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TERRORISM and COUNTER-TERRORISM page 1
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link to ARMS CONTROL & DISARMAMENT page
link to PROTRACTED INTERNAL WAR page
link to REVOLUTION & INTERNAL CONFLICT page
link to WAR & INTERNAL CONFLICT page
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TERRORISM and COUNTER-TERRORISM

ISS 325 WAR AND REVOLUTION


 LOCKERBIE
 August 26, 1998  LIBYA DELAYS LOCKERBIE RESPONSE
  Libya had promised a reply on Wednesday
  Libya says it wants more time to study a proposal that the two suspects in the Lockerbie bombing should be tried in the Netherlands.
  The announcement comes after the US and Britain agreed that the two Libyan suspects could be tried using Scottish law in a neutral third country.
  But Libya, which has long demanded such an arrangement, expressed surprise when the US and UK introduced a draft resolution paving the way for the lifting of sanctions against Libya.
  Libya has asked that no decision is made on the draft resolution until "Libya's judicial authorities have completed their study" into the new proposals.
  The secretary-general of the Arab League, Esmet Abdel Meguid, said earlier he believed Libya would accept the proposal.
  The UK and United States moved ahead on Tuesday with their plan to lift UN sanctions imposed on the north African country if the two Libyan suspects in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 - in which 270 people died - are handed over.
  Both governments delivered to the UN Security Council a draft resolution on the Lockerbie bombing providing for the suspension of sanctions if the suspects are delivered to the Netherlands for trial.

August 24, 1998

  FAST FACTS ON LOCKERBIE
  The bomb devastated this Lockerbie neighbourhood
  Almost 10 years ago Pan Am flight 103 exploded over the Scottish town of Lockerbie killing all 259 people on board and 11 local residents.
  An investigation concluded the explosion was caused by a bomb with strong suspicions of Libyan involvement. The case has been closely linked with a French investigation into UTA flight 772 from Brazzaville to Paris, which exploded over Niger the following year.
  The explosions
  21 December 1988: Pan Am flight 103 from Frankfurt to New York, via London, explodes over the Scottish town of Lockerbie. All 259 passengers and crew were killed, as were 11 residents of Lockerbie.
  19 September 1989: UTA flight 772 from Brazzaville to Paris explodes over Niger's Ténéré desert killing 171 people.
  The investigation
  30 October 1991: A French examining magistrate issues arrest warrants against six Libyan officials for their alleged involvement in the UTA bombing. 14 November 1991: A three-year investigation concludes with the Lord Advocate, Scotland's chief law officer, obtaining a warrant for the arrest of two Libyans, Abdel Baset Ali Mohamed al-Megrahi and Al-Amin Khalifa Fhimah. The charges against them are of conspiracy, murder, and contravention of the Aviation Security Act of 1982. An indictment is also issued in the US containing similar accusations.
  The accused
  Al-Amin Khalifa Fhimah: 42-years-old, also alleged to to belong to Libyan inteligence and to have been station officer of Libyan Arab Airlines in Malta.
  Abdel Baset al-Megrahi: 46-years-old, he is alleged to have been a senior officer of the Libyan Intelligence Services. Head of Libyan Arab Airlines security in Malta in December 1988, alleged to have bought clothes in a Maltese store that were contained in the suitcase bomb on board flight 103.

U.S. EMBASSIES BOMBED IN AFRICA

 August 17, 1998

  U.S. HOPES ARREST IN EMBASSY BLASTS WILL BREAK CASE
   By DAVID JOHNSTON
  WASHINGTON -- Law enforcement officials investigating the bombings at the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania expressed optimism Sunday that a man brought back to the Kenyan capital over the weekend after being detained in Pakistan could help authorities unravel the plot behind the deadly terrorist attacks.
  The suspect has been identified by government representatives in Pakistan and Kenya as Mohammed Sadik Howaida. American officials said Sunday that they are increasingly certain he played a direct and possibly key role in the nearly simultaneous bombings on Aug. 7 that killed more than 250 people.
  In addition, the officials said that one or two other men are in custody in Pakistan who are also suspected of complicity in the bombings, possibly helping to arrange clandestine passage for Howaida and other confederates through Pakistan to the relative safety of neighboring Afghanistan.
  The officials said they suspect Howaida of a significant role in part because he took the risk of remaining in Nairobi, Kenya, until the day of the bombing. That suggested that his presence was necessary possibly because he was involved in building the bomb or in transporting it to the embassy. It is unknown whether anyone saw him in Nairobi before the bomb exploded.
 
 

  August 16, 1998

  SUSPECT IN EMBASSY BLASTS IS TAKEN TO KENYA

  By DAVID JOHNSTON
  WASHINGTON -- Law enforcement officials said Saturday night that American investigators in Pakistan were preparing to fly to Kenya with a man whom they identified as a suspect in last week's embassy bombings in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  The officials said that the investigators had been sent to Pakistan to question several people who had been arrested there in connection with the bombings. They would not identify the suspect.
  THE PEOPLE UNDER ARREST ARE SUSPECTED OF BEING ASSOCIATED WITH OSAMA BIN LADEN, A SAUDI-BORN BUSINESSMAN WHO HAS VOWED TO WAGE A HOLY WAR AGAINST THE UNITED STATES.
  Among those arrested in Pakistan are people who are believed to have flown from Kenya to Pakistan after the bombings.
  The United States authorities flew to Pakistan today after Pakistani security police notified them that the man had been arrested.
  The officials declined to specify the nature of the evidence connecting Mr. Bin Laden to the bombings. But today's issue of Newsday reported that a witness had identified a Bin Laden associate as having been in the truck carrying the bomb that damaged the United States Embassy in the capital of Kenya and killed more than 200 people.
  The newspaper identified the witness as one of the two privately employed security guards working at the embassy gate at the time of the bombing.
  In interviews today, intelligence and law enforcement officials who spoke on condition that they not be identified said there had been no positive identification of the person, who was described as a relatively low-level member of Mr. Bin Laden's circle. It was not clear if he was the person being taken to Kenya.
  But officials indicated that this was the first potential link to Mr. Bin Laden, whom the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency have suspected from the start was a key figure in the bombing plot.
  American officials have cited him since the early hours of the investigation.
  This year he renewed his vow to wage a holy war against the United States, and senior officials have said he has a network in Africa, with United States intelligence finding evidence that he has operatives in Kenya.
  Although officials caution that there is still no hard evidence linking Mr. Bin Laden or his agents to the bombings, Americans point to the nearly simultaneous explosions on Aug. 7 as a sign that the attacks were carried out by sophisticated terrorists. Mr. Bin Laden's network has the financial resources and the organization to have been the mastermind, the officials said.
  Another group suspected by the United States is the Cairo-based Islamic Jihad, but it, too, is financed by Mr. Bin Laden, American officials said.
  The son of a wealthy Saudi family that made its money in the construction business, Mr. Bin Laden is thought to have been involved in the bombings of two United States military installations in Saudi Arabia.
  But for lack of evidence, the United States has never issued an arrest warrant for him.
  Mr. Bin Laden lived for a time in the Sudan. He is said to live in Afghanistan now, under the protection of the Taliban, the fundamentalist Islamic group that controls most of the country.
  Law enforcement officials said Mr. Bin Laden had become the subject of an intense internal discussion at the F.B.I. over whether the New York office should take jurisdiction of the bombing case away from the Washington field office, which has jurisdiction over crimes against Americans in Africa.
  F.B.I. officials in New York have argued that they have investigated Mr. Bin Laden in connection with the World Trade Center bombing, and therefore should take over the Nairobi and Dar es Salaam cases in the event that he proves to be involved.
  President Clinton, in an address videotaped for broadcast overseas, said that the Kenyans and Tanzanians killed in the bombings "were important to America because we cherish our friendship with your peoples." At least 247 Kenyans and 10 Tanzanians died.
  More than 5,000 people were wounded.
  "Violent extremists try to use bullets and bombs to derail our united efforts to bring peace to every part of the earth," Mr. Clinton said. "We grieve together, but I am proud that our nations have also renewed our commitment to stand together."

  Friday, August 7, 1998 Published at 09:49 GMT 10:49 UK
  World: Africa

  US Embassies hit in African blasts
  Rescuers pull a blast victim from the rubble in Nairobi
  More than 50 people have been killed in two powerful explosions near US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
  One blast severely damaged buildings by the embassy and central bank in Nairobi, Kenya.
  Red Cross officials say that more than 40 people died in the Nairobi blast. US sources in Washington say seven were embassy employees.
  Another nine people have been confirmed dead in an explosion near the US embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  Kenyan police say that the death toll in Nairobi could be as high as 80 with about 1,000 injured.
  It is not known who was responsible for either of the explosions.
  The US State Department has confirmed there were two car bombs but no warnings. It said they were treating the attacks as the work of terrorists.
  US medical and security teams are flying to Africa.
  There was chaos in the centre of Nairobi after the blast, which could be heard miles away.
  Volunteers worked furiously to pull survivors from the rubble.
  Reports said the Kenyan explosion ripped through the neighbouring bank building where US Ambassador Prudence Bushnell was meeting Kenyan Trade Minister Joseph Kamotho.
  It is thought the US ambassador was slightly injured.
  Bernard Dussault, the Canadian High Commissioner to Kenya, said he heard the blast at his home 15km from the US embassy.
  The explosion caused extensive damage to the US embassy, ripping off bombproof doors and destroying the Cooperative Bank building.
  Rufus Drabble, from the British High Commission, said there was a cloud of thick smoke over the city and helicopters hovered overhead.
  Kenyan TV had shown "horrendous" pictures of the incident, he added.
  A BBC correspondent in Nairobi says private cars have been used to ferry the injured to two hospitals.
  He says that radio reports from inside the US embassy have been calling for medical help and lifting gear.
  Hundreds of people reportedly fled the building as emergency services and armed police raced to the scene.
  The bank building, on Haile Selassie Avenue, contains private and government offices.
  Tanzania blast
  There was also widespread devastation in Dar es Salaam, where a BBC correspondent said the embassy reception area had been destroyed.
  Ian Gleeson, from the British High Commission in Tanzania, said: "In view of the news from Nairobi it seems very likely that it was a bomb."
  He said British diplomats had offered to help the US embassy and the French and Spanish embassies, which are also near the site of the explosion.
  Survivor Jim Owens said the blast at the Tanzanian embassy threw him back about five feet.
  He said: "The cuts I have do not look that bad but they bled profusely.
  "They bled over my glasses so I couldn't see as I was walking around the smoke-filled embassy."
  In the Ugandan capital, Kampala, personnel at the US embassy and the British High Commission were evacuated from the buildings, apparently as a precautionary measure.

  August 7, 1998
  Kenya and Tanzania Blasts Near U.S. Embassies Kill Dozens

  By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
  AIROBI, Kenya -- Bombs exploded minutes apart outside the U.S. embassies in the Kenyan and Tanzanian capitals today, toppling a four-story building and killing more than 50 people. Hundreds more were injured, officials said.
  Americans were among the dead, and the U.S. ambassador to Kenya was injured, the State Department said. More than 40 were killed and 1,000 wounded in Nairobi alone, said Red Cross spokeswoman Nina Galbe. Witnesses said at least nine were killed and 16 hurt in Tanzania.
  "It was definitely a bomb," said a U.S. Embassy official in Nairobi, who refused to give his name. "You can see a huge crater behind the building, and a bomb went off at the embassy in Tanzania at the same time."
  The State Department called the blasts, which occurred five minutes apart, "terrorist attacks."
  The blast in the Kenyan capital at 10:35 a.m. (3:35 a.m. EDT) toppled the four-story Ufundi Cooperative building toward the embassy, which was badly damaged. Cooperative Bank House, with government and private offices, also was damaged.
  In Nairobi, crowds crawled over a mountain of twisted and broken concrete and metal looking for victims, calling out and waving their arms for help to free trapped people.
  Bodies were draped out of windows in a charred bus. Shattered cars were left smoldering on the street amid the debris. Dazed and bloody survivors lay on the ground until they were led away.
  "Once the rubble is cleared further we expect to find more," said Red Cross spokeswoman Nina Galbe said. Added another Red Cross worker who refused to give his name: "There are too many dead to count," he said.
  In the Tanzanian capital of Dar es Salaam, a suspected car bomb exploded in the U.S. Embassy parking lot. At least nine people were killed and 16 injured, they said. Official confirmation was not immediately available.
  Smoke rose from the damaged buildings. Nearly two-thirds of the embassy was destroyed, witnesses said. Cranes were hurried to the site to tear apart wreckage in the search for survivors.
  U.S. officials refused to speculate on who was responsible. President Clinton was woken up and briefed on the situation at 5:30 a.m.
  "He's watching it very closely," an administration official said on condition of anonymity. "Obviously, at this point (the reaction is) shock. "We're just trying to get more information."
  Security was immediately tightened at other U.S. embassies, including in Kampala, Uganda where vehicles were cleared away.
  Witness Jim Owens, who was at a meeting inside the embassy in Dar es Salaam when the bomb went off, told CNN that Americans were among the injured.
  "Glass was flying ... I found myself about five feet from where I was sitting," he said. He said one woman was injured when a wall collapsed on her, and another had her nose ripped off by the blast.
  U.S. Marines and African troops patrolled outside both of the damaged embassies.
  The U.S. ambassador to Kenya, Prudence Bushnell, was cut on the lip and helped from Cooperative Bank House, where she had just given a news conference, embassy spokesman Bill Barr said.
  The blast shook downtown Nairobi, and shattered windows as far as a 10 blocks away. Bloodied clothing and papers littered the streets.
  Several people were killed aboard two buses that were passing by at the time of the blast, witnesses said.
  Passersby helped rescuers, and ferried the injured to hospitals in their own cars. At least 54 people were being treated at Nairobi Hospital. 

nairobi                                  dar es salaam


 
 

  Chronology of attacks on U.S. targets

  August 7, 1998 Web posted at: 11:06 a.m. EDT (1506 GMT)
  LONDON (Reuters) -- The following is a chronology of terrorist attacks on U.S. targets since 1983:
  JUNE 1998 -- Rocket-propelled grenades explode near the heavily guarded United States embassy in Beirut.
  JULY 1996 -- Bomb explodes at a concert during the Atlanta Olympic Games, killing one person and wounding more than 100 others.
  JUNE 1996 -- Fuel truck bomb kills 19 American soldiers and wounds nearly 400 people at a U.S. military complex in Khobar near the Saudi Arabian oil city of Dhahran.
  APRIL 1995 -- Car bomb destroys Federal Building in Oklahoma, killing 168 people. Two U.S. citizens were convicted of the bombing.
  FEBRUARY 1993 -- Six people are killed and more than 1,000 injured when a bomb in a van explodes under the twin 110-story towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan.
  DECEMBER 1988 -- A Pan American World Airways Boeing 747 crashed on the town of Lockerbie, Scotland killing 259 people aboard when the plane was blown up by a bomb. Eleven people in the town of Lockerbie also were killed.
  APRIL 1986 -- An explosion rips a hole in a TWA plane as it makes its descent toward Athens airport, killing four passengers as they are sucked out of the plane.
  A few days later, a bomb blast in a West Berlin disco frequented by Americans kills a U.S. citizen and a German woman and injures 150 people, 44 of them Americans. The attacks follow U.S.-Libyan hostilities off the Libyan coast the month before.
  DECEMBER 1985 -- An Arab suicide hit squad attacks U.S. and Israeli check-in desks at the international airports of Rome and Vienna simultaneously. The attacks claim a total of 20 lives, including four guerrillas.
  NOVEMBER 1985 -- Hijackers of an Egyptair plane kill an American passenger on board. The hijacking later ends in a bloodbath as Egyptian commandos storm the plane in Malta at the cost of 60 lives.
  OCTOBER 1985 -- Leon Klinghoffer, an elderly wheelchair-bound New Yorker, is killed and thrown overboard from the hijacked cruise liner Achille Lauro -- taken over by Palestinians a few days after Israeli warplanes attacked the Tunis headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
  AUGUST 1985 -- A large car bomb kills two and injures 20 at a U.S. base in Frankfurt. A U.S. soldier murdered for his identity papers is found the day after the blast.
  JUNE 1985 -- A Trans World Airlines plane is hijacked in the Mediterranean, the start of a two-week hostage drama. The last 39 of the passengers taken hostage are released in Damascus after being held at various points in Beirut.
  In El Salvador, Central America, during the same month, four U.S. Marines and two American businessmen are among 13 people killed in a machine gun attack on a pavement cafe in the capital San Salvador.
  APRIL 1985 -- A bomb explodes in a restaurant near a U.S. air base in Madrid, killing 18, all Spaniards, and injuring 82 -- among them 15 Americans.
  NOVEMBER 1984 -- A bomb attack on the U.S. embassy in the Colombian capital Bogota kills a passer by. The explosion follows death threats against U.S. officials from drug traffickers.
  OCTOBER 1983 -- A suicide car bomb attack by radical Muslims on the headquarters of the U.S. military peace keeping force in Lebanon kills 241 U.S. servicemen. A simultaneous attack on a French base in Beirut kills 58 paratroopers.
  APRIL 1983 -- Suicide car bombing of U.S. embassy in Beirut kills 63 people, including 17 Americans.
 
 
 


NORTHERN IRELAND

August 17, 1998
  Day After in Ulster Town: Now 'It's Back'

  By JAMES F. CLARITY
  OMAGH, Northern Ireland -- The day after the deadliest paramilitary attack in 29 years of sectarian violence in this British province, dozens of people sat blank-faced or weeping Sunday afternoon at a community center set up as a command post to find people still missing. 
  The attack, at the height of downtown shopping on Saturday, killed 28 people and wounded more than 200. It stunned Omagh, which is mostly Roman Catholic, and the rest of this predominantly Protestant province.
  "One day I was watching the bombs against America in Africa," said Michael MacAnespae, a 54-year-old mushroom farmer. "We thought all that was behind us here. But suddenly it's back on your own doorstep."
  No group has claimed responsibility for the attack, but the police and political leaders, both Protestant and Catholic, said it appeared to have been the work of a group calling itself the Real IRA, a splinter group of the overwhelmingly Catholic Irish Republican Army. The IRA itself has been observing a cease-fire for 13 months
 
 




COUNTER-TERRORISM
Osama bin
              Laden, the Saudi-born Islamic militant
              whose terrorist network was the target of
              U.S. missile strikes today in central
              Afghanistan,
This satellite photo, distributed by the Defense Department, shows the
 Zhawar Kili Al-Badr camp (West) in Afghanistan, one of the targets of
 a U.S. military strike on Aug. 20. (Reuters)

 August 24, 1998 Published at 08:49 GMT 09:49 UK
 

          World: Africa

          UN debates Sudan factory
          attack

          Sudanese officials examine the rubble of the Shifa factory

          The UN Security Council is set to consider Sudan's call
          for international inspectors to visit the factory destroyed
          by US missiles last Thursday.
 

                    The Sudan government says the Shifa 
                    factory was manufacturing
                    pharmaceuticals.

                    But the US says it was involved in
                    developing deadly chemical weapons
                    and has warned of further strikes in
                    the war against terrorism.

          Sudan's call for international monitors ahead of
          Monday's Security Council meeting has been backed by
          the UN co-ordinator to Sudan, Philippe Borel


SPAIN
September 11, 1998
  FORMER SPANISH MINISTERS JAILED FOR 'TERRORISM'
  Former Spanish PM Felipe Gonzalez hugs Rafael Vera at the prison gates
  Two former Spanish government ministers have begun ten-year prison sentences for their part in illegal operations against the Basque separatist movement, ETA.
  The two men, Jose Barrionuevo and Rafael Vera, were convicted in July of involvement in the kidnapping of a Basque businessman.
  They were denied bail earlier this week pending an appeal.
  There were emotional scenes outside the prison at Guadalajara north of Madrid as several thousand people gathered to show their support.
  Among them was the former Socialist prime minister, Felipe Gonzalez, who is a lawyer and who will represent them at their appeal. 
  The covert anti-separatist organisation known as GAL IS SAID TO HAVE ASSASSINATED 28 PEOPLE THEY SUSPECTED OF BEING ETA MEMBERS BETWEEN 1983 AND 1987.
  IT WAS LATER DISCOVERED THAT AT LEAST A THIRD OF THEM HAD NO CONNECTION TO THE ARMED GROUP.
  Leading socialists linked to violence
  Gal's alleged high-ranking connections came to light after statements made by members of the Spanish security services and a determined investigation by journalists.
  It was discovered that leading members of the then-socialist government knew about, funded and, it is alleged, organised what amounted to state terrorism.
  Mr Barrionuevo, the highest-ranking official on trial for Gal connections, has always denied the charges




 

          This execution is credited with turning public opinion
                      against the war.