PLS 461: REFUGEES, DISPLACED PERSONS, EXILES
Throughout the world there are large groups of people with no homes
of their own, caught between danger at home and loss of identity in a strange
land. As a result of independence and national self-determination
struggles, nation-building, political conflict, tyranny, internal disorder,
ethnic conflict, revolutionary change, military occupation, persecution,
racism, armed conflict, struggle, and turmoil, millions have fled their
homes and sought sanctuary in societies where they are isolated, different,
and often impoverished. The course will focus on current refugee
problems: refugees and internally displaced persons in the developing
nations and transitional societies; the causes of refugee movements; the
nature of persecution, flight and asylum; refugee politics; refugee behavior
and activities; refugees and peacekeeping; complex humanitarian emergencies;
repatriation during conflict; and responses and solutions to refugee problems.
Rwandan, Burundian, Somali, Iraqi Kurds, ex-Yugoslav, Haitian, Liberian,
the newly-independent states of the former Soviet Union, Palestinian, Sri
Lankan, Sudanese, German, Vietnamese, Khmer, Lao, Hmong, Ethiopian, Eritrean,
Angolan, Mozambican, Cuban, Jewish, Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, Guatemalan,
Afghan, Chinese, Indian subcontinent, South African, and other refugee
groups will be studied. For some refugees a troubled return home
appears possible, others must attempt a new life in a strange and difficult
society, while many languish in the limbo of refugee camps.
Today, there are more than 40 million people in need of international protection and assistance; approximately 15+ million refugees and 26+ million internally displaced persons (DPs) ["refugee- like" victims who have been forced from their homes by violence but who have not crossed an international boundary]. Roughly 90 percent of the world's forced migrants are from developing countries and over 90 percent of these uprooted peoples will remain in developing countries, either settling in their country of first asylum, being repatriated to their homelands or waiting in camps or settlements for a solution. The heart of the problem of refugee assistance, which has emerged since the mid-1970s, is "the massive arrival of refugees in low-income countries where often no durable solutions are at hand." This problem is exacerbated by weak states, fragile peace, complex humanitarian emergencies, and "compassion fatigue" in the post-cold war era. The principles of asylum and temporary protection are undergoing a severe challenge which ironically has been led by the democratic, affluent states and which is becoming globalized.
The aim of this course is to promote refugee research which analyzes refugee problems from a general, historical and comparative perspective; viewing them as recurring phenomena with identifiable and often identical patterns of behavior and sets of causalities and treating specific refugee situations not as unique, atypical, individual historical events but rather as part of a general subject--refugee behavior and situations that recur in many contexts, times and regions. The course will seek to develop concepts, classifications, theories, models, and typologies about refugees by taking an analytical, comparative, historical, and general view of refugee problems. Political, sociological, psychological, legal, and historical problems of refugees will be examined with emphasis on the shocks, dislocations and adjustments of refugees confronted with difficult, unsatisfactory, and tragic choices.
Elie Weisel: "If ever time was a metaphysical notion, that was it: when good and evil were separated by a man-made frontier. Any frontier is man-made, and yet, on one side people died, while on the other they went on living as though the others didn't die."
Course Requirements and Information
1) U.S. Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey 1997 (Washington, D.C.: Immigration and Refugee Services of America, 1997).
2) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
3) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
4) UNHCR, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status (Geneva: UNHCR, 1979). [pilot email]
5) Course Pack.
EXAMINATIONS: There will be an in-class MID-TERM exam [20%], Wednesday 15 October, and a FINAL exam [30%], Tuesday 9 December from 7:45 am to 9:45 am. Both tests will be ESSAY and the questions will be provided in advance of the test.
TERM PAPER [50%]: This course fulfils the "Tier II Writing Requirement"
needed for graduation. The term paper is half of your grade.
I expect to meet with each of you regularly to discuss your topic, assist
in finding source materials, see how the paper is shaping up, review drafts,
and to explore ideas and leads. You have two deadlines--for topic
approval [9/24/96] and paper submission [12/9/96]--but it is in your best
interest to meet with me frequently about your paper.
Each member of the class is required to write a research paper, using PRIMARY source materials where appropriate and available, as well as SECONDARY sources. You are expected to make extensive use of the library, in particular the DOCUMENTS (US and UN) section. A semester also gives you enough time to write requests for information and material from governments, organizations, agencies, and groups.
Each student will choose a REFUGEE GROUP, POLICY ISSUE or TOPIC for intensive study. In order to make the topic MORE MANAGEABLE, it is suggested that you restrict your paper to a specific issue or group. You are welcome to choose topics based on your academic interests- -CJ majors studying refugee camps; psych doing refugee behavior; or your personal background-- religion, ethnicity, travels, language ability. Papers could deal with:
a refugee GROUP--either an in depth study of a group (recent or historical) or of a selected aspect of a refugee group's experience. For example: Cambodian refugees; Cambodian refugees in Thailand; mental health of Cambodians in refugee camps; internally displaced Cambodians; voluntary repatriation of Cambodian refugees; US policy towards Cambodia; Cambodians in the US. Keep in mind that there are US refugees from the Revolution, the Civil War, and Vietnam as well as the Mormon exodus to Utah and the displacement of indigenous groups such as the Cherokee Trail of Tears.
a particular THEME--refugee camps; refugee women; sexual violence against refugee women; emergency assistance; voluntary agencies; voluntary repatriation; durable solutions; sanctuary; religious refugees; xenophobia; 'ethnic cleansing'; the use of the military; humanitarian intervention; refugee aid and development; unaccompanied minors; elderly refugees.
PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES--the role of UNHCR or UNDP or DHA in refugee assistance; foreign policy and refugees; promoting voluntary repatriation; assistance to vulnerable groups; medical assistance to refugees; root causes of refugee problems; detention and deterrence of asylum seekers; government programs for resettlement; ethnic enclaves; criteria for accepting refugees; tragic choices: resettlement or overseas aid; prevention and protection; temporary asylum; aid to the poorer hosts; humanitarian intervention.
refugee BEHAVIOR--survivor's guilt; the decision to flee; refugee adaptation; 'd.p. apathy'; the 'dependency' syndrome; the refugee experience; violence and trauma, for women, for children; post-traumatic stress disorder; economic adjustment of refugees; refugee mental health; ethnic differences in adaptation; generational problems.
Topics must be approved by Wednesday 24 September. Bring a typed topic and thesis statement to class--this can be as brief as a paragraph; however, it is best if you give me everything you know or think you know, at this time. It can be sketchy, outline form; but let me know where you hope to go so that I can provide better advice and direction. Papers are DUE at the final examination [Tuesday 9 December].
PAPERS MUST BE TYPED WITH FOOTNOTES, end of the paper acceptable, and a BIBLIOGRAPHY. Papers should be APPROXIMATELY 20 PAGES IN LENGTH--it is almost impossible for 15 pages to get a 4.0. A PROFESSIONAL paper--well written, complete research, bibliography, neat, spelling corrected, grammatical--is demanded. [Use a STANDARD FORMAT such as Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations or Lester, Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide.] MAKE A COPY, I keep all papers but I will trade a graded paper for a clean copy.
(1) watch the dates of your sources--don't use a decade-old source to describe current conditions;
(2) bibliographies are very important [I read them first]--get the early, original materials, the latest word, government and UN documents, contact the refugee agency or group directly;
(3) go beyond lecture and the syllabus--only in the rarest cases should you quote lecture notes, also find your own reference materials--the textbook and course packs are a starting point, not a lazy main source;
(4) beware of adjectives, adverbs and generalizations--best, worst, greatest, unique, largest; that is, choose your modifiers and conclusions with care. Can you defend what you say.
(5) one inch margins top/bottom, left/right. 12 point font. Do not use full justification.
PRESENTATION: Students can make an OPTIONAL 10-15 minute CLASSROOM PRESENTATION on their RESEARCH TOPIC during the last two class periods, 1 and 3 December. Presentations are voluntary, they can improve your term paper grade; they cannot harm it. Notify me by 26 November.
GRADES: FINAL Exam--30% MID-TERM Exam--20% PAPER & PRESENTATION--50%
CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION is expected and will be rewarded.
OFFICE HOURS: The half-hour after class and Tuesday 8:00-10:00am or by appointment. I am available most Tuesday, Thursday and Friday mornings from 7:30 to noon, call first to check that I am in my office.
UNHCR -- www.unhcr.ch/
RELIEFWEB -- www.reliefweb.int/index.html
UN NEWS RELEASES -- www.un.org/News/
OXFORD Refugee Studies Programme -- www.geh.ox.ac.uk/rsp Course Outline
PART I: DEFINITION, HISTORY AND ANALYSIS
1. Introduction: Who is a Refugee? Refugee Research:
Recurring Patterns. Refugees, Displaced Persons, Exiles, Immigrants,
Economic Migrants, Asylees, Stayees.
1) B. N. Stein, "The Experience of Being a Refugee: Insights from the Research Literature," in Carolyn Williams and Joseph Westermeyer, eds., Refugee Mental Health in Resettlement Countries (Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1986). [pilot email]
2) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 1, "Who Is a Refugee?"
3) Bill Frelick, "The Year in Review," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 14-19.
4) Boutras Boutras-Ghali, "Preface," in UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
5) Sadako Ogata, "Foreword," UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
6) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, "Introduction."
7) "Two Nobel Peace Prize Winners Discuss their Refugee Experiences," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 20-23.
CCTV: "CBS Reports--The Boat People" Monday 25 August at 4:00 pm on channel 7.
Case: The Boat Peoples--Indochinese, Haitian and Cuban Refugees.
2. Overview: Refugees Today. Historical
Trends Increasing the Problem of Refugees in the 20th Century. Multiple
Definitions for Multiple Purposes: Assistance or Asylum. Humanitarian
Assistance and Intervention. Repatriation During Conflict.
Post-Cold War Era. Prevention, "Protected Zones," Protection, Peacekeeping.
Continuum from Relief to Development.
1) Barbara Harrell-Bond and Mark Leopold, "Counting the Refugees: The Myth of Accountability," International Symposium, "Responding to the Nutrition Crisis Among Refugees: The Need for New Approaches," Refugee Studies Programme, University of Oxford, 17-20 March 1991.
2) UNHCR, Note On International Protection, Executive Committee, 44rd Sess., A/AC.96/815, 31 August 1993. [pilot email]
3) UNHCR, Note On International Protection, Executive Committee, 45th Sess., A/AC.96/830, 7 September 1994. [pilot email]
4) UNHCR, Note On International Protection, Executive Committee, 47th Sess., A/AC.96/863, 1 July 1996.
5) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Chapter 1, "Changing Approaches to the Refugee Problem."
6) Sadako Ogata, "Opening Statement," 47th Sess. of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, A/51/12/Add.1, 19 October 1996, annex ii. [pilot email]
7) Sadako Ogata, "Opening Statement," 46th Sess. of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, A/50/12/Add.1, 16 October 1995. [pilot email]
8) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Annex I, "The Problem of Refugee Statistics."
Cases: Humanitarian Intervention in Kurdistan, Bosnia, and Somalia; The Limits of Intervention in Rwanda and Burundi.
3. Overview: Who and Where are the Refugees?
Blocked Return to Bosnia. Yugoslavia: Krajina Serbs in Belgrade.
Mozambique: return and elections. Rwanda: Genocide, Cholera, Camps,
Repatriation and Exile Warriors, Impell Repatriation. Burundi: Hope
and Disaster. Haiti: Restoration, US Supreme Court OK's refoulement.
Cuba: Raft People. Somalia: whither humanitarian intervention?
Afghanistan: victory increases devastation. Flow of Vietnamese Boat
People Ends. Cambodia: repatriation and elections. Four generations
of Palestinians. The Horn of Africa: Eritrea Victorious and Somalia
Collapses. Angola: elections followed by fighting followed by a truce.
Central America: going home to Guatemala. Xenophobia in Europe.
Yugoslavia: It Can Happen in Europe; Kosovo, Macedonia. CIS: Unscrambling
1) USCR, "World Refugee Statistics," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 2-13.
2) USCR, "Africa," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 56-109
3) USCR, "East Asia and the Pacific," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 110-123.
4) USCR, "South and Central Asia," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 124-141.
5) USCR, "Middle East," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 142-165.
6) USCR, "Europe," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 166-25.
7) USCR, "The Americas and the Caribbean," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 226-243.
4. Analysis of Refugees by Types and Classes.
1) E. F. Kunz, "The Refugee in Flight," International Migration Review, 7(2) Summer 1973, pp. 125-46.
2) T. Scudder and E. Colson, "From Welfare to Development: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Dislocated People," in Art Hansen and Anthony Oliver-Smith, eds., Involuntary Migration and Resettlement (Boulder: Westview Press, 1982).
3) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 9, "Patterns of Social Conflict and Refugee Movements."
4) B. Stein and F. Cuny, "Repatriation During Conflict," USCR, World Refugee Survey 1991. [pilot email]
Cases: The Horn of Africa. German Expellees, Indochinese, Palestinians, Cubans, Sri Lankans.
5. From Nansen to Ogata: The Development of an International
Response to Refugee Problems. The Twentieth Century--Century of the
Homeless Man. Historical Scope of the Refugee Problem: Numbers, Sources
and Responses. Post-Cold War Opportunities.
1) United Nations, General Assembly, Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, A/51/12, 4 September 1996. [pilot email]
2) United Nations, General Assembly, Report of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on the Work of its Forty-Seventh Session, A/51/12 Add.1, 19 Oct. 1996. [pilot email]
3) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Annex III, "UNHCR in Brief."
4) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Annex II, "Statistical Tables."
Cases: Fridtjof Nansen and the League of Nations. Balkan Wars and the Russian Revolution. Tyranny in the Thirties--Failure at Lausanne. World War II--UNRRA and IRO. The Expulsion of Germans from Eastern Europe. ?China? Partition of India. Palestine--UNRWA. The United Nations and UNHCR. ICEM. ICRC. Shift from Europe to the Third World--A Flexible Mandate for Changing Times. 1979 Geneva Conference on Indochina. 1979 Arusha Conference on African refugees. Refugee Assistance in Developing Countries. ICARA I & II: Durable Solutions. Operational UNHCR. SARRED 1988 (International Conference on the Plight of Refugees, Returnees and Displaced Persons in Southern Africa). CIREFCA 1989 (International Conference on Central American Refugees). 1989 International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees. UNBRO: United Nations Border Relief Operation for Cambodian border refugees. Afghanistan relief and return. Fiscal Crisis and Three High Commissioners in One Year. The UN and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention for the Internally Displaced. Somalia. Eritrea and Returnee Aid and Development. PARINAC. Bosnia and Rwanda: "Protection" in the 1990s. Goma--large scale complex emergency. Humanitarian Emergency Capacities: Response; Division of Labor; Decentralization; Coordination; Staff; and Peacekeeping.
6. The Classic Definition: Well-Founded Fear of Persecution.
1) UNHCR, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status (Geneva: UNHCR, 1979). [pilot email]
Cases: Sanctuary for Central Americans: Well-Founded Fear or Generalized Violence. Haitians: Refugees or Economic Migrants. Social Groups: Gender; Homosexuals; Birth Control.
PART II: CAUSES OF FORCED MIGRATION
7. Causes of Refugee Movements: Root Causes and Human Rights.
Political, Social and Economic Factors Leading to Flight.
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 10. "Towards a Better International Refugee Regime."
2) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Chapter 4, "Promoting Development," pp. 143-152.
Cases: German Expellees, Sudan.
8. Nation-Building: Weak States and Failed States.
Nationalism and Independence. New States, Minorities. The Principle
of National Self- Determination stops here?
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 2. "Ethnic Conflict in the New States of Sub-Saharan Africa;"
Chapter 4. "Separatism, Revolution, and War in Ethiopia and the Horn;" and,
Chapter 5. "Reorganization of Political Communities in South Asia."
Cases: Rwanda-Burundi. Liberia. Ugandan Asians. Ethiopia--Eritrea, Tigre, Ogaden, Oromo. Partition of India. Afghanistan. Sri Lanka. Chechnya, Ossetia, Abkhazia, . . .
9. Revolution, Social Conflict, and War.
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 3. "In the Long Shadow of South Africa;"
Chapter 6. "Revolution and Reaction in East Asia;"
Chapter 7. "Social Conflict and Refugees in Latin America;" and,
Chapter 8. "Social Revolutions and Refugees in Central America."
2) Hiram A. Ruiz and Robin Kirk, "In Focus: Peru," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 192-193.
Cases: Cambodia, Central America.
10. Generalized Violence. External Aggression,
Occupation, Foreign Domination or Events Seriously Disturbing Public Order.
Revolutionary Change. Tyranny, Racism.
1) UNHCR, "Note on Certain Aspects of Sexual Violence Against Refugee Women," Executive Committee, 44th Sess., A/AC.96/822, 12 October 1993.
Cases: Mozambique. Afghanistan. Uganda: From Obote to Amin to Obote to Museveni. Ethiopia, Somalia.
MID-TERM ESSAY EXAMINATION, WEDNESDAY 15 OCTOBER 1997
PART III: EMERGENCY: PROTECTION, PREVENTION, RELIEF
11. Complex Emergencies and Humanitarian Intervention.
Emergency Relief and Initial Assistance.
1) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Chapter 3, "Keeping the Peace."
Cases: Somalia, Bosnia, the Gulf, Kurdistan, Partition, Cambodia, Bangladesh.
12. Human Rights: Protection and Prevention.
1) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Chapter 2, "Protecting Human Rights."
2) Bill Frelick, "Assistance Without Protection," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 24-33.
Cases: Horn of Africa: Somalia. Rwanda.
13. Asylum: Temporary Asylum, Manifestly Unfounded
or Abusive Claims, Restrictive Practices.
1) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Chapter 5, "Managing Migration."
2) Wendy A. Young, "U.S. Detention of Women Asylum Seekers," World Refugee Survey," pp. 40-47.
Cases: Xenophobia in Europe; Detention and Interdiction of Haitians by the U.S.
PART IV: IN SEARCH OF SOLUTIONS
14. Durable Solutions: Integration into a Society.
Rebuilding After the War. Post-Return Assistance During Conflict:
Community Rehabilitation and Reconciliation.
1) B.N. Stein, "Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees," International Migration Review, 1986.
2) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Chapter 4, "Promoting Development," pp. 153-185.
3) B.N. Stein, "Regional Efforts to Address Refugee Problems in the Developing World," 1996. [pilot email]
Cases: Palestinians. Rwandese refugees. QIPs; Cross-Mandate Approach; Spot Reconstruction.
15. Settlement in the country of first asylum.
1) B. Stein & L. Clark, "Refugee Integration and Older Refugee Settlements in Africa," 1990. [pilot email]
Cases: African Hospitality: Tanzania and Sudan. Mexico.
16. Resettlement in a Third Country.
1) John Fredriksson, "Revitalizing Resettlement as a Durable Solution," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 48-55.
Cases: Assimilation in American Life: Indochinese. Afghans in Turkey.
17. Voluntary Repatriation.
1) B.N. Stein, "The Challenge of Voluntary Repatriation," 1996. [pilot email]
Cases: Spontaneous Repatriation in Africa and Central America. Bangladesh. Organized repatriation to Laos, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
PART III: THE REFUGEE EXPERIENCE
18. Flight: Who is Likely to Become a Refugee?
1) S. Prins, " The Individual in Flight," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955), 25-32.
2) S. Pedersen, "Reaching Safety," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955), pp. 33-43.
3) S. Keller, Uprooting and Social Change, (Delhi: Manohar Book Service, 1975), Ch. 3.
Cases: The Indian Sub-Continent: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Burma. World War II. The Boat People. Central America.
19. Consequences of Flight: Refugee Camps, Shock,
and Adjustment. Refugee Camps as a Long-Term Phenomenon.
1) H.B.M. Murphy, "The Camps," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955).
2) E. Bakis, "D.P. Apathy," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955).
3) H. Stern, "The Aftermath of Belsen," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955).
4) Lance Clark, "The Refugee Dependency Syndrome," UNICEF News, 1986.
5) R. Mollica, "Communities of Confinement: The Psychiatric Care of Highly Traumatized Indochinese Refugee Populations (In Thailand and Boston)," seminar series, Critical Issues in International and U.S. Refugee Law and Policy, Fletcher School, Tufts Univ., 6 March 1990.
Cases: The Horn of Africa, Palestinians, Afghans, Indochinese.
20. Adjustment into a New Society.
1) J. Berry, "Acculturation and Psychological Adaptation Among Refugees," in D. Miserez, ed., Refugees--The Trauma of Exile, (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1988).
2) Julie Peteet, "Identity Crisis: Palestinians in Post-War Lebanon," World Refugee Survey 1997, pp. 34-39.
21. Refugee Women and Children. Approximately
80% of all Refugees are Single Women and their Dependents. Violence.
1) Susan Forbes Martin, "Return and Reintegration: The Experiences of Refugee and Displaced Women," Refugee Policy Group, September 1992.
2) UNHCR, UNHCR Policy on Refugee Women. Executive Committee, 41st Session, A/AC.96/754, 20 August 1991.
Cases: Rhetoric is not enough. Mozambique.
22. Conclusion: Problems and Challenges. International
Refugee Policy in the 1990s.
1) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, Conclusion, "Investing in the Future."
1) P. Lyman, "U.S. Responses to Refugee and Migration Issues: The Challenges of the 1990s," seminar series, Critical Issues in International and U.S. Refugee Law and Policy, Fletcher School, Tufts University, 23 September 1991.
2) Aristide Zolberg, "Discussion: Commentary on Current Refugee Issues," Journal of International Affairs 47 (2), Winter 1994.
3) Paul Burkhead, "Stirring the Pot: Immigrant and Refugee Challenges to the United States and the World," Journal of International Affairs, 47(2), Winter 1994.
FINAL exam TUESDAY 9 DECEMBER 1997 from 7:45 am to 9:45 am
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