ISS 325 War & Revolution pages:
ISS 325 War & Revolution lecture pages:
link to CYBER-READINGS-1 page Table of Contents i
link to CYBER-READINGS-2 page Introduction: States/Sovereignty/Blood/Weak States 1-24
link to CYBER-READINGS-3 page Just War/War Crimes/Genocide 25-50
link to CYBER-READINGS-4 page Human Aggression 51-81
link to War & Revolution photo page Conquest/Authority 82-102
link to AGGRESSION page Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism 103-130
link to ARMS CONTROL & DISARMAMENT page Revolution/Internal Conflict 131-172
link to IRAQ-BOMB-98 page War/Threat/Aggression 173-192
link to NATIONALISM and ETHNIC CONFLICT page U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention 193-207
link to PROTRACTED INTERNAL WAR page Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction 208-219
link to REVOLUTION & INTERNAL CONFLICT page Old Tests 1998/1, 1998/3 220-228
link to WAR page Syllabus and Course Information 229-234
link to Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism page
link to AFRICA: GREAT LAKES page
PLS 364 International Organizations
& Cooperation pages:
link to UNITED NATIONS & International Organizations page
link to War Crimes page
link to European Institutions page
link to PLS364 readings on International Law
link to PLS364 readings on UN Reform and Budget
link to PLS364 readings on International Law and the Use of Force
had to let off steam."
Though a military junta in Sierra Leone was ousted this
year, with the help of a British mercenary group, fighting has continued
in parts of the country. About 150 supporters of the former junta were
reportedly killed by Nigerian intervention forces and militiamen on Monday.
Junta supporters have been terrorizing civilians, often cutting off their
hands or feet, as with the patients shown here at a hospital in Freetown.
at Connaught Hospital in Freetown,
Sierra Leone, after rebels cut off his hands.
A BRUTAL WAR'S MACHETES MAIM
By NORIMITSU ONISHI January 26, 1999
FREETOWN, Sierra Leone -- "I asked them to kill me now," Mohammed Sesay remembered pleading after he was caught by rebels gripping machetes.
But they ignored him. They held his arms flat on a tree stump. And he felt the machete fall on a wrist, then on the other.
"This," the rebels told him, "is an example to show the president."
Hacking off hands and feet of ordinary people has been a key weapon of a widespread campaign of terror and butchery waged by rebels in Sierra Leone trying to overthrow this ravaged country's president. In recent days, the fighting has reached the capital, marking another brutish turn in a civil war that has pushed Sierra Leone to the brink of disintegration.
After nearly seizing Freetown, only to be pushed back by Nigerian-led forces last week, the rebels have retreated eastward into the surrounding mountains brandishing the threat of a future assault. As they fled, the rebels shot thousands of civilians dead and mutilated hundreds of others.
Over the weekend, scores of men, women and children, with hands chopped off or dangling limply from their forearms, have flooded the main medical center, Connaught Hospital. A few days earlier, the hospital had received so many wounded and dead that corpses lying in the driveway had drawn dogs and vultures. By the weekend, hospital officials had recorded 2,768 dead in Freetown.
"In my lifetime this is the worst I have ever seen," said Dr. Johnston Taylor, in the middle of surgery in a small, unlit operating room, the smell of sweat- and blood-soaked clothes clinging to the airless room.
With Freetown under siege for two weeks, deserted by nearly all international humanitarian organizations, Taylor was performing surgery without anesthetic. His patient, a young man whose left leg had been shattered by a bullet, punctuated the surgeon's words with moans.
"The last one was worst," the surgeon said, referring to the fighting last February when Nigerian-led forces had expelled the same rebels from Freetown. "Now I don't know what adjective I should use to describe what is happening now. I don't know whether there is a better adjective to use than worst. It's unimaginable to see what we are doing to ourselves."
On the day that a Nigerian soldier found Sesay slipping into unconsciousness on a street and brought him to Connaught, surgeons performed so many amputations that they tossed severed hands into a communal bucket.
As his brother Ishmael carried a spoonful of milk to his lips, Sesay, 29, lay on his bed and recalled that he had fled his family house in eastern Freetown after rebels calling themselves Sergeant Burnhouse and Captain Blood burst inside and shot dead eight of his relatives.
Like many other victims, Sesay knew the killers; they lived in his neighborhood, and he and his brothers had even considered them friends. Like many other victims, he was also told that they would keep him alive but turn him into a political message.
Atop a mountain overlooking Freetown, inside a heavily guarded compound, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah had not descended yet into the city to see the bandaged stumps on Sesay's arms or other mutilated people, because of safety concerns, said his spokesman, Septimus Kaikai. Kabbah was also unavailable for comment.
"The president is resting," Kaikai told journalists visiting the compound.
About the injured and the dead, Kaikai said: "These are the things that happen as a result of war. If you go to Vietnam, there was a lot of carnage. If you go to Cambodia, there was a lot of carnage."
In 1996, after years of civil war, Kabbah, a lawyer and a former official of the U.N. Development Program, became this West African country's first democratically elected president, before being overthrown a year later by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council and the Revolutionary United Front.
With virtually no national army, Kabbah relied on a West African peacekeeping force known as Ecomog, led by Nigeria, to regain power last March. Since then, the ousted rebels -- who are backed by neighboring Liberia, according to Washington and other Western governments -- have massacred villagers in eastern and northern Sierra Leone, even as they prepared another assault on Freetown.
Although mass killings have occurred elsewhere in Africa, the rebels here have distinguished themselves by not killing their victims, but by mutilating them and leaving them as living symbols of terror. Rebel leaders have denied the mutilations, accusing the Kamajors, an untrained, civilian defense force that includes many boys and is supporting the president.
Last summer, the New York-based Human Rights Watch released a report concluding that the Kamajors had committed abuses but that most of the atrocities up to then had been committed by the rebels.
At Connaught Hospital -- a dilapidated two-story structure built in the 1920s by the British, the country's former colonial rulers, and with 212 beds, Sierra Leone's biggest hospital -- the survivors all accused the rebels.
In Ward 2, Mohammed Sesay, a farmer who is not related to the other Sesay and did not know his own age, stood with his 2-year son, Osman, whose fractured head was bandaged like a bicycle helmet. A couple of weeks earlier, rebels had invaded the family's house outside Freetown.
"They caught his mama and chopped, chopped her," Sesay said. "Then they threw him inside the toilet."
On Saturday, long lines of refugees streamed into central Freetown from the east. At Connaught Hospital, as guards kept the main gates locked, the most seriously injured were brought inside, past the main entrance.
Just inside the gates, amid scores of injured waiting to be treated, Danka Koromoh stood, indomitable, over three of her daughters. Her 3-year-old was uninjured, but flies buzzed around the bloodied bandaged stump where 14-year-old Mariama's left hand used to be. Aissatou, 12, sat next to her mother's right leg, her two hands severed.
Mrs. Koromoh said the rebels had also sliced off the hands of her 8-year-old daughter and had kidnapped the 13-year-old.
"They killed my sister and my husband," she said.
A few feet away, Lamine Jusugarka, 46, the father of six, sat slumped on the concrete ground, both hands gone. His niece, Isata Bangura, 15, whose parents had been killed two days earlier, fed him potato chips. His wife sat nearby, crying, her kneecaps smashed by a hammer-wielding rebel.
The day before, according to Jusugarka, a former security guard at Barclays Bank, rebels had invaded his neighborhood east of Freetown. Most were young men, or even boys, led by a rebel who called himself Junior.
"He's a young man I can handle and deal with" under normal circumstances, Jusugarka said.
But the rebels, pointing guns, forced him and his neighbors under a mango tree.
"Because there was a root on where you could put your hands firmly," he recalled. "Then he took a big ax and cut your hand instantly. Tell you to put another one. You put it. Cut it. We were 50 in number.
"Oh, I felt so bad," he said. "I felt as if I am finishing the world. My eyes were dark. My blood was pumping as if they had opened a tank, a water tank to run. Oh, I fell down. I could not see my way.
"We were in the line. One after another. You go next. When they finished with you, when they cut your two hands, you run. They say, 'Move! If you don't move, we'll fire on you.' Fifty on that particular day."
There were three corridors into Berlin and the above formation allowed for landing at
the rate of one plane every three minutes
At the height of the Berlin Airlift, two groups of aircraft flew in four-hour blocks around the clock. While one group of aircraft was loaded and serviced, the other group was in the air. On the 264-mile route, 32 aircraft were in the air simultaneously. In the photo, activity supports a plane taking off and landing every 90 seconds in Berlin.
Tuesday, March 31, 1998 Published at 17:35 GMT 18:35
UK Special Report
Blocked but not beaten, the airlift begins
The story of the Berlin Airlift reads like a Hollywood screenplay. It has all the ingredients of a blockbuster: courage, bravery, heroics, gritty determination in the face of adversity, and, for a Tinseltown producer at least, the good guys won.
Britain, America and France were effectively shut out of the former German capital, where each held a zone under its administration, on June 24, 1948.
After almost three months of obstructing land traffic from western Europe through communist-controlled eastern Germany, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin closed all roads and railways into the western sectors of the city. Electricity, supplied exclusively from the Soviet sector, was cut off. The blockade had begun in earnest.
Moscow's tactics were crude but practical. It planned to "smoke out" the western powers by starving them of food and fuel. Their only way into, and out of Berlin, was by air.
Since April, America and Britain had been flying in relatively small cargo loads. There was some debate about forcing the blockade open but the American General Lucius Clay settled on a another tactic and on June 26, the aerial supply mission was stepped up.
Operation Vittles, as the airlift was unofficially named, was always going to be a mammoth task. Supplying the two million people of west Berlin meant flying in 2,000 tons of food and fuel a day in summer, and 5,000 tons, including coal, in the winter.
It was the most ambitious aerial supply operation in history and would require non-stop, round-the-clock flying into the city's three western airfields.
Despite the inevitable hardships, Berliners were firm in their support for the western powers. In September 1948 an estimated 250,000 - one eighth of the western sector's population - demonstrated against Soviet hostility.
The symbolism was powerful. In the space of just three years, the Allied forces had switched from the enemy of the German people to their saviour.
Stalin stuck to his guns, hoping a traditionally harsh winter would bring the opposition to their knees.
But the airlift continued apace. Small, civilian aircraft joined the fleet of military workhorses, delivering flour, meat, vegetables, chocolate, petrol, blankets and medicine.
The Berlin sky was animated by a ceaseless procession of air traffic and life carried on against the continual background drone of aircraft engines. Planes touched down every three minutes. The schedule was so tight that each pilot had just one chance to touch down.
If the weather or some other factor prevented landing, a pilot had to return to his base and enter the cycle again later.
All flights were streamed along one of three 20-mile wide air corridors and crew frequently came up against obstruction tactics such as radio jamming, shining searchlights to temporarily blind pilots, and drifting barrage balloons.
The Soviets did not directly attack planes although the sky was sometimes peppered by a blast of anti-aircraft fire.
Inevitably there were casualties. In July three American crew were the first killed when their C-47 transporter crashed. In all the operation cost the lives of 65 Germans, British and Americans.
By April 1949 the airlift had been running at full throttle for several months and the western powers knew they could hang on indefinitely. The Soviets backed down, entering negotiations and agreeing to lift the blockade on May 5, 1949.
In 11 months nearly 300,000 flights had delivered more than 3 million tons of supplies.
British PM Atlee was defiant of Stalin's plan to squeeze the West out of Berlin
Berlin was carved into four zones at the end of World War II, each occupied by one of
the Allied powers
Germany was divided into four sectors with Berlin in the Soviet zone
Wednesday, April 1, 1998 Published at 18:18 GMT
19:18 UK Special Report
The Berlin blockade: Moscow draws the iron curtain
Berlin was carved into four zones at the end of World War II, each occupied by one of the Allied powers
The dust had barely settled on war-wracked Europe when, in 1946, Winston Churchill alluded to a new conflict that was set to engulf the continent - the Cold War.
"From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent," said Britain's war-time leader.
On April 1, 1948, the Soviet Union fired the first major salvo of that new conflict when it announced a crack-down on the free movement of traffic into Berlin.
A war of steely nerve
But instead of shelling and gunfire, the Berlin blockade and subsequent airlift was a war of steely nerve, logistics and diplomatic obstruction that left both sides wondering who would back down first.
Moscow's blockade of Berlin was calculated to oust the western powers who occupied the city with the USSR.
Berlin, like wider Germany, had been carved up into four sectors as part of the post-war peace deal worked out by the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France.
Each country controlled a sector. Berlin, Hitler's former powerbase and the focus of the Third Reich, had an anomalous position, located as it was deep in the heart of the Soviet-controlled part of Germany.
It amounted to a capitalist presence in the heart of a communist regime - a trophy for the western Allies but a mounting embarrassment to Moscow. While the Soviet Union was busy spreading its influence across eastern Europe, its former wartime allies were moulding their chunk of Germany into a free market, self-governing democracy.
Air access only
Their plans to launch a west German Deutschmark effectively scuppered any semblance of economic unity. The move infuriated Russia which resolved to force its former allies out of Berlin for good.
In truth the former capital had been under siege long before the start of the blockade in spring 1948. The only official access was along one of three 20-mile wide air corridors.
Getting to Berlin by road or rail depended on the continuing co-operation of Soviet authorities. It meant west Berliners depended on Russian goodwill for deliveries of food, fuel and just about everything else.
East-West relations had deteriorated as each side vigorously pursued its own political course and on April 1 1948 Russia, under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, announced stringent controls on all overland traffic from western zones into Berlin.
At the mercy of the Soviets
Initially Moscow's tactics seemed to be based on little more than petty-minded bureaucracy. There were obstructions at crossing points, endless delays before trains could pass through signals, fussing over papers and roadblocks.
The uncomfortable reality, that the population of western Berlin were at the mercy of the Soviets, dawned rapidly.
Britain, under the leadership of Prime Minister Clement Atlee, and America, under Harry S. Truman, retaliated immediately with a small, but significant aerial supply campaign.
Stalin turned the screw, in May announcing restrictions that meant food parcels could no longer be sent into the Western zones.
Tension mounted throughout the spring and neither side was prepared to back down. Air traffic into the western zone was stepped up and on June 24 hostilities came to a head when the Soviets suspended all land travel into and out of Berlin.
It signalled the start of the most ambitious aerial supply campaign in history and, for almost a year, the city's inhabitants lived hand-to-mouth at the mercy of the Berlin Airlift.
spring 1998 ISS 325 section 7
WAR AND REVOLUTION
Course pack contains overhead projections from the last time, Spring 1997, this course was taught.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents i
Syllabus and Course Information ii-v
Introduction: States/Sovereignty/Blood 1-25
Just War/War Crimes/Sanctions 26-49
International Court of Justice
Human Aggression 50-75
Mao accused of being a spy
Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism 93-116
Pres. Nasser--Arab Nationalism 1998 Southern Sudan--Dinka ethnic group main target of Government
Indonesian rioters throw stones at ethnic-Chinese shops
Revolution/Internal Conflict 117-152
link to REVOLUTION page
U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention 170-185
Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction 186-196
Guernica entered the world's vocabulary because of
Picasso's tumultuous portrait and because this was history's
first air bombardment of an undefended town, aimed solely
at terrorizing civilians.
Old Tests 1997/1, 1997/3 197-205
Note and caveat: These are the projections from the last time
the course was taught. I will develop some new projections during
this term and I will modify, or even skip, many old ones. Further,
depending on major events or my whimsy, I almost certainly will deviate
from the sequence of materials in this coursepack.
WHAT GRIEVES US MOST IS THE CASE OF 250 CHILDREN OF KHMER CADRES WHO WERE SENT TO STUDY IN HANOI DURING THE WAR. THEY WERE CALLED HOME BY THEIR PARENTS AFTER CAMBODIA WAS LIBERATED. . . . THEY WERE ALL KILLED BY CAMBODIAN TROOPS ONLY SOME 300 METERS INSIDE THE BORDER. THEY SCREAMED, CRIED AND YELLED TO VIETNAMESE CADRES ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BORDER, "PLEASE, COME AND HELP US UNCLES." BUT THE VIETNAMESE UNCLES STOOD POWERLESS. [Shawcross]
October 4, 1998
HEARTS OF DARKNESS An American journalist traces the authors of Rwanda's genocide.
Related Link First Chapter: 'We Wish to Inform You . . .'
By WOLE SOYINKA
Given the levels of unrepentant participation, including the social ostracism of the dissenting or critical bystanders even till now, can the two main components of the Rwandan nation be expected to live together -- that is, to bring to realization the rehabilitation that is the third leg of Gourevitch's tripod? Reflecting upon that ever intrusive proposition, I could not fail to recall one account that was narrated to me, variations of which are abundantly supplied in Gourevitch's book.
A Hutu, a leading citizen of a small Rwandan town that I visited, felt personally indicted after a visit from a Government official, who accused the citizenry of being lax in the task of ''bush clearing'' -- one of the many euphemisms for the task of eliminating the Tutsi. A day after his departure, the notable, whose wife was Tutsi, called a meeting of the villagers for some soul-searching. He took his four sons with him. He began his address by revealing that, having taken to heart the rebuke from their visitor, he had decided to set an example, and thus slaughtered his Tutsi wife before leaving home.
But that was only a first step, he said. It was not enough to kill off all Tutsi, they must eliminate every vestige of Tutsi blood that contaminated the purity of the breed. In earnest of which, he announced, I publicly set you all a further example. And with one stroke of his machete, he lopped off the head of his eldest son. One by one, his three other sons were led out of the hut in which he had kept them, and slaughtered. And with that, yet another village that, until then, had withstood the hate rhetoric of the interahamwe dived headfirst into the sump of bloodletting.