ISS 325 War & Revolution pages:
ISS 325 War & Revolution lecture pages:
link to CYBER-READINGS-1 page Table of Contents i
link to CYBER-READINGS-2 page Introduction: States/Sovereignty/Blood/Weak States 1-24
link to CYBER-READINGS-3 page Just War/War Crimes/Genocide 25-50
link to CYBER-READINGS-4 page Human Aggression 51-81
link to War & Revolution photo page Conquest/Authority 82-102
link to AGGRESSION page Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism 103-130
link to ARMS CONTROL & DISARMAMENT page Revolution/Internal Conflict 131-172
link to IRAQ-BOMB-98 page War/Threat/Aggression 173-192
link to NATIONALISM and ETHNIC CONFLICT page U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention 193-207
link to PROTRACTED INTERNAL WAR page Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction 208-219
link to REVOLUTION & INTERNAL CONFLICT page Old Tests 1998/1, 1998/3 220-228
link to WAR page Syllabus and Course Information 229-234
link to Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism page
link to AFRICA: GREAT LAKES page
PLS 364 International Organizations & Cooperation pages:
link to UNITED NATIONS & International Organizations page
link to War Crimes page
link to European Institutions page
link to PLS364 readings on International Law
link to PLS364 readings on UN Reform and Budget
link to PLS364 readings on International Law and the Use of Force
December 17, 1998
US BLASTS BAGHDAD
One missile was reported to have hit a residential area
For live coverage in video from BBC World of developments in Iraq click here for 28.8 modems and here for 56.6k modems.
Hundreds of cruise missiles have been fired into Iraq by US forces to punish the Baghdad government for obstructing the work of the United Nations weapons inspectors.
Sirens sounded the all-clear in Baghdad after nearly six hours of sustained attack ordered by President Bill Clinton to destroy Iraq's weapons of mass destruction.
American officials - and their UK counterparts - have warned that the onslaught will go on for as long as is required.
The UK Government has said that its aircraft, which were not involved in the first strikes, are now getting ready for further bombing raids.
President Clinton said the attacks were necessary because the Iraqis had continued to defy UN weapons inspectors and placed new restrictions on their work.
But Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov called the strikes "outrageous" and said the UN Security Council would meet again to discuss the crisis. China has also condemned the action.
The attack, code named Operation Desert Fox, began at 2200GMT. As well as cruise missile attacks a senior Pentagon official said Navy EA-6B attack planes struck against Iraqi air defence radars.
Iraqi doctors in Baghdad said at least five people had been killed and 30 wounded. There is no independent confirmation of this.
Saddam blasts US 'cowards'
Four separate raids were counted by witnesses in Baghdad. Reports said several missiles struck the city, one landing near one of the presidential palaces. Shortly after the attack began, Iraqi television and radio went off the air.
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein accused the US and UK of cowardice for using long-range missiles instead of fighting face-to-face.
In a statement carried by the official Iraqi News Agency, he urged Iraqis to "fight the enemies of God, enemies of the nation, enemies of humanity".
As the missiles fell, Iraqi anti-aircraft batteries opened up across the city. BBC Baghdad Correspondent Jeremy Cooke said a series of deafening explosions echoed around the city, and the sky was lit up by tracer rounds and exploding shells.
One missile landed in a residential area of Baghdad, creating a big crater which filled with water from a burst water main. Reports said another had fallen inside Iran.
Avoiding Muslim holy month
Mr Clinton said the attacks were intended to protect the interests of the American people as well as the Middle East.
He said one reason why the US had acted now was to avoid launching military action during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, which begins in a few days' time.
US Defence Secretary William Cohen announced that more air and ground forces were being sent to the Gulf. He said: "Iraq should not misunderstand our determination".
UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said he deeply regretted the military strikes.
The UK Prime Minister Tony Blair said he and Mr Clinton had "no option but to act" after more than a year of broken promises by Saddam Hussein.
The attacks were prompted by the publication of a report by chief UN weapons inspector, Richard Butler, which accused Saddam Hussein of breaking his promise on 14 November to co-operate fully with weapons monitors.
Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz said the report was full of falsehoods, and was merely aimed at justifying military strikes on Baghdad.
US Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott criticised the action even before it was formally announced.
"I cannot support this military action in the Persian Gulf at this time," he said
December 17, 1998
TIMELINE OF THE IRAQI CRISIS
The countdown to crisis has stopped, then started again
The Gulf War ended at 0500 GMT on February 28,1991. The US-led coalition began a ceasefire and Baghdad ordered its troops to stop fighting. But since then, Iraq has remained at loggerheads with the United Nations and the Americans in particular.
There have been arguments over the work of the United Nations Special Commission in Iraq (UNSCOM) weapons inspectors, oil, the no-fly zones, and the rights of Shi'ite and Kurdish people living in the region. But the latest crisis stems from Iraq's exasperation with sanctions imposed after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
The UN put forward a series of proposals designed to ensure that Iraq is fulfilling its commitments to destroy weapons of mass destruction in June this year. Their elimination is a pre-condition for the lifting of UN sanctions which have crippled the economy by banning the country's economic mainstay - the free sale of oil.
KEY DATES AND STORIES
October 29, 1997 - Iraq bars American weapons inspectors from the country after the UN Security Council passes a resolution threatening to stop Iraqi officials travelling abroad. Iraq expels Americans
October 31, 1997 - Iraq reiterates that it is ready, if necessary, to face US military action over its decision to expel the weapons inspectors. Russia and France believe a solution can be found to the crisis. Russia rejects use of force Iraq urged to backdown
November 3, 1997 - Iraq warns it will shoot down U2 spy planes flying over its territory in support of UN weapons inspectors. Iraq threatens US planes
November 20, 1997 - Russian Foreign Minister, Yevgeny Primakov, brokers a compromise in the crisis between Iraq and the UN. The US, Russia, France, Britain, China meet through the night to work out the deal which allows the inspectors to return to Baghdad. However, UNSCOM inspectors return only to find they are barred from presidential sites. Iraq settlement seen as "brilliant victory" for Russian diplomacy
January 2, 1998 - A grenade attack is launched against the headquarters of UNSCOM in Baghdad. The Iraqi regime condemns the attack saying it was the act of saboteurs hostile to Iraq.
January 13, 1998 - Iraq blocks an inspection by an American dominated team. It accuses the leader of the team, Scott Ritter, of spying for the US. Iraq bans weapons inspectors
January 23, 1998 - Richard Butler, UNSCOM chairman, addresses the UN security Council and presents a bleak report. Iraq will provide no new information on its weapons programme. UN discusses continuing crisis over Iraq
January 28, 1998 - President Clinton delivers his State of the Union address, and says the US is prepared to carry out a military attack against Iraq. Clinton address applauded
February 9, 1998 - The Arab League puts forward proposals to end the crisis. It says the inspection teams should be chosen by UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan. Arab bid to solve Iraqi crisis
February 11, 1998 - The Iraqi government supports a Russian proposal which would give UNSCOM access to eight presidential sites to carry out one-off inspections. The idea is rejected by both the US and Britain. Iraqi concessions 'unacceptable'
February 13, 1998 - The United States insists it will not walk away from stopping Iraq developing weapons of mass destruction, and Russian objections would not prevent use of force. Russia says diplomatic effort should not end before Kofi Annan visits Baghdad. Russia warns US against military action
February 17, 1998 - Kofi Annan wins Security Council approval for a peace mission to Baghdad but the US reserves the right to disagree with the results. President Clinton says a solution must ensure unfettered access for weapons inspections. Clinton 'prepared to act'
February 20, 1998 - Annan arrives in Baghdad, saying he has a "sacred duty" to try to defuse the crisis. In Jordan, a bystander is killed in clashes between police and a crowd of worshippers demonstrating in support of Iraq. Annan arrives on 'sacred' peace mission
February 22, 1998 - The UN secretary general holds a three-hour meeting with Saddam Hussein, and the UN later announces a deal on weapons inspections. The US says it will await Kofi Annan's formal report to the Security Council. US keeps veto option open
February 23, 1998 - Kofi Annan formally announces the agreement in joint news conference with Tariq Aziz. Iraq says it was diplomacy, not sabre-rattling, that helped conclude the agreement. Annan signs deal with Iraq
February 26, 1998 - American Republicans claim that President Clinton has handed Washington's policy on Iraq over to the United Nations. US:Can Clinton sell Iraqi deal?
February 27, 1998 - Richard Butler endorses the agreement, while Kofi Annan tells UN staff not to be disheartened by criticism of the deal. UN weapons inspector supports Annan's Iraq deal
March 3, 1998 - The United States and Britain say that the UN Security Council has reached agreement on a resolution warning Iraq of "severest consequences" if it fails to honour the agreement.
March 26, 1998 - UN weapons experts accompanied by diplomats begin a two-week series of inspections of Iraqi presidential sites.
April 3, 1998 - Inspectors complete their initial search of the eight presidential sites with a visit to President Saddam Hussein's main palace in Baghdad. Initial searches end
April 9, 1998 - A UN report claims Iraq is continuing to hold back information about its germ warfare programme. Iraq still holding back on weapons
April 17, 1998 - UN inspectors say they have made no progress in verifying whether Iraq has destroyed its weapons of mass destruction.
April 18, 1998 - The Iraqi Foreign Minister, Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf describes UN inspectors report as "baseless and boring" and calls for a time limit to be set on inspections. Iraq calls for time limit
April 28, 1998 - UN decides that it is too early to lift sanctions against Iraq, renewing the embargo for another six months. But the US acknowledges progress in the access to presidential and sensitive sites. Iraq sanctions stay
May 1, 1998 - In an open letter to the Security Council, Iraq warns of grave consequences if UN sanctions against it are not lifted.
May 20, 1998 - Weapons inspectors resume their search for Iraqi chemical warheads.
May 26, 1998 - Richard Butler says he intends to draw up a list of outstanding issues that must be addressed by Baghdad to see sanctions lifted by October. On the same day the US announces it is to cut its forces in the Gulf. Official sets out sanctions 'road map' US cuts Gulf forces
June 11, 1998 - After presenting proposed disarmament measures to the Security Council, UN weapons inspectors arrive in Baghdad for talks aimed at ending international sanctions.
June 15, 1998 - The UN and Iraq strike a two-month deal which would verify disarmament and pave the way towards the lifting of sanctions. UN secures disarmament deal Iraq welcomes UN deal
June 19, 1998 - The Security Council approves a resolution allowing Iraq to spend $300m on importing spare parts to improve its oil facilities. UN approves Iraqi oil spend Iraq warms to oil offer
June 24, 1998 - Richard Butler confirms reports that traces of the nerve gas VX has been found in Iraqi missile fragments. Iraq had always insisted it had not weaponised VX. UN confirms nerve gas reports Iraq rejects nerve gas claims
June 30, 1998 - An American fighter plane opens fire on an Iraqi missile site. The US Defence Department says the action was taken after four British Tornado military jets were illuminated by Iraqi radar. US plane targets Iraqi missile site Iraq condemns 'US aggression'
July 30, 1998 - Iraq warns that it will take unspecified action unless the UN embargo is lifted. A statement issued after a meeting of Iraqi leaders said the visit by Richard Butler the following week would be crucial.
August 4, 1998 - Richard Butler leaves Baghdad after talks collapse on proposals designed to ensure Iraq is fulfilling its committments to destroy weapons of mass destruction. Tariq Aziz said it was pointless becoming involved in an unending process to prove what the Iraqis had already shown. Iraq arms talks collapse
September 29, 1998 - UN arms inspector Scott Ritter tells the BBC why he left the international team investigating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. Inspector condemns UN
October 27, 1998 - Richard Butler, says tests carried out by international scientists confirm that Iraq filled missile warheads with the deadly nerve agent VX before the 1991 Gulf War. UN says Iraq made deadly weapons
October 28, 1998 - The Iraqi army embarks on a training exercise to enable hundreds of thousands of Iraqi citizens to defend themselves. Iraqi army starts mass training
October 31, 1998 - The Iraqi leadership says it has ceased all co-operation with investigations and monitoring by the UN Special Commission. Iraq stops Unscom
November 10, 1998 The United States warns that Iraq will be able to rebuild its weapons programme in a matter of months unless the international community takes action over its obstruction of UN weapons inspections. Iraq could rearm 'in months'
November 11, 1998 The United Nations withdraws all non-essential personnel from Iraq, amid speculation that the United States is preparing a military attack. UN withdraws staff from Iraq
November 14, 1998 Iraq sends letter to the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan offering to allow UN weapons inspections to resume. Iraq backs down
November 17, 1998 UN weapons inspectors return to Iraq after Baghdad's promise to allow them to continue their work narrowly averts air strikes. Inspectors return
December 10, 1998 Inspectors vow to press on with surprise inspections despite a dispute with Baghdad over access. Inspectors in new row
December 16, 1998 The UN orders weapons inspectors out of Iraq hours after the chief UN weapons inspector, Richard Butler, issued a report complaining that the Iraqis were still failing to co-operate. UN orders inspectors out
December 16-17, 1998 Hundreds of cruise missiles are fired into Iraq by US forces, marking the start of strikes to punish the Baghdad government for obstructing the work of the UN weapons inspectors. US strikes Baghdad
RUSSIA, CHINA DENOUNCE ATTACK
By Kristin Gazlay, December 17, 1998
LONDON (AP) -- Russia and China angrily denounced the U.S. attack on Iraq, while allies such as Germany and Canada offered their immediate support, placing all blame for the crisis on Saddam Hussein.
``Nobody has the right to act on their own in the name of the United Nations and even less to pretend to be the judge of the entire world,'' Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said in Madrid, Spain.
Iraq's neighbor and former foe in war, Iran, joined Russia and China in blasting the use of force, saying it will bring ``even more pain and misery for the people in that country.'' Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi also urged Iraq to cooperate with the United Nations.
Fearful of recriminations, the United States today closed all but two of its African embassies, and security was stepped up at many U.S. and British institutions worldwide, from the Philippines to Greece and Denmark.
The U.S. State Department ordered the departure of some of its embassy personnel in Kuwait and warned other Americans living there to consider leaving.
The Arab League condemned the strikes, and a Gulf official said Baghdad had reached out for Arab support to stop the attacks.
Russian President Boris Yeltsin demanded an immediate end to the military campaign, and Chinese President Jiang Zemin also asked President Clinton to refrain from further attacks.
``This is a violation of the U.N. charter and the principles of international law, and we condemn this,'' said Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Sun Yuxi.
The German government noted, however, that the Iraqi leadership ``had been warned'' the international community would have to act if it failed to cooperate fully with U.N. weapons inspectors.
Support for the airstrikes also poured in from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, South Korea, the Netherlands, Austria and Spain.
``Saddam Hussein has brought this crisis on himself,'' Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien said.
France, which has close ties to Iraq, deplored ``the grave human consequences'' of the military strikes, but added its regret that Iraqi leaders were unable to ``show proof of the spirit of complete cooperation'' demanded by previous agreements with the United Nations.
Fearing an influx of refugees, both Jordan and Turkey closed the borders they share with Iraq.
In a statement today, NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana blamed Saddam for ``the grave situation'' while Turkish Foreign Minister Ismail Cem expressed disappointment in the attack but also called on Iraq to comply.
In Pakistan, the Senate passed a resolution unanimously condemning the airstrikes as ``an attack on humanity and the Islamic world.'' Islamic Pakistan's right-wing religious group called the United States ``international terrorists.''
The strikes led news reports in Lebanon, where all newspaper, radio and television stations carried news agency reports without comment.
In Indonesia, the world's most populous Islamic nation, leaders pleaded for restraint.
Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiromu Nonaka backed the United States and Britain, saying, ``We strongly demand that Iraq immediately and unconditionally implement the U.N. Security Council's resolutions.''
He was seconded by Misao Nozaki, a 47-year-old Tokyo restaurant owner who called the bombing justified ``because Iraq has continued developing nuclear weapons in a way that goes against the common sense of the rest of the world.''
But Yukari Ohi, 38, an office worker in Tokyo, said she opposed the use of force.
``I think the U.S. decision to attack Iraq was apparently intended to shift attention from the impeachment issue to war,'' Ohi said, noting that the airstrikes came as Clinton faced an impeachment vote.
India condemned the attack, while Mexico expressed disappointment.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was noncommittal, saying, ``Israel is outside the dispute, and in any case will take care of defending itself if the need arises.''
The international Red Cross sent a diplomatic note to the U.S., British and Iraqi governments asking them to do everything possible to ensure civilians and medical facilities are unaffected by military action.
Israelis don masks
BEFORE and AFTER photos of the bombing of the military
intelligence headquarters in Baghdad. They were shown at a Pentagon
briefing Thursday at which raids on the Iraqi capital were described.
AFTER: Before and after photos of the bombing of the military intelligence headquarters in Baghdad. They were shown at a Pentagon briefing Thursday at which raids on the Iraqi capital were described.