGENCY FORMULAS AND DOCTRINES--use guerrilla-like tactics and address the roots of revolutionary appeal. Redress the social and political grievances.

WIN HEARTS AND MINDS or MASSIVE REPRESSION
 be nice
 amnesties
 provide security, reestablish order
 provide good government, honest
 economic progress

Mobile forces to keep guerrillas on run, break their supply and communications, isolate guerrilla units

Deny resources, force guerrillas to plunder

Need high 5 to 1 force superiority

Hold towns and major centers

Relocate populace--strategic hamlets

Foreign training and support

Col Ramon Barrera, La Paz, El Salvador, 1986
 all of the masas are terrorists. Many of the women are married to the terrorists. They are told that it is dangerous to accompany the guerrillas, so they stay behind to grow the crops with which to supply them. The army must therefore destroy their crops, and we have done this in the region a number of times in past years. They are hungry and sick, but we must wage war on all levels and isolate the people from the guerrillas, so that the guerrillas will desert. In order to do this, you understand, we must sometimes burn crops, destroy homes, and move the people out.

============================================
BRINTON'S STAGES OF REVOLUTION
 1- DISEQUILIBRIUM OF THE OLD REGIME
 2- TRANSFER OF ALLEGIANCE OF THE INTELLECTUALS
 - ineffectiveness of the ruling class, elite fragmentation
- underground develops
 3- INEFFECTIVENESS OF THE ARMED FORCES, FAILURE TO DEFEND THE OLD REGIME
 4- COLLAPSE OF THE OLD REGIME & ITS REPLACEMENT BY A MODERATE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT
- the revolution drifts to the extreme
- dual sovereignty, counter-government

5- REIGN OF TERROR
- rule by the extremists
 6- THERMIDOR, REACTION, THE REVOLUTION SLOWS DOWN AND RETURNS TOWARD CENTER
 
 
 
 

============================================
* 1- DISEQUILIBRIUM OF THE OLD REGIME
 VALUES DON'T FIT ENVIRONMENT

•INCOMPETENT GOVERNMENT
•SPECIAL ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES
 •economically healthy, even growing, but gov't is broke
•CERTAIN IMPORTANT GROUPS FEEL THE GOV'T IS AGAINST THEIR ECONOMIC INTERESTS
 * 2- TRANSFER OF ALLEGIANCE OF THE INTELLECTUALS
- ineffectiveness of the ruling class, elite fragmentation
- underground develops
  INTELLECTUALS DO TWO THINGS
a) criticism increases and is aimed at fundamentals of the system [constitution]
b) develop new, alternative ideologies, thus becoming bitter & impatient
 * MULTIPLE IDEOLOGIES BUT ONE COMMON ENEMY

ELITE FRAGMENTATION
Attack of the intellectuals splits and undermines the ruling class
 self-doubt, inconsistency
Defense becomes sporadic, ineffective, unfashionable
--some are reformers or join the intellectuals or the rebels

--SOME STONEWALL
--Rulers often attempt to conciliate growing discontent, with reforms, arrest corrupt ministers, punish police violence, but this requires consensus in the ruling 'party' or elite. Forging a drastically different consensus is notoriously difficult.

REBELS ORGANIZE ABOVE AND UNDERGROUND

============================================

nyt 11/9/95 "Militant leader of Rightist Group is Seized." Leader of Eyal, Raviv--twice arrested for murdering Arabs but not convicted, [Jewish Fighting Organization] which split from the outlawed Kach group [which wanted to expell all Arabs from Israel and the Occupied Territories].
 Police confiscated an operations notebook.
 "giving detailed instructions in security and counter-intelligence, including a requirement that each member operate under an alias, so that anyone arrested would not be able to reveal the real names of comrades. Undergo training in sabotage, surveillance, scouting, navigation, first aid and street warfare. Passwords and target practice."

 "ANYONE JOINING OUT ORGANIZATION SHOULD LEARN THAT TOMORROW HE WILL HAVE TO FACE THE ENEMY IN BATTLE, THE PROBABLE OUTCOME OF WHICH IS LIFE IMPRISONMENT OR DEATH. EYAL DEMANDS A HIGH DEGREE OF SELF-SACRIFICE FROM ITS FIGHTERS."

***
*3- INEFFECTIVENESS OF THE ARMED FORCES,
FAILURE TO DEFEND THE OLD REGIME

?? MILITARY DEFEAT

POWER DEFLATION
LOSS OF AUTHORITY

REVOLUTIONARY MYTH SPREADS IN MILITARY

BETTER ORGANIZED REBELS PENETRATE RANKS

DISAFFECTED MILITARY IS UNRELIABLE FOR RULERS

INDECISIVE RULERS, UNRELIABLE ARMY
 
 

============================================
*4- COLLAPSE OF THE OLD REGIME & ITS REPLACEMENT BY A MODERATE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT

- THE REVOLUTION DRIFTS TO THE EXTREME

- DUAL SOVEREIGNTY, COUNTER-GOVERNMENT, parallel hierarchies, alternative govt, dual power
 "RESPECTABLE" REBELS TAKE POWER

COMMON ENEMY

PROBLEMS OF MODERATES
1- REFORM SYSTEM
2- GOVERN SOCIETY
3- FIGHT A WAR
 THE REVOLUTION DEVOURS ITS CHILDREN
SYMBOLISM

"BETRAYAL OF REVOLUTION"
 

============================================
 PROBLEMS OF MODERATES
 [US Constitution is triumph of moderates]
1- REFORM SYSTEM
2- GOVERN SOCIETY
3- FIGHT A WAR

FIGHT A WAR

1- INHERIT THE OLD REGIME'S LOSING BATTLE [USUALLY INTERNATIONAL BUT OCCASIONALLY CIVIL]

2- CIVIL WAR
(a) COUNTER-REVOLUTION - supporters of old regime try to fight back
 (b) WINNERS FIGHT OVER THE SPOILS -
Moderate revolutionaries who lose out in the internal struggles attack the revolutionary government
 3- INTERNATIONAL WAR
(a) FOREIGN INTERVENTION - In the civil war, in support of either the counter-revolution or the moderate revolutionaries
 (b) FOREIGN INVASION TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF INTERNAL AND MILITARY WEAKNESS CAUSED BY REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE AND TURMOIL.

(c) REVOLUTIONARY EXPANSION - export the revolution to other countries - FRANCE, IRAN, [CUBA], SOVIET

============================================
the REVOLUTION DRIFTS TO EXTREME

DUAL SOVEREIGNTY
COUNTER GOVERNMENT
 1- MODERATES CONTROL OLD GOV'T NOW IN REBEL HANDS
2- RADICALS CONTROL RIVAL GOV'T
[#2 IS THE REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION NOW IN RADICAL HANDS]
 CONTROL OF THE ILLEGAL, RIVAL, COUNTER-GOV'T IS KEY TO CONTROL OF THE REVOLUTION

POWER STRUGGLE:
MODERATES LOSE
MODERATES DROP OUT
BASE OF REVOLUTION NARROWS
 MAIN FEAR IS OF COUNTER-REVOLUTION, NOT OF OTHER REVOLUTIONARIES

FERVOR
MYTH
EMOTION
IDEALISM

IT IS A TIME OF REVOLUTION
NORMAL BEHAVIOR IS SUSPENDED
ALL THINGS ARE POSSIBLE
 

============================================
* COUNTERGOVERNMENT
DUAL SOVEREIGNTY; DUAL POWER
COUNTER-GOVERNMENT, parallel hierarchies, alternative govt, dual power
--aim of the revolutionary guerrilla is to create a kind of administrative vacuum into which it can insert its own parallel hierarchy. Task is easier if a vacuum already exists or suddenly emerges.

-----------
THE REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION DEVELOPS INSTITUTIONS THAT ACTUALLY FUNCTION AS AGENCIES OF GOVERNMENT

ABOVE GROUND OR UNDERGROUND

REVOLUTION IS BUILT ON A CROSS-CUTTING ALLIANCE;
ALLIED AGAINST COMMON ENEMY;
NOT ALLIED ON VISION OF FUTURE

"A PARALLEL SYSTEM OF GOVERNING INSTITUTIONS COLLECTED TAXES, ran the village government, organized and administered schools and courts, and implemented the economic and military policies established by the communist party."
 REVOLUTION:
•OLD GOV'T ROTTEN TO THE CORE, Loses authority and legitimacy.
•COUNTER-GOVERNMENT has significant authority and legitimacy.

TWO POWER OR AUTHORITY CENTERS;
1- Old gov't under rebel control
2- revolutionary organization
# 2 is key to power.

============================================
* 5- REIGN OF TERROR
- RULE BY THE EXTREMISTS
COUP D'ETAT
TAKE OVER RIVAL GOV'T

EXTREMISTS ARE FEW BUT WELL ORGANIZED, disciplined, fanatical
Sacrifice
Capable leaders
Centralized dictatorship
Utopia

* SEVEN KEYS FOR A REIGN OF TERROR

1- HABIT OF VIOLENCE - SEVERAL YEARS OF LESSER VIOLENCE people no longer flinch; USA urban violence - children see violence, threshold for violence is lowered.

2- WAR PRESSURES - CIVIL WAR OR FOREIGN WAR OR BOTH. WAR PSYCHOSIS TREASON

3- NEWNESS, INEXPERIENCE in running a central government

4- ACUTE ECONOMIC CRISIS, business halts in uncertainty, peasants hoard food, war
5- POLITICAL / CLASS STRUGGLES
Revolutionaries are different, stand apart
 What is normally only rhetoric in extreme speeches is now carried out
 6- LEADERSHIP BY EXTREMISTS
NOT MEN OF MODERATION OR COMPROMISE
7- RELIGIOUS VIRTUE OF THE REVOLUTION, A new faith
 obedience expected in big and little things
 
============================================
NYT obituary 4/17/98
 POL POT
1975 Pol Pot and his black-clad followers immediately ordered the weary Cambodians to leave their homes, emptying the cities and towns to begin life at 'Year Zero' as worker-peasants in the fields of Cambodia. Over the next three years, the Khmer Rouge conducted a rule of terror that led to the deaths of more than 1.7 million people or a third of Cambodia's seven million people.
***********
 Pol Pot was less comfortable and revealing in a larger arena, making few public appearances even when in power, obscuring his identity, changing residences and warning of treachery from every quarter. When he had a stomach ailment, he said his cooks were trying to poison him. When the power at his residence failed, he had the maintenance workers killed.
 This fear of treachery -- by foreign nations or by poisonous "microbes" within his own organization -- motivated much of his behavior, from his secretiveness to the bloody purges that began to consume his revolution beginning in 1977.
 Speaking to a party cadre in 1976, he said: "We search for the microbes within the party without success; they are buried. As our socialist revolution advances, however, seeping into every corner of the party, the army and among the people, we can locate the ugly microbes."

 Meanwhile, the radical experiment was destroying the country. The slave labor gangs were not producing the food required. With no outside contacts, the country's stocks were becoming depleted. The huge public works projects, especially in irrigation, were shoddily made and fell apart.
 Numbering the Dead in the Millions
 But Pol Pot refused to believe his revolution was to blame. He looked for scapegoats: first the Cambodians loyal to the old regime, then Communist leaders of select regions of the country, then key Communist leaders close to him like. These suspected "enemies" were arrested and taken to security centers, including Tuol Sleng in the capital of Phnom Penh, where they were tortured to confess to imagined crimes and then killed.
 *********
 [THE YEAR ZERO] They and their Khmer Rouge movement tore apart Cambodia in an attempt to transform it into a pure egalitarian society, free of capitalism and unwanted foreign influences.
 To that end, families were pulled apart to insure loyalty to the "Angkar," or Organization. Religion was abolished and schools closed. Everyone was ordered to work, even children. Money was outlawed, and all markets closed.
 The "Angkar" provided everything in resettlements called rural cooperatives throughout the country that resembled a tropical Soviet gulag. Food -- inadequate at best -- was dispensed in canteens as was primitive medicines. Doctors were killed, as were most people with skills and education that threatened the regime.
 The Khmer Rouge especially targeted members of minority ethnic groups -- the Chinese, Muslim Chams, Vietnamese and Thai who had lived for generations in the country, and any other foreigners, in an attempt to make one "pure" Cambodia. They were forbidden to speak their native languages or exhibit any "foreign" traits. The pogrom against the Cham minority was the most devastating, killing more than half of that community.

 The full picture emerged only in 1979, when the Vietnamese conquerors of Cambodia allowed in foreigners and hundreds of thousands of sick and starving refugees poured into Thailand.
 They told stories of how husbands were separated from wives, parents from children. Holidays, music, romance and entertainment were banned. Dictatorial village leaders and soldiers told the people whom to marry and how to live, and those who disobeyed were killed. Children informed on their parents; many other youngsters who did not bend to the political mania were buried alive.
 Communal work brigades were formed to farm, clear forests and dig canals. Almost all the work was done by hand, without machinery, and people were forced to labor from dawn until late night.
 Thousands died from malnutrition, thousands from overwork.
 Thousands were jailed, to be tortured and die. The meticulous records kept by the Khmer Rouge of the people they tortured to death proved to be among the most valuable documents proving their crimes.
 Above all, though, were the mass graves and killing fields uncovered after the Khmer Rouge defeat.

============================================
*STALIN: We must smash the kulaks, eliminate them as a class.... unless we set ourselves these aims, an offensive would be mere declamation, bickering, empty noise.... we must strike at the kulaks so hard as to prevent them from rising to their feet again. Can we permit the expropriation of kulaks....a ridiculous question... You do not lament the loss of the hair of one who has been beheaded.

STALIN: He had set out to destroy the men capable of forming an alternative government. But each of those men had behind him long years of service, in the course of which he had trained and promoted administrators and officers and made many friends. Stalin could not be sure that avengers of his victims would not rise from the ranks of their followers. Having destroyed the first team of potential leaders of an alternative government, he could not spare the second, the third, the fourth, the N'th teams.

WHAT GRIEVES US MOST IS THE CASE OF 250 CHILDREN OF KHMER CADRES WHO WERE SENT TO STUDY IN HANOI DURING THE WAR. THEY WERE CALLED HOME BY THEIR PARENTS AFTER CAMBODIA WAS LIBERATED. . . . THEY WERE ALL KILLED BY CAMBODIAN TROOPS ONLY SOME 300 METERS INSIDE THE BORDER. THEY SCREAMED, CRIED AND YELLED TO VIETNAMESE CADRES ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BORDER, "PLEASE, COME AND HELP US UNCLES." BUT THE VIETNAMESE UNCLES STOOD POWERLESS.
 

nyt 4/26/95 "Soviet Archives . . ." 1930 memo from Stalin to Molotov regarding the hoarding of coins--regarding the state bank and finance ministry: "definitely shoot two or three dozen wreckers from these apparats, including several dozen common cashiers."

============================================
*6- THERMIDOR, REACTION,
 The revolution slows down and returns toward center
 Extremists lose to a strong leader
 New centralized machinery
 Dictator [maybe charismatic]
 * AMNESTY - SKILLS
 TERROR continues against:
1- counter-revolutionaries
2- extremists who disrupt

RITUAL
LEGITIMACY
 STORY SONG STONE

TOLERANCE
PLEASURE AND THE GOOD LIFE
  finis

============================================
 December 20, 1999 The New Republic
THE BLACK BOOK OF COMMUNISM: CRIMES, TERROR, REPRESSION

•the history of communism should be read above all as the history of an all-out assault on society by a series of conspiratorial cliques
 •led by cruel dictators (Lenin, Stalin, Mao Zedong, Kim Il Sung, Pol Pot, and dozens of imitators)
 •who were murderously drunk on their own ideology and power.

•second, communism was fully the equal of Nazism as one of the supreme evils of our century.
 •the relentless "class genocide" of the Communists, conducted over eight decades, is fully comparable with the "race genocide" of the Nazis.
 •Both were "crimes against humanity"
 •a body count, numbers are breathtaking.
•counts between 85 and 100 million deaths directly attributable to communism over a period of 80 years.
 •compared with about 25 million deaths for the Nazis over six years.
 •THESIS: "Communist regimes, in order to consolidate their grip on power, turned mass crime into a full-blown system of government."
 •most of the crimes committed by the Communists were carried out in accordance with their own laws,

obligatory connection to the French Revolution, and especially to the Terror, "government by fear, which Robespierre theorized as government by virtue."
•Invented to destroy the aristocracy, it soon became a means to dispose of the wicked and combat crime ...
•terror became the means by which revolution, the history yet to be created, would forge the new human beings of the future."
•Lenin looked to the French Revolution for legitimacy It had everything that he needed.
 

============================================
RUSSIA
Unlike the French Terror, the Russian terror was directed against all strata of society;
 • The Bolsheviks called for a dictatorship of the proletariat:
 •"Dictatorships don't ask for the refutation of contrary views, but forcibly suppress their utterance."
 •"In reality," wrote Lenin, "the state is nothing but a machine for the suppression of one class by another . . . Dictatorship is rule based directly on force and unrestricted by any laws. The revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat is rule won and maintained through the use of violence by the proletariat against the bourgeoisie, rule that is unrestricted by any laws."

•begins, with the "Year Zero," the year of the October Revolution, 1917
 •crucial role played by "the iron fist of the dictatorship of the proletariat," much-feared secret police known as the Cheka
 •the abolition of "bourgeois law" three weeks after the Revolution;
 •introduction of the novel judicial concept of "enemy of the people;"
 •merciless calls by Lenin and colleagues for the "liquidation" and the "execution" of all enemies and suspected enemies.
 •The key to the Bolsheviks' was their instant readiness to declare war on the rest of society.
 •"War," in this case, was no mere metaphor.
 •"Do not imagine, comrades, that I am ... looking for a revolutionary form of justice. We have no concern for justice at this hour," said the first chief of the Cheka, in 1918. "We are at war, on the front where the enemy is advancing, and the fight is to the death."
•And "to the death" was no metaphor, either: the Bolsheviks announced that "the revolutionary terror of the masses" was their preferred instrument of government, and they did not hesitate to kill without mercy.
•a century of political violence, difficult to imagine ourselves back to that more innocent time, or to recapture the horror felt by the population at large when confronted by cold-blooded killings.
 •describes a "day of Red Terror" organized by the Cheka in Pyatigorsk in the North Caucasus in 1920, when 300 people were taken from their homes and executed as an example to the rest of the population.
 •On the next day, the Cheka moved on to Kislovodsk, where, "for lack of a better idea, it was decided to kill people who were in the hospital."
  •"It is difficult to convey to anyone . . . the feelings of a man who falls into the category of individuals earmarked for liquidation in the interests of achieving ... the Communist utopia."
 •death was not a punishment for some particular action; it was a consequence of the victim's social origin.
 •The effect of these "sacramental murders," on the local population was overwhelming.
 •murdered as an instrument of intimidation, and their women and their children were homeless and the women turned into prostitutes.

•the Red Terror-
 •"Hang (I mean hang publicly, so that people see it) at least 100 kulaks, rich bastards, and known bloodsuckers.... Single out the hostages per my telegram," said Lenin 1918
 •the slaughter of 5,000 strikers in Astrakhan. "When the prisons were full, the soldiers and strikers were loaded onto barges and then thrown by the hundreds into the Volga with stones tied around their necks."
 • AT THE CENTER OF THIS ORGY OF KILLING WAS THE COLD AND CALCULATING FIGURE OF LENIN, vicious and enigmatic leader.
 •The Black Book shows, Lenin blazed a path of tyranny and bloodshed not only for Stalin, but also for Mao, Ho Chi-Minh, Pol Pot, and a century's worth of psychopaths at every level of the Communism
 
 

============================================
* ACHIEVEMENTS OF REVOLUTION
 1- GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY
 MORE CENTRALIZED
MORE EFFICIENT
 2- TRANSFER OF PROPERTY & NEW RULING CLASS
 

3- FAMILY TIES & MORAL VALUES REMAIN REMARKABLY STABLE
 

Question: Is Revolution Worth It?
 In some cases YES: generally in the simple revolutions which only modify what came before. American Revolution. French Revolution of 1958.

 In many cases NO: especially the total revolutions. The extremes mean terror and death for many. Famines and wars.
 Huge losses for changes that many other states accomplish better & at far lower cost.


link to Prof. Stein's home page
link to ISS 325 War and Revolution syllabus                                                       stein@msu.edu