Relationships and Processes
States/Weak States/Sovereignty/Blood 13-47
Just War/War Crimes/Genocide 48-94
Human Aggression 95-131
Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism 155-184
Revolution/Internal Conflict 185-233
*U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention 247-259
Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction 260-268
Kagan: article and Asmus & Pollack article 269-295
PEACEKEEPING EXPERIMENT FAILING
PCWE MAJOR EXPANSION
OF PK. PART OF NEW SENSE OF PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY.
PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY is action to prevent disputes from arising, to prevent disputes from escalating, and to limit the spread.
CLASSIC PK HAD A PEACE TO KEEP. PCWE PK merely based on the consent of all the parties, but they may be far from peace.
parties consent to a UN presence because each hopes to manipulate, benefit and/or gain from the UN.
SECOND GENERATION PEACEKEEPING--PCWE; enlarged list of tasks over a continuum. Complex humanitarian emergencies
HIGH HOPES OF JAN 1992 SC SUMMIT HAVE BEEN DASHED BY FAILURES AND INACTION IN SOMALIA, LIBERIA, RWANDA AND BOSNIA.
IN BOSNIA THE UN PUT ITS WORD ON THE LINE--SAFE AREAS--AND DID NOT KEEP IT.
CLASSIC PK IS STILL VIABLE.
SIZE OF PK -
UNOSOM 1993 - 30,000; $1.5+ billion
UNPROFOR 1992 - 39,000; $4.6 billion
ONUC 1960-64 - 20,000; $400 million
UNTAC 1992 - 19,000; $2+ billion
3 of the 4 largest PKs ever are PCWE.
54 PKs; 41 created after 1988. 15 still operational; 10 are PCWE. 47,000 troops worldwide.
•OLD PK - 3 Arab-Israel; Kashmir; Cyprus.
•PCWE PK - Western Sahara, xYugoslavia , Kuwait-Iraq, Congo, Sierra Leone, Georgia, Ethiopia-Eritrea, East Timor, Afghanistan
PCWE PK Complex Emergencies: combine enforcement with relief. UN injected into ongoing war. Pretend neutral.
Even in failures like Bosnia; feed millions, 'protect' safe areas.
INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING: 6 ½
1- THE EARLY YEARS
until 1988 [really to 1978]  AND
2- AFTER THE COLD WAR: [41 pcwe to 2002]
Generally non-violent, self-defense only, neutral action; with a good dose of preventive diplomacy.
PK does not enforce the UN's will on states; is deployed against no identified enemy; tries to maintain peace when tensions are high; and PK forces have not been large enough to enforce order against serious military opposition.
Function is not to settle disputes but to curb disorder, prevent spread of violence, inhibit outside intervention.
the Mogadishu line
of Charter--Ch VI. Pacific Settlement of Disputes. Arts. 33 - 38.
Art. 33 lists peaceful means to seek a solution: negotiation, enquiry, mediation, concil, arbitration, judicial settlement, or regional agencies.
Art. 34 SC may investigate any dispute. and
Art. 35 provides that any state can bring a dispute to SC or GA.
Art. 36. SC can recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment.
Art. 37 says it can take action under Art 36 or recommend "terms of settlement".
SECOND GENERATION PEACEKEEPING--post cold war. Mackinlay and Chopra: covers a wide range [continuum] of legitimate military tasks ordered by SC
CONVENTIONAL OBSERVER MISSIONS-- unarmed officers monitor and supervise a tense situation or stalemate. Minimal assets deployed.
TRADITIONAL PK--lightly armed multinational contingents with consent, interposed on lineal cease-fire line, area of separation.
PREVENTIVE PK--lightly armed or unarmed monitors, often from powerful states, stationed along a threatened border as a warning.
SUPERVISING A CEASE-FIRE BETWEEN IRREGULAR FORCES--armed multinational troops, prior agreement of a majority of involved parties, organize area-wide cease-fire. Endemic conflict level may be lower than traditional war zone--tasks more dangerous and complicated; all parties may not cooperate.
ASSISTING IN THE MAINTENANCE OF LAW AND ORDER--multinational troops; UN-appointed caretaker gov't, prepare free elections/referendum. Protect minorities/refugees. Intense local violence and slaughter.
PROTECT DELIVERY OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE--multinational force protects corridors for aid or protects a safe area.
GUARANTEE RIGHTS OF PASSAGE--multinational force protects air or sea or land traffic. Maybe minesweeping.
SANCTIONS--military operations to enforce art 41 sanctions
United Nations Organization v. UN System
THE UNITED NATIONS
ORGANIZATION basically refers to the six principal organs mostly based
1. •General Assembly 
2. •Security Council [15 members, 5 permanent]
3. •Economic and Social Council,
4. •Trusteeship Council [moribund]
5. •Secretariat [led by the Secretary-General]
6. •International Court of Justice [in The Hague]
These are the political decision-making agencies
THE UN SYSTEM: huge number of additional specialized agencies, autonomous organizations, major programs and peacekeeping and other operations of the UN. There are major UN regional centers in Geneva, Vienna, Addis Ababa, ....
No up-to-date count
is possible but there are:
--16 SPECIALIZED AGENCIES dealing with trade GATT, labor ILO, health WHO, food FAO, development, finance IMF, banking World Bank, aviation, post, weather, maritime, copyrights, agriculture. Some are much older than the League or the UN - International Telecommunication Union 1865, World Meteorological Organization 1873, Universal Postal Union 1874.
--11 FUNCTION AGENCIES dealing with problems such as refugees, food WFP, training, development UNDP, children UNICEF, environment UNEP, trade, ...
--more than a dozen current peacekeeping operations.
As a SYSTEM the UN is DECENTRALIZED, a loose confederation. Almost all of the specialized agencies and functional agencies are autonomous. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN BUDGETS AND RESOURCES. They report to the General Assembly directly or more likely through the Economic and Social Council. They are not controlled by the UN, they consult and coordinate.
Sec-Gen Boutros-Ghali An Agenda for Peace 1992
PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY is action to prevent disputes from arising, to prevent disputes from escalating, and to limit the spread of conflict.
PEACEMAKING is action to bring hostile parties to agreement, through such
peaceful means in the Charter.
Ch. VI arts 33-38: first try peaceful means, SC may investigate, any member can bring it to SC or GA, SC may recommend procedures, if parties fail to resolve they shall refer to SC, SC may recommend a settlement.
PEACE-KEEPING the deployment of a UN presence in the field, with the consent of all the parties concerned.
POST-CONFLICT PEACE-BUILDING identify and support structures which will strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse.
Preventive diplomacy seeks to resolve disputes before violence breaks out.
Peacemaking and peace-keeping are required to halt conflicts and preserve peace once it is attained.
Post-conflict peace-building seeks to prevent the recurrence of conflict.
HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION [Farer] is the threat or use of force by one
state against another for the purpose of terminating the latter's abuse
of its own nationals. [abuse = genocide, slavery, widespread torture.]
PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY: has two meanings.
first comes from SG Dag Hammarskjold and Lester Pearson and fits within a COLD WAR context.
1) A UN STRATEGY TO PREVENT LOCAL DISPUTES OR POWER VACUUMS FROM BECOMING EXTENSIONS OR INCITING ESCALATIONS OF THE COLD WAR.
1956 Suez crisis - Israel, England and France invaded Egypt. Soviets made threats, US responded, danger of a Cold War crisis. [UNEF UN Emergency Force - troops from 10 countries - set up to supervise withdrawal of forces from Egypt and serve as a buffer between Israel and Egypt, 1956-1967.] "Preventive action in such cases must, in the first place, aim at filling the vacuum so that it will not provoke action from any of the major parties." "The United Nations enters the picture on the basis of its non-commitment to any power bloc, so as to provide ... a guarantee to all parties against initiatives from others."
Keep the major powers out. Many conflicts in the world not directly related to big power rivalry. UN work to localize these disputes. Keep the big powers out by bringing the little powers in as part of Peacekeeping forces. [failed in Angola, MzB, Ethiopia with huge loss of life.
second comes from SG Boutras Boutras-Ghali and is designed for the PCWE.
2) PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Proposed by Boutras-Ghali in his Agenda for Peace. Not yet fully developed.
Collective Security, Collective Defense and Preventive Diplomacy
SECURITY: is a technical term referring to "a system of states that join
together, usually by signing a treaty, and make an explicit commitment
to do two things:
(1) they renounce the use of force to settle disputes with each other,
(2) they promise to use force against any of their number who break rule 1."
The principle is to gang up on the aggressor. The aggressor should be deterred by the overwhelming coalition. If deterrence fails, the aggressor will be defeated by military action.
Collective security applies only to what goes on INSIDE the system, its purpose is to keep peace among its members, not to protect them from outsiders.
Collective security requires that all states come to the aid of the victim - no neutrality or isolation is allowed. All states are automatically allied to the victim against the aggressor.
COLLECTIVE DEFENSE: refers to an alliance meant to protect the members from an external threat. NATO, Warsaw Pact.
Article 51: Nothing
in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or
collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the
United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary
to maintain international peace and security. ...
Article 52. ¶1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action, ...
REVOLUTIONARY CONCEPT: ABANDON WAR AND YET BE WILLING TO FIGHT FOR SOMEONE ELSE
of your military
External judgement of aggression
Fight for status quo
Entrust your destiny to an International Organization
>ALL ARE COMMITTED AGAINST AN AGGRESSOR
1) CONSENSUS: "PEACE
interdependence of peace
2) COMMITMENT: ALL MUST PARTICIPATE
3) ORGANIZATION: TO DETERMINE AGGRESSOR AND the INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE
a) CERTAINTY = DETERRENCE = THREAT
b) SIMPLE: PEACEFUL or ELSE
1) DEFINING AGGRESSION
2) ALL MUST PARTICIPATE
3) SACRIFICE FOR REMOTE QUARRELS
4) MOVES SLOWLY fait accompli
5) MAYBE BETTER TO ISOLATE CONFLICT THAN REVERSE
6) FAVORS STATUS QUO
7) NO ADVANCE PLANS
The UN Collective
Art 1(1) among the purposes of the UN "to take effective collective measures...for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace." Two instances of collective enforcement actions under VII [Korea and Kuwait]
** Chapter VII Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression. Interconnected requirements before SC acts.
• Art 39 SC shall determine the existence of any threat and decide what measures be taken in accordance with Arts 41 and 42.
• Art 40 "In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the SC may, before making the recommendations ...provided for in Art 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable.
• Art 41 SC "measures not involving the use of armed force" include interruption of economic relations and of means of communication, and break diplo.
• Art 42 "Should the SC consider that measures provided for in Art 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.
• Art 43.1. "All Members ...undertake to make available to the SC, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement ...armed forces...necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security." 43.2. "agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces..." 43.3. "agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible...and shall be subject to ratification ...in accordance with their respective constitutional processes."
• Art 47. Military Staff Committee to advise and assist the SC. Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members. Responsible for strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal of the SC.
• Art. 48 1. Action to carry out SC decisions shall be taken by all the Members as the SC may determine.
• Art 51. "Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the UN, until the SC has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security." Measures of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the SC.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY TO KEEP THE PEACE.
FOR FIRST 40 YEARS
IT FAILED TO LIVE UP TO FRAMERS' HOPES. PCWE. TWO MAIN FUNCTIONS:
SETTLE DISPUTES PEACEFULLY
MEET THREATS TO PEACE
The SC is in permanent session and is to meet at least every 2 weeks.
with majority of 9 needed.
Up until 1965 it was 11 with a majority of 7. Two year term.
chosen by contributions to peacekeeping and geographic distribution.
allocated generally 5 to Africa and Asia, 1 to E. Europe, 2 to L. America, 2 to W. Europe and others.
VOTING: two types, procedural and substantive votes. Question of whether something is procedural or not is substantive, thus chance for a double-veto, which is rare.
require nine votes "including the concurring votes of the permanent members."
This has been taken to mean than an abstention is NOT a veto.
Veto reflects an inability to do anything against the will of a Great Power.
Japan and Germany actively trying to become permanent members since early 1990s; Pandora's box: their applications held up by other large states-Brazil, Mexico, India, South Africa, Indonesia, Nigeria, ???--that also want higher status.
COUNCIL FUNCTIONS: acts for the entire UN, can issue binding decisions.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
189 members, began
with 51 members. Equal voting for all states.
Six main committees, all on each; most business is carried out in committees, like 7 Gen Assemblies.
Parliamentary - cannot directly make laws, can only recommend. Lots of debate on issues, budgets, administrative matters.
Can discuss any problem except domestic jurisdiction or matters under consideration by Security Council.
Majority Rule. "Important questions" require two-thirds present and voting. Other issues a simple majority. Majority vote to decide if an issue is important.
UNITING FOR PEACE RESOLUTION 1950 allows emergency special sessions within 24 hours if Security Council blocks action due to a veto. GA has authority to recommend 2/3 vote, collective enforcement action.
arose in the
context of Korean War. Later used in Middle East, Hungary, Lebanon, Jordan,
West Irian, and Congo.
LED TO MID-1960S FUNDING CRISIS when several permanent members - France, USSR - refused to pay for peacekeeping operations against their interests.
exhortation by resolution
quasi-legislative - develop and codify international law through resolutions, declarations, conventions.
investigative - studies of problems.
supervision of Security Council, ECOSOC, and Trusteeship Council annual reports. Security Council is independent, but the others are subsidiary; Gen Ass has final say.
SECRETARIAT serves the Assembly and is controlled by it. This is main power of Assembly, control of organization, work, personnel, budget of Secretariat gives it influence over the entire UN.
elections: new members (with SC); and elective members of other organs such ICJ and S-G, both with SC, and non-perm members of SC.
International Civil Service originates with League and ILO in 1919. Their experience is codified in Charter. SG is administrative head; recruit individually on basis of merit; responsible to the organization.
Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946-53
Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953-61
U Thant (Burma) 1961-71
Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-81
Javier Perez de Cuellar (peru) 1982-1991
Boutras Boutras-Ghali (Egypt) 1992 - 1996
Kofi Annon (Ghana) 1997 - ____
Loyalty to the IO; independent of national pressures; impartial to all states; plus wide geographic distribution of appointments.
DIVERSITY - of attitudes, languages, backgrounds and abilities. Absense of a shared political culture. Can take almost nothing for granted, most issues and procedures have to be negotiated.
BUDGET ASSESSMENT PROBLEM.
Two main budgets - regular assessments and PK dues. Members owe $831 regular and $735 PK.
by GA. Poor country majority passing programs - negative reaction from
major contributors. UN considered to have bloated staff.
Art. 99. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may THREATEN THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERANTIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY.
Art. 98. ...shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs.
Art. 99 gives wide political and diplomatic possibilities of action to the SG, plus there is a duty to respond if Members ask for his assistance.
BBG was the first 'African' SG. Had less concern for Europe's Balkan troubles. Spoke of the neglect of 3rd World conflicts. Kofi Annon is second SG from Africa.
51 original members, 6 the first two years and a total of only 60 by 1955. COLD WAR politics. US had majority to block communists as not "peace-loving", Soviet veto all others.
a. 1955 package deal admits 16 countries including several communist countries - Albania, Bulgaria, Romania; a couple of neutrals - Austria and Finland; and a bunch of African and Asia states.
b. 1960 16 African states admitted; 35 between 1957 and 1968.