PLS 364: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
ISS 325 War & Revolution pages:
ISS 325 War & Revolution lecture pages:
link to CYBER-READINGS-1 page Table of Contents i
link to CYBER-READINGS-2 page Introduction: States/Sovereignty/Blood/Weak States 1-24
link to CYBER-READINGS-3 page Just War/War Crimes/Genocide 25-50
link to CYBER-READINGS-4 page Human Aggression 51-81
link to War & Revolution photo page Conquest/Authority 82-102
link to AGGRESSION page Ethnic Conflict/Nationalism 103-130
link to ARMS CONTROL & DISARMAMENT page Revolution/Internal Conflict 131-172
link to IRAQ-BOMB-98 page War/Threat/Aggression 173-192
link to NATIONALISM and ETHNIC CONFLICT page U.N./Peacekeeping/Humanitarian Intervention 193-207
link to PROTRACTED INTERNAL WAR page Nuclear Weapons/Weapons of Mass Destruction 208-219
link to REVOLUTION & INTERNAL CONFLICT page Old Tests 1998/1, 1998/3 220-228
link to WAR page Syllabus and Course Information 229-234
link to Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism page
link to AFRICA: GREAT LAKES page
PLS 364 International Organizations
& Cooperation pages:
link to UNITED NATIONS & International Organizations page
link to War Crimes page
link to European Institutions page
link to PLS364 readings on International Law
link to PLS364 readings on UN Reform and Budget
link to PLS364 readings on International Law and the Use of Force
PLS 364: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND COOPERATION
EXAMINATIONS AND GRADES:
There will be an in-class MID-TERM examination [30%] on THURSDAY 17 OCTOBER and a FINAL
exam [50%] on WEDNESDAY 11 DECEMBER from 10:00 AM to 12:00 noon. Both exams will be
ESSAY. Questions will be provided in advance. Exams must be written in a blue book with your name
on the cover page only.
The rest of your grade will come from the research assignment and paper [20%]. Attendance and
participation are required and will be rewarded.
Students will be expected to prepare a five to seven page research paper about current policy issues
involving international institutions.
The paper will take the format of a governmental policy memorandum. The student will assume
the role of the principal foreign policy advisor to the head of government of a selected country.
POLICY MEMORANDA INCLUDE:
(a) a clear statement of the problem that is being addressed;
(b) a summary of background facts that bear on the problem;
(c) a discussion of the merits and problems associated with various policies that might be pursued; and,
(d) a recommendation for a particular course of action.
Students will expected to assume the role of the Secretary of State of the United States of
America or the Minister of Foreign Affairs of China, Brazil, Germany, India, Iran, Mexico,
Nigeria, Russia, South Africa or the United Kingdom. [See me if you have specific reasons for
wishing to assume the role of some other country.]
Note: “assume the role” means that you do not offer your own point of view, rather you do
research to discover the actual point of view of the chosen country and you accurately
present its position.
The topic of the memorandum is to be chosen from the following list:
(a) the creation of the International Criminal Court;
(b) the admission of China to the World Trade Organization;
(c) the expansion of NATO; [exclude China, Brazil, India, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria & South Africa]
(d) the enlargement of the EU; [exclude China, Brazil, India, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria & South Africa]
(e) the enlargement of the Security Council;
(f) the termination of the OAU and its replacement by the AU; [exclude China, Brazil, India, Iran, &
(g) the country’s position regarding the World Summit on Sustainable Development;
(h) the Right to Development; and
(i) the question of Palestine.
Students will be expected to consult documents of their country and the United Nations and other
international organizations in the preparation of their policy memorandum.
Papers are due four weeks before the
end of the term, on Thursday 14 NOVEMBER. Topics
and country must be chosen by TUESDAY 24 SEPTEMBER and submitted to the professor in
writing--your name and student number and your chosen topic and country.
Papers may be handed in early. You are strongly encouraged to submit a draft of your paper for
comments and assistance. Draft papers must be submitted at least ten days before the paper is due--by
Monday 4 NOVEMBER--in order to have time for comments and revision. Because you have twelve
weeks to write 5 to 7 pages, late papers will be penalized.
Although the papers are to be brief, a professional product is demanded.
Correct bibliographic and end/footnote citations are expected.
There are specific rules on how to cite United Nations documents; follow them.
Check your spelling, syntax and grammar.
It is advisable to use a manual or guide for writing term papers such as: Turabian, Manual for
Writers of Terms Papers, Theses, and Dissertations or Lester, Writing Research Papers: A
Staple pages in upper left corner--use no binders, folders or other covers.
A cover page with your name, student number, and title of your report.
Use one inch margins, top and bottom, left and right. If you use a computer, I expect a
standard 12 point font. Double spaced with left justification.
The research paper has a recommended STANDARD FORMAT. It will be easier for you if you
stick to it.
The MSU Library, has prepared two home pages on the World Wide Web for courses on
international organizations. The citations for these home pages are:
By organization: http://www.lib.msu.edu/publ_ser/docs/igos/igoorg.htm
By subject: http://www.lib.msu.edu/publ_ser/docs/igos/igosubj.htm
Additional useful home pages are:
The journal International Organization maintains a site that provides access to many other sites.
The address is: http://www-mitpress.mit.edu/main/home/
then click “journals;”
then click “international organization;”
then click “IR web resources.”
The UN Home Page is at: http://www.un.org/english/ and the UN Documentation Centre is at:
Yale University has a United Nations’ Scholars Workstation at:
The Michigan Library page is at: http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/ps463.html
The United Nations Association of the USA is at: http://www.unausa.org. Useful information is
available if you click “publications” and click either “fact sheets” or “policy papers &
How to cite information on the Internet in school papers, theses, reports, etc. There is no definitive
answer, but many people have made suggestions. Here are some places to go for recommended electronic
information citation guides.
Generally it is preferred that you follow the style of the Government Publications Department
of the University of Memphis, at: http://exlibris.memphis.edu/govpubs/citeweb.htm
“to steal or pass off (the ideas of another) as one’s own; use (a created product) without crediting
the source; to commit literary theft; present as new and original an idea or product derived from an
existing source.” (Webster’s, 1987) [Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield: 1987)].
My office is 345 South Kedzie Hall, 355-1881. Official office hours are Wednesday and Friday 8:00 am
to 10:00 am, or by appointment. I am available mornings and afternoons almost every Monday,
Wednesday or Friday, please feel free to drop in and chat. You might call first [355-1881] or email
email@example.com to check that I am around.
I will be pleased to assist you on all aspects of your research paper. Visit me to discuss
topic/country, how to do the research and citations, and for progress in doing the assignment.
Films will be shown on Thursday 12 September
and Tuesday 24 September
“No Place to Hide: The UN’s Peacekeeping Efforts,” Thursday 12 September
Frontline: “Triumph of Evil,” Tuesday 24 September [10:30am channel 7]
I. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND LAW
1. Introduction to the Course:
The Goals, Intentions and Purposes of IGO’s
a ) Terms and Definitions--IO, IGO, NGO, PVO,
--United Nations Organization v. UN System
--Collective Security, Preventive Diplomacy and Collective Defense
--Regional & Universal Organizations
--Functionalism & Neofunctionalism
–nation-states, federalism and supranationalism
--Public International Law
b ) The UN Today: Social and Sustainable Development; Terrorism; Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and
Humanitarian Intervention [2001 Nobel Peace Prize].
1) Abbott and Snidal, “Why States Act Through Formal International Organizations,” in Diehl, ed., The
Politics of Global Governance, pp. 9-43.
2 ) Ziring et al. The United Nations, "Regionalism," pp. 31-34; "Functional Cooperation in Theory and
Practice," pp. 321-326; "Rules in Other Functional Settings," pp. 345-358.
3) Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, "Part 1 Introduction," pp. 3-8.
General Assembly 1971--China takes its seat
2. The Nature of International
Institutions/Regimes and Organizations
2) Cupitt, Whitlock & Whitlock, "The (Im)mortality of International Governmental Organizations," in
Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 44-61.
3) Boli and Thomas, “INGOs and the Organization of World Culture,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of
Global Governance, pp. 62- 96.
1945 UN Charter UN NYC
3. The Origins and Nature
of International Law
a ) What is Law?
b ) Historical Evolution of International Law
c ) Sources and Evidence of International Law
d ) Just War: war is always judged twice.
e ) War Crimes: ex-Yugoslavia and Rwanda Tribunals; International Criminal Court
1) “Introduction,” in Weiss et al. Changing World Politics, pp. 1-18.
2) Bryan MacPherson, “Authority of the Security Council to Exempt Peacekeepers from International
Criminal Court Proceedings, “ ASIL Insights, [American Society of International Law] July 2002.
3) Curtis A. Bradley, “U.S. Announces Intent Not to Ratify International Criminal Court Treaty,” ASIL
Insights, May 2002. http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh87.htm
4) Leila Nadya Sadat, “The International Criminal Court Treaty Enters Into Force,” ASIL Insights, April
5) Pieter H.F. Bekker, “World Court Orders Belgium to Cancel an Arrest Warrant Issued Against the
Congolese Foreign Minister,” ASIL Insights, February 2002. http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh82.htm
6) Pieter H.F. Bekker, “Nicaragua Sues Colombia before the World Court over a Dispute Concerning
Territorial Questions and Maritime Delimitation in the Western Caribbean,” ASIL Insights,, December
7) Ruth Wedgwood, “Tribunals and the Events of September 11th,” ASIL Insights,, December 2001.
FILM: “No Place to Hide: The UN’s Peacekeeping Efforts,” Thursday 12 September
4. Historical Evolution of Universal and Regional IGO’s
a ) Concert of Europe, the Hague Conferences, Public International Unions
b ) The League of Nations
c ) The United Nations--Origins, 50th Anniversary, Historical Overview
d ) Regional IGO’s - NATO; ECSC ? EC ? EU. . .; OAS, OAU ? AU, ASEAN, ECOWAS
1 ) Mansfield and Milner, “ The New Wave of Regionalism,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global
Governance, pp. 313-363.
2 ) Ziring et al. The United Nations,
Chapter 1. "The United Nations in Historical Perspective," pp. 1-26;
"Promoting Regional Integration," pp. 398-407;
Appendix A. "The Covenant of the League of Nations," pp. 485-496; and
Appendix B. "The Charter of the United Nations," pp. 497-524.
FILM: Frontline: “Triumph of Evil,” Tuesday
24 September [10:30am channel 7]
Research paper topics must be chosen by Tuesday 24 SEPTEMBER and submitted in writing--your
name and student number, choice of topic and country.
1960--16 new nations, mostly African
5. The UN as Midwife: National Self-Determination
a ) League Mandates
b ) The Trusteeship Council
c ) Decolonization; Non-Self-Governing Territories
d ) The UN as Midwife: Transitions in Namibia, Mozambique, Liberia, Kosovo, & East Timor.
e ) Weak States: Return to Trusteeship?
f ) Who are the UN Members? 51 ? . . . ?189 . . .[?191]
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 8. "The Revolution of Self-Determination," pp. 301-320.
1994 free elections in Mozambique
II. INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE AND FINANCES
6. Structure, Process and Development of the United Nations
a ) The Charter of the UN: Principles and Organization
b ) The General Assembly, Security Council and Trusteeship Council
c ) The Secretariat
d ) Specialized Agencies & UN Programs
e ) Conferences: Human Rights, Environment, Population, Women, Social Development, Food,
Millennium Summit, Children, Racism, Sustainable Development.
1) Ziring et al., The United Nations,
Chapter 2. "Legal Framework, Institutional Structures, and Financial Realities,"
Chapter 3. "The UN Political Process," and
Chapter 4. "Politics and the UN Secretariat," pp. 27-141.
2 ) Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, "Introduction to Part 2,” [Decisionmaking] pp. 99-100.
3 ) Cox and Jacobson, "The Framework for Inquiry," in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp.
4 ) O’Neill, “Power and Satisfaction in the Security Council,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global
Governance, pp. 117-137.
7. Budget, Finance and Reform
a ) Deadbeats and Financial Crisis
b ) Issues
1) Mendez, “Financing the United Nations and the International Public Secotr: Problems and Reform,” in
Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 138-163.
III. WAR AND PEACE [HUMAN SECURITY]
8. Pacific Settlement: Conflict Management and Peace Making
a) Early Warning and Preventive Diplomacy
b) Negotiation, Enquiry, Mediation, Conciliation, Arbitration, Judicial Settlement
c) Judicial Means
c) Role of Regional and Nongovernmental Organizations
1) Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, "Part 4 Peace and Security Affairs," pp. 167-169
2) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 6. "The Settlement of International Disputes, pp. 210-256.
9. International Law and the Use of Force
a ) Authorization [NATO and Kosovo]
b ) Self-Defense; pre-emptive self-defense
c ) Peacekeeping and Enforcement
d ) Humanitarian Intervention
e) Just War
1) Frederic L. Kirgis, “Pre-emptive Action to Forestall Terrorism,” ASIL Insights, June 2002
2) Frederic L. Kirgis, “Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon ,” ASIL Insights,
September 2001. http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh77.htm
3) “Clinton's Remarks in Defense of Military Intervention in Balkans,” The New York Times, May 14,
4) Frederic L. Kirgis, THE KOSOVO SITUATION AND NATO MILITARY ACTION, ASIL Insights,
March 1999. http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh30.htm
5) American Journal of International Law 93/4, October 1999. http://www.asil.org/ajil/kosovo.htm
Editorial Comments: NATO's Kosovo Intervention
Louis Henkin, “Kosovo and the Law of "Humanitarian Intervention"”
Ruth Wedgwood, “NATO's Campaign in Yugoslavia”
Jonathan I. Charney, “Anticipatory Humanitarian Intervention in Kosovo”
Christine M. Chinkin, “Kosovo: A "Good" or "Bad" War?”
Richard A. Falk, “Kosovo, World Order, and the Future of International Law”
Thomas M. Franck, “Lessons of Kosovo”
W. Michael Reisman, “Kosovo's Antinomies”
1988 Nobel Peace Prize for UN peacekeepers UNEF in the Sinai
1991 Gulf War Mr. UN
10. Collective Security and Peacekeeping
a) Collective Security in Theory and Practice
b) The Collective Security System: Collective Defense and Preventive Diplomacy
c) International Peacekeeping; the early years and after the cold war
d) 2nd Generation Peacekeeping
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 5. "Security Through Collective Action," pp. 142-209.
2) Weiss et al. Changing World Politics,
Chapter 1- "The Theory of UN Collective Security," pp. 21-46; and,
Chapter 2- "The Reality of UN Security Efforts During the Cold War," pp. 47-64.
3) Miller, “The Idea and Reality of Collective Security,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance,
4) Diehl, “Forks in the Road: Theoretical and Policy Concerns for 21st Century Peacekeeping,” in Diehl,
ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 202-228.
Czech Parliament votes to join NATO, 1998
11. Regional Peacekeeping
a) The Regional Role in Peacekeeping and Conflict Management
b) Regional Capability in the north and the south
1) Lepgold, “NATO’s Post-Cold War Collective Action Problem,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global
Governance, pp. 229-256.
12. Humanitarian Intervention and Action
a) Refugees, Displaced Persons
b) Relief and Intervention: Iraq, Somalia, Zaire
c) Complex Humanitarian Emergencies
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, "Internationally Administered Programs," 366-384.
2) Natsios, "NGOs and the UN System in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Conflict or
Cooperation?" in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 388-405.
food as a weapon: famine in Sudan
13. Consolidating Peace: Conflict Management and Peacemaking Revisited
a) Post-conflict Peace Building
b) Spoilers and Orphaned Peace Settlements
c) Rebuilding War-Torn Societies
1) Weiss et al. Changing World Politics,
Chapter 3- "UN Security Operations After the Cold War," pp. 64-98; and,
Chapter 4- "Groping Toward the Twenty-first Century," pp. 99-119.
in-class MID-TERM examination [30%] on Thursday 17 OCTOBER
mid-term will cover all readings to this point plus lectures
Iraqi "supergun" and Mustard gas bombs discovered by Unscom
14. Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation
a) The League's efforts
b) The UN and the Bomb
c) Disarmament & Arms Control
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 7. "Disarmament and Arms Control," pp. 257-300.
IV. HUMAN RIGHTS
15. Human Rights and State-Centric Order
a) Political and Civil Rights versus Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
b) The Asian Challenge to "Western" Human Rights
c) The Emerging Human Rights Regime
d) UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
e) the Right to Development? Conditionality, Universality
f) Genocide--Never Again! Never Again?
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, "Human Rights Rule-Making," pp. 326-345; and
Appendix C. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights," pp. 525-531.
2) Weiss et al., Changing World Politics,
Chapter 5- "The United Nations, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs: The Theory," pp. 141-164;
Chapter 6- "The United Nations and Applying Human Rights Standards," pp. 165-206; and,
Chapter 7- "Change, the United Nations, and Human Rights," pp. 207-224.
3) Thakur, "Human Rights: Amnesty International and the United Nations," in Diehl, ed., The Politics of
Global Governance, pp. 365-387.
1948 Eleanor Roosevelt and Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Bishop Juan Gerardi--his death is thought to be linked to a report he
compiled on human rights abuses and the human cost of
Guatemala's 36-year-long civil war.
16. War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity
a) Kosovo indictments
b) Nuremburg, Geneva and Hague rules
c) War Crimes Tribunals for Bosnia and Rwanda
d) International Criminal Court
1) Michael P. Scharf, Results of the Rome Conference for an International Criminal Court, ASIL Insight,
2) Michael P. Scharf, The Indictment of Slobodan Milosevic, ASIL Insight, June 1999.
3) Frederic L. Kirgis, The Pinochet Arrest and Possible Extradition to Spain, ASIL Insight, October 1998.
V. THE REALLY USEFUL UN
17. Economic Welfare and Sustainable Development, Resources
and the Environment
a) Putting the Poor First; Redistribution; The New International Economic Order
b) World Bank and UNDP, Structural Adjustment Programs
c) The Law of the Sea Treaty
d) The Environment
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 11. "Promoting Economic Development," pp. 421-470.
2) Weiss et al. Changing World Politics,
Chapter 8- "Development and the United Nations: The First Three Development Decades," pp.
Chapter9- "Ecodevelopment and the United Nations," pp.224-245; and,
Chapter 10- "Sustainable Development and Human Security: Problems and Prospects for the
2000s,” pp. 254-288.
3) Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, "Part 6 Social and Humanitarian Activities," pp. 289-
4) Murphy, "What the Third World Wants: An Interpretation of the Development and Meaning of the
New International Economic Order Ideology," in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 261-
REMINDER: research papers are due on
Thursday 14 NOVEMBER.
Drafts for comments and revision should be submitted by Monday 4 NOVEMBER.
18. Trade and Money
a) the EURO is here
b) Common Markets
c) The Global Debt Crisis: the poor get poorer; IMF Riots
d) International Bailouts: Mexico, Asia and Russia.
e) Free Trade, Comparative Advantage, Protection and GATT
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 10. "Managing International Trade and Finance," pp. 384-
2) Dield, "Introduction to Part 4,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 259-260.
3) Bird, “The International Monetary Fund and Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence and
Policy Options,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 277-312.
1998 IMF bailout: riot police confront Indonesian Moslem students holding a banner which reads "Economic Reforms not only banks."
19. Social Welfare: Health, Education, Population
a) Who's running the show: donors or beneficiaries: UNESCO, WHO
b) The problem of politicization of functional UN agencies; uppity new countries, conservative donors
c) The New World International Information Order
d) FAO/WFP: miracles and malnutrition
e) Controversies: Population Explosion, AIDS
1) Ziring et al. The United Nations, "Information and Promotion," pp. 358-366.
2) Dorsey, "The Global Women's Movement: Articulating a New Vision of Global Governance," in
Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 436-461.
3) Jacobson & Weiss, "Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords," in Diehl,
ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 406-435.
20. Summary and Conclusion: Groping Toward the 21st Century
a) A New World Order
b) Governance Without Government
c) Zones of Peace and Prosperity; Zones of Turmoil and Development
1) Weiss et al. Changing World Politics, Conclusion: "Learning from Change," pp. 308-331.
2) Ziring et al. The United Nations, Chapter 12. “Looking Back Toward an Uncertain Future: The United
Nations and the Twenty-First Century,” pp. 471-484.
3) Diehl, “Introduction to Part 6,” [Interantional Organizations and the Future] in Diehl, ed., The Politics
of Global Governance, pp. 465-466.
4) Washburn, “United Nations Relations with the United States: The UN Must Look Out for Itself,” in
Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global Governance, pp. 467-482.
5) Alger, “Thinking About the Future of the UN System,” in Diehl, ed., The Politics of Global
Governance, pp. 483-508.
FINAL exam [50%] on WEDNESDAY 11 DECEMBER from 10:00 AM to 12:00 noon.
Tuesday September 24th: topics and country selection
Thursday October 17th: mid-term examination
Monday November 4th: drafts of research papers for comments and revision
Thursday November 14th: research papers due
Wednesday December 11th: final examination at 10:00 am
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