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TERRORISM and COUNTER-TERRORISM
ISS 325 WAR AND REVOLUTION
August 26, 1998 LIBYA DELAYS LOCKERBIE RESPONSE
Libya had promised a reply on Wednesday
Libya says it wants more time to study a proposal that the two
suspects in the Lockerbie bombing should be tried in the Netherlands.
The announcement comes after the US and Britain agreed that
the two Libyan suspects could be tried using
Scottish law in a neutral third country.
But Libya, which has long demanded such an arrangement, expressed
surprise when the US and UK introduced a draft resolution paving the way
for the lifting of sanctions against Libya.
Libya has asked that no decision is made on the draft resolution
until "Libya's judicial authorities have completed their study" into the
The secretary-general of the Arab League, Esmet Abdel Meguid,
said earlier he believed Libya would accept the proposal.
The UK and United States moved ahead on Tuesday with their plan
to lift UN sanctions imposed on the north African country if the two Libyan
suspects in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 - in which 270 people died
- are handed over.
Both governments delivered to the UN Security Council a draft
resolution on the Lockerbie bombing providing for the suspension of sanctions
if the suspects are delivered to the Netherlands for trial.
August 24, 1998
FAST FACTS ON LOCKERBIE
The bomb devastated this Lockerbie neighbourhood
Almost 10 years ago Pan Am flight 103 exploded over the Scottish
town of Lockerbie killing all 259 people on board and 11 local residents.
An investigation concluded the explosion was caused by a bomb
with strong suspicions of Libyan involvement. The case has been closely
linked with a French investigation into UTA flight 772 from Brazzaville
to Paris, which exploded over Niger the following year.
21 December 1988: Pan Am flight 103 from Frankfurt to New York,
via London, explodes over the Scottish town of Lockerbie. All 259 passengers
and crew were killed, as were 11 residents of Lockerbie.
19 September 1989: UTA flight 772 from Brazzaville to Paris
explodes over Niger's Ténéré desert killing 171 people.
30 October 1991: A French examining magistrate issues arrest
warrants against six Libyan officials for their alleged involvement in
the UTA bombing. 14 November 1991: A three-year investigation concludes
with the Lord Advocate, Scotland's chief law officer, obtaining a warrant
for the arrest of two Libyans, Abdel Baset Ali Mohamed al-Megrahi and Al-Amin
Khalifa Fhimah. The charges against them are of conspiracy, murder, and
contravention of the Aviation Security Act of 1982. An indictment is also
issued in the US containing similar accusations.
Al-Amin Khalifa Fhimah: 42-years-old, also alleged to to belong
to Libyan inteligence and to have been station officer of Libyan Arab Airlines
Abdel Baset al-Megrahi: 46-years-old, he is alleged to have
been a senior officer of the Libyan Intelligence Services. Head of Libyan
Arab Airlines security in Malta in December 1988, alleged to have bought
clothes in a Maltese store that were contained in the suitcase bomb on
board flight 103.
U.S. EMBASSIES BOMBED IN AFRICA
August 17, 1998
U.S. HOPES ARREST IN EMBASSY BLASTS WILL BREAK CASE
By DAVID JOHNSTON
WASHINGTON -- Law enforcement officials investigating the bombings
at the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania expressed optimism Sunday
that a man brought back to the Kenyan capital over the weekend after being
detained in Pakistan could help authorities unravel the plot behind the
deadly terrorist attacks.
The suspect has been identified by government representatives
in Pakistan and Kenya as Mohammed Sadik Howaida. American officials said
Sunday that they are increasingly certain he played a direct and possibly
key role in the nearly simultaneous bombings on Aug. 7 that killed more
than 250 people.
In addition, the officials said that one or two other men are
in custody in Pakistan who are also suspected of complicity in the bombings,
possibly helping to arrange clandestine passage for Howaida and other confederates
through Pakistan to the relative safety of neighboring Afghanistan.
The officials said they suspect Howaida of a significant role
in part because he took the risk of remaining in Nairobi, Kenya, until
the day of the bombing. That suggested that his presence was necessary
possibly because he was involved in building the bomb or in transporting
it to the embassy. It is unknown whether anyone saw him in Nairobi before
the bomb exploded.
August 16, 1998
SUSPECT IN EMBASSY BLASTS IS TAKEN TO KENYA
By DAVID JOHNSTON
WASHINGTON -- Law enforcement officials said Saturday
night that American investigators in Pakistan were preparing to fly to
Kenya with a man whom they identified as a suspect in last week's embassy
bombings in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
The officials said that the investigators had
been sent to Pakistan to question several people who had been arrested
there in connection with the bombings. They would not identify the suspect.
THE PEOPLE UNDER ARREST ARE SUSPECTED OF BEING
ASSOCIATED WITH OSAMA BIN LADEN, A SAUDI-BORN BUSINESSMAN WHO HAS VOWED
TO WAGE A HOLY WAR AGAINST THE UNITED STATES.
Among those arrested in Pakistan are people who
are believed to have flown from Kenya to Pakistan after the bombings.
The United States authorities flew to Pakistan
today after Pakistani security police notified them that the man had been
The officials declined to specify the nature of
the evidence connecting Mr. Bin Laden to the bombings. But today's issue
of Newsday reported that a witness had identified a Bin Laden associate
as having been in the truck carrying the bomb that damaged the United States
Embassy in the capital of Kenya and killed more than 200 people.
The newspaper identified the witness as one of
the two privately employed security guards working at the embassy gate
at the time of the bombing.
In interviews today, intelligence and law enforcement
officials who spoke on condition that they not be identified said there
had been no positive identification of the person, who was described as
a relatively low-level member of Mr. Bin Laden's circle. It was not clear
if he was the person being taken to Kenya.
But officials indicated that this was the first
potential link to Mr. Bin Laden, whom the Federal Bureau of Investigation
and the Central Intelligence Agency have suspected from the start was a
key figure in the bombing plot.
American officials have cited him since the early
hours of the investigation.
This year he renewed his vow to wage a holy war
against the United States, and senior officials have said he has a network
in Africa, with United States intelligence finding evidence that he has
operatives in Kenya.
Although officials caution that there is still
no hard evidence linking Mr. Bin Laden or his agents to the bombings, Americans
point to the nearly simultaneous explosions on Aug. 7 as a sign that the
attacks were carried out by sophisticated terrorists. Mr. Bin Laden's network
has the financial resources and the organization to have been the mastermind,
the officials said.
Another group suspected by the United States is
the Cairo-based Islamic Jihad, but it, too, is financed by Mr. Bin Laden,
American officials said.
The son of a wealthy Saudi family that made its
money in the construction business, Mr. Bin Laden is thought to have been
involved in the bombings of two United States military installations in
But for lack of evidence, the United States has
never issued an arrest warrant for him.
Mr. Bin Laden lived for a time in the Sudan. He
is said to live in Afghanistan now, under the protection of the Taliban,
the fundamentalist Islamic group that controls most of the country.
Law enforcement officials said Mr. Bin Laden had
become the subject of an intense internal discussion at the F.B.I. over
whether the New York office should take jurisdiction of the bombing case
away from the Washington field office, which has jurisdiction over crimes
against Americans in Africa.
F.B.I. officials in New York have argued that
they have investigated Mr. Bin Laden in connection with the World Trade
Center bombing, and therefore should take over the Nairobi and Dar es Salaam
cases in the event that he proves to be involved.
President Clinton, in an address videotaped for
broadcast overseas, said that the Kenyans and Tanzanians killed in the
bombings "were important to America because we cherish our friendship with
your peoples." At least 247 Kenyans and 10 Tanzanians died.
More than 5,000 people were wounded.
"Violent extremists try to use bullets and bombs
to derail our united efforts to bring peace to every part of the earth,"
Mr. Clinton said. "We grieve together, but I am proud that our nations
have also renewed our commitment to stand together."
Friday, August 7, 1998 Published at 09:49 GMT 10:49 UK
US Embassies hit in African blasts
Rescuers pull a blast victim from the rubble in Nairobi
More than 50 people have been killed in two powerful explosions
near US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
One blast severely damaged buildings by the embassy and central
bank in Nairobi, Kenya.
Red Cross officials say that more than 40 people died in the
Nairobi blast. US sources in Washington say seven were embassy employees.
Another nine people have been confirmed dead in an explosion
near the US embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Kenyan police say that the death toll in Nairobi could be as
high as 80 with about 1,000 injured.
It is not known who was responsible for either of the explosions.
The US State Department has confirmed there were two car bombs
but no warnings. It said they were treating the attacks as the work of
US medical and security teams are flying to Africa.
There was chaos in the centre of Nairobi after the blast, which
could be heard miles away.
Volunteers worked furiously to pull survivors from the rubble.
Reports said the Kenyan explosion ripped through the neighbouring
bank building where US Ambassador Prudence Bushnell was meeting Kenyan
Trade Minister Joseph Kamotho.
It is thought the US ambassador was slightly injured.
Bernard Dussault, the Canadian High Commissioner to Kenya, said
he heard the blast at his home 15km from the US embassy.
The explosion caused extensive damage to the US embassy, ripping
off bombproof doors and destroying the Cooperative Bank building.
Rufus Drabble, from the British High Commission, said there
was a cloud of thick smoke over the city and helicopters hovered overhead.
Kenyan TV had shown "horrendous" pictures of the incident, he
A BBC correspondent in Nairobi says private cars have been used
to ferry the injured to two hospitals.
He says that radio reports from inside the US embassy have been
calling for medical help and lifting gear.
Hundreds of people reportedly fled the building as emergency
services and armed police raced to the scene.
The bank building, on Haile Selassie Avenue, contains private
and government offices.
There was also widespread devastation in Dar es Salaam, where
a BBC correspondent said the embassy reception area had been destroyed.
Ian Gleeson, from the British High Commission in Tanzania, said:
"In view of the news from Nairobi it seems very likely that it was a bomb."
He said British diplomats had offered to help the US embassy
and the French and Spanish embassies, which are also near the site of the
Survivor Jim Owens said the blast at the Tanzanian embassy threw
back about five feet.
He said: "The cuts I have do not look that bad but they bled
"They bled over my glasses so I couldn't see as I was walking
around the smoke-filled embassy."
In the Ugandan capital, Kampala, personnel at the US embassy
and the British High Commission were evacuated from the buildings, apparently
as a precautionary measure.
August 7, 1998
Kenya and Tanzania Blasts Near U.S. Embassies Kill Dozens
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
AIROBI, Kenya -- Bombs exploded minutes apart outside the U.S.
embassies in the Kenyan and Tanzanian capitals today, toppling a four-story
building and killing more than 50 people. Hundreds more were injured, officials
Americans were among the dead, and the U.S. ambassador to Kenya
was injured, the State Department said. More than 40 were killed and 1,000
wounded in Nairobi alone, said Red Cross spokeswoman Nina Galbe. Witnesses
said at least nine were killed and 16 hurt in Tanzania.
"It was definitely a bomb," said a U.S. Embassy official in
Nairobi, who refused to give his name. "You can see a huge crater behind
the building, and a bomb went off at the embassy in Tanzania at the same
The State Department called the blasts, which occurred five
minutes apart, "terrorist attacks."
The blast in the Kenyan capital at 10:35 a.m. (3:35 a.m. EDT)
toppled the four-story Ufundi Cooperative building toward the embassy,
which was badly damaged. Cooperative Bank House, with government and private
offices, also was damaged.
In Nairobi, crowds crawled over a mountain of twisted and broken
concrete and metal looking for victims, calling out and waving their arms
for help to free trapped people.
Bodies were draped out of windows in a charred bus. Shattered
cars were left smoldering on the street amid the debris. Dazed and bloody
survivors lay on the ground until they were led away.
"Once the rubble is cleared further we expect to find more,"
said Red Cross spokeswoman Nina Galbe said. Added another Red Cross worker
who refused to give his name: "There are too many dead to count," he said.
In the Tanzanian capital of Dar es Salaam, a suspected car bomb
exploded in the U.S. Embassy parking lot. At least nine people were killed
and 16 injured, they said. Official confirmation was not immediately available.
Smoke rose from the damaged buildings. Nearly two-thirds of
the embassy was destroyed, witnesses said. Cranes were hurried to the site
to tear apart wreckage in the search for survivors.
U.S. officials refused to speculate on who was responsible.
President Clinton was woken up and briefed on the situation at 5:30 a.m.
"He's watching it very closely," an administration official
said on condition of anonymity. "Obviously, at this point (the reaction
is) shock. "We're just trying to get more information."
Security was immediately tightened at other U.S. embassies,
including in Kampala, Uganda where vehicles were cleared away.
Witness Jim Owens, who was at a meeting inside the embassy in
Dar es Salaam when the bomb went off, told CNN that Americans were among
"Glass was flying ... I found myself about five feet from where
I was sitting," he said. He said one woman was injured when a wall collapsed
on her, and another had her nose ripped off by the blast.
U.S. Marines and African troops patrolled outside both of the
The U.S. ambassador to Kenya, Prudence Bushnell, was cut on
the lip and helped from Cooperative Bank House, where she had just given
a news conference, embassy spokesman Bill Barr said.
The blast shook downtown Nairobi, and shattered windows as far
as a 10 blocks away. Bloodied clothing and papers littered the streets.
Several people were killed aboard two buses that were passing
by at the time of the blast, witnesses said.
Passersby helped rescuers, and ferried the injured to hospitals
in their own cars. At least 54 people were being treated at Nairobi Hospital.
dar es salaam
Chronology of attacks on U.S. targets
August 7, 1998 Web posted at: 11:06 a.m. EDT (1506 GMT)
LONDON (Reuters) -- The following is a chronology of terrorist
attacks on U.S. targets since 1983:
JUNE 1998 -- Rocket-propelled grenades explode near the heavily
guarded United States embassy in Beirut.
JULY 1996 -- Bomb explodes at a concert during the Atlanta Olympic
Games, killing one person and wounding more than 100 others.
JUNE 1996 -- Fuel truck bomb kills 19 American soldiers and
wounds nearly 400 people at a U.S. military complex in Khobar near the
Saudi Arabian oil city of Dhahran.
APRIL 1995 -- Car bomb destroys Federal Building in Oklahoma,
killing 168 people. Two U.S. citizens were convicted of the bombing.
FEBRUARY 1993 -- Six people are killed and more than 1,000 injured
when a bomb in a van explodes under the twin 110-story towers of the World
Trade Center in Manhattan.
DECEMBER 1988 -- A Pan American World Airways Boeing 747 crashed
on the town of Lockerbie, Scotland killing 259 people aboard when the plane
was blown up by a bomb. Eleven people in the town of Lockerbie also were
APRIL 1986 -- An explosion rips a hole in a TWA plane as it
makes its descent toward Athens airport, killing four passengers as they
are sucked out of the plane.
A few days later, a bomb blast in a West Berlin disco frequented
by Americans kills a U.S. citizen and a German woman and injures 150 people,
44 of them Americans. The attacks follow U.S.-Libyan hostilities off the
Libyan coast the month before.
DECEMBER 1985 -- An Arab suicide hit squad attacks U.S. and
Israeli check-in desks at the international airports of Rome and Vienna
simultaneously. The attacks claim a total of 20 lives, including four guerrillas.
NOVEMBER 1985 -- Hijackers of an Egyptair plane kill an American
passenger on board. The hijacking later ends in a bloodbath as Egyptian
commandos storm the plane in Malta at the cost of 60 lives.
OCTOBER 1985 -- Leon Klinghoffer, an elderly wheelchair-bound
New Yorker, is killed and thrown overboard from the hijacked cruise liner
Achille Lauro -- taken over by Palestinians a few days after Israeli warplanes
attacked the Tunis headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
AUGUST 1985 -- A large car bomb kills two and injures 20 at
a U.S. base in Frankfurt. A U.S. soldier murdered for his identity papers
is found the day after the blast.
JUNE 1985 -- A Trans World Airlines plane is hijacked in the
Mediterranean, the start of a two-week hostage drama. The last 39 of the
passengers taken hostage are released in Damascus after being held at various
points in Beirut.
In El Salvador, Central America, during the same month, four
U.S. Marines and two American businessmen are among 13 people killed in
a machine gun attack on a pavement cafe in the capital San Salvador.
APRIL 1985 -- A bomb explodes in a restaurant near a U.S. air
base in Madrid, killing 18, all Spaniards, and injuring 82 -- among them
NOVEMBER 1984 -- A bomb attack on the U.S. embassy in the Colombian
capital Bogota kills a passer by. The explosion follows death threats against
U.S. officials from drug traffickers.
OCTOBER 1983 -- A suicide car bomb attack by radical Muslims
on the headquarters of the U.S. military peace keeping force in Lebanon
kills 241 U.S. servicemen. A simultaneous attack on a French base in Beirut
kills 58 paratroopers.
APRIL 1983 -- Suicide car bombing of U.S. embassy in Beirut
kills 63 people, including 17 Americans.
August 17, 1998
Day After in Ulster Town: Now 'It's Back'
By JAMES F. CLARITY
OMAGH, Northern Ireland -- The day after the deadliest paramilitary
attack in 29 years of sectarian violence
in this British province, dozens of people sat blank-faced or weeping Sunday
afternoon at a community center set up as a command post to find people
The attack, at the height of downtown shopping on Saturday,
killed 28 people and wounded more than 200. It stunned Omagh, which is
mostly Roman Catholic, and the rest of this predominantly Protestant province.
"One day I was watching the bombs against America in Africa,"
said Michael MacAnespae, a 54-year-old mushroom farmer. "We thought all
that was behind us here. But suddenly it's back on your own doorstep."
No group has claimed responsibility for the attack, but the
police and political leaders, both Protestant and Catholic, said it appeared
to have been the work of a group calling itself the Real IRA, a splinter
group of the overwhelmingly Catholic Irish Republican Army. The IRA itself
has been observing a cease-fire for 13 months
Laden, the Saudi-born Islamic militant
whose terrorist network was the target of
U.S. missile strikes today in central
This satellite photo, distributed by the Defense Department,
Zhawar Kili Al-Badr camp (West) in Afghanistan,
one of the targets of
a U.S. military strike on Aug. 20. (Reuters)
August 24, 1998 Published at 08:49 GMT 09:49 UK
UN debates Sudan
examine the rubble of the Shifa factory
The UN Security
Council is set to consider Sudan's call
inspectors to visit the factory destroyed
by US missiles
The Sudan government says the Shifa
factory was manufacturing
But the US says it was involved in
developing deadly chemical weapons
and has warned of further strikes in
the war against terrorism.
for international monitors ahead of
Council meeting has been backed by
the UN co-ordinator
to Sudan, Philippe Borel
September 11, 1998
FORMER SPANISH MINISTERS
JAILED FOR 'TERRORISM'
Former Spanish PM Felipe Gonzalez hugs Rafael Vera
at the prison gates
Two former Spanish government ministers have begun
ten-year prison sentences for their part in illegal operations against
the Basque separatist movement, ETA.
The two men, Jose Barrionuevo and Rafael Vera,
were convicted in July of involvement in the kidnapping of a Basque businessman.
They were denied bail earlier this week pending
There were emotional scenes outside the prison
at Guadalajara north of Madrid as several thousand people gathered to show
Among them was the former Socialist prime minister,
Felipe Gonzalez, who is a lawyer and who will represent them at their appeal.
The covert anti-separatist organisation known
as GAL IS SAID TO HAVE ASSASSINATED 28 PEOPLE THEY SUSPECTED OF BEING ETA
MEMBERS BETWEEN 1983 AND 1987.
IT WAS LATER DISCOVERED THAT AT LEAST A THIRD
OF THEM HAD NO CONNECTION TO THE ARMED GROUP.
Leading socialists linked to violence
Gal's alleged high-ranking connections came to
light after statements made by members of the Spanish security services
and a determined investigation by journalists.
It was discovered that leading members of the
then-socialist government knew about, funded and, it is alleged, organised
what amounted to state terrorism.
Mr Barrionuevo, the highest-ranking official on
trial for Gal connections, has always denied the charges
is credited with turning public opinion
against the war.