1996 regional paper

 1997 regional paper

  Exodus 1947

WWW:  UNHCR Home Page
 UNHCR News, Press Releases, News Briefings:
OXFORD Refugee Studies Programme -- Course Outline
 U.S. Committee for Refugees
 World Vision
  International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
 Journal of Humanitarian Assistance
 Relief and Rehabilitation Network
 Humanitarianism and War Project


Any person who:
1) "...owing to a well-founded fear of being
2) persecuted for reasons of
3) race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion,
4) is outside the country of his nationality and is
5) unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country, or who, ... is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.

Any person who: "... owing to EXTERNAL AGGRESSION, OCCUPATION, FOREIGN DOMINATION OR EVENTS SERIOUSLY DISTURBING PUBLIC ORDER in either part of, or the whole of his country of origin or nationality is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality."

CARTAGENA Declaration on Refugees in Central America [1984]:
"... persons who have fled their country because their lives, safety or freedom have been THREATENED BY GENERALIZED VIOLENCE, FOREIGN AGGRESSION, INTERNAL CONFLICTS, MASSIVE VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS or other circumstances which have SERIOUSLY DISTURBED PUBLIC ORDER."

MSF's Visit a Refugee Camp--

PLS461 Refugees, Displaced Persons, Exiles

?Professor Barry N. Stein                               Fall 2002
Department of Political Science  M-W 3:00-4:50 pm (4 credits) 108 Kresge Art Center
Michigan State University   office: 345 S. Kedzie, (517) 355-1881
East Lansing, Michigan 48824                 email:             


 Throughout the world there are large groups of people with no homes of their own, caught between
danger at home and loss of identity in a strange land.  As a result of independence and national
self-determination struggles, nation-building, political conflict, tyranny, internal disorder, ethnic conflict,
revolutionary change, military occupation, persecution, racism, armed conflict, struggle, and turmoil,
millions have fled their homes and sought sanctuary in places where often they are isolated, different, and
often impoverished.  The course will focus on current refugee problems: refugees and internally displaced
persons in the developing nations and transitional societies; the causes of refugee movements; the nature of
persecution, flight and asylum; asylum and resettlement in developed countries; refugee politics; refugee
behavior and activities; refugees and peacekeeping; complex humanitarian emergencies; repatriation during
conflict; and responses and solutions to refugee problems.  For some refugees a troubled return home
appears possible, others must attempt a new life in a strange and difficult society, while many languish in
the limbo of refugee camps.
 Today, there are about 40 million people in need of international protection and assistance;
approximately 14+ million refugees and 20+ million internally displaced persons (DPs) ["refugee-like"
victims who have been forced from their homes by violence but who have not crossed an international
boundary].  Roughly 90 percent of the world's forced migrants are from developing countries and over 90
percent of these uprooted peoples will remain in developing countries, either settling in their country of first
asylum, being repatriated to their homelands or waiting in camps or settlements for a solution.  The heart of
the problem of refugee assistance, which has emerged since the mid-1970s, is "the massive arrival of
refugees in low-income countries where often no durable solutions are at hand."  This problem is
exacerbated by weak states, fragile peace, complex humanitarian emergencies, and "compassion fatigue" in
the post-cold war era.  The principles of asylum and temporary protection are undergoing a severe challenge
which ironically has been provoked by xenophobia in the democratic, affluent states and which is becoming
 The aim of this course is to promote refugee research which analyzes refugee problems from a
general, historical and comparative perspective; viewing them as recurring phenomena with identifiable and
often identical patterns of behavior and sets of causalities and treating specific refugee situations not as
unique, atypical, individual historical events but rather as part of a general subject--refugee behavior and
situations that recur in many contexts, times and regions.  The course will seek to develop concepts,
classifications, theories, models, and typologies about refugees by taking an analytical, comparative,
historical, and general view of refugee problems.  Political, sociological, psychological, legal, and historical
problems of refugees will be examined with emphasis on the shocks, dislocations and adjustments of
refugees confronted with difficult, unsatisfactory, and tragic choices.
Elie Weisel: "If ever time was a metaphysical notion, that was it: when good and evil were separated by a man-made frontier.  Any
frontier is man-made, and yet, on one side people died, while on the other they went on living as though the others didn't die."
                                               Course Requirements and Information
     1)   U.S. Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey 2002 (Washington, D.C.: Immigration and
     Refugee Services of America, 2001).  [hereafter: USCR, Refugee Survey 2002] Available online at:
     2)   Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the
     Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
     3)   UNHCR, The State of the World's Refugees 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action (Oxford:
     Oxford University Press, 2000).  [hereafter: UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000]
     4)   UNHCR, New Issues in Refugee Research.  As assigned.  Online:

     EXAMINATIONS: There will be an in-class MID-TERM exam--20%, Thursday 17 October, and a
FINAL exam--30%,WEDNESDAY 11 DECEMBER from 5:45 PM to 7:45 PM..  Both tests will be
ESSAY and the questions will be provided in advance of the test.
     TERM PAPER [50%]: This course fulfils the "Tier II Writing Requirement" needed for graduation.
The term paper is half of your grade.  I expect to meet with each of you regularly to discuss your topic, assist
in finding source materials, see how the paper is shaping up, review drafts, and to explore ideas and leads.
You have two deadlines:
     •    for topic approval Friday 27 September, and
     •    paper submission Wednesday 11 December.
 It is in your best interest to meet with me frequently about your paper.
 NOTE: You are not limited to current events or the latest information.  Papers exploring
refugee history or papers using a cut-off date in the recent past are acceptable.
 Each member of the class is required to write a research paper, using PRIMARY source materials
where appropriate and available, as well as SECONDARY sources.  You are expected to make extensive
use of the library, in particular the DOCUMENTS (US and UN) section--if applicable. [Note: I know it is
easier to do research on the web, but there is no substitute for going to the library and getting books
and journals.]  A semester also gives you enough time to write requests for information and material from
governments, organizations, agencies, and groups.
 Each student will choose a REFUGEE GROUP, POLICY ISSUE or TOPIC for intensive study.  In
order to make the topic MORE MANAGEABLE, it is suggested that you restrict your paper to a specific
issue or group.
 You are welcome to choose topics based on your academic interests or your personal background--
CJ majors studying refugee camps; psych majors doing refugee behavior; Christians, Muslims or Jews
studying their co-religionists; or track your ancestry or travels or language ability.  Papers could deal with:
    a refugee GROUP--either an in depth study of a group (recent or historical) or of a selected aspect
of a refugee group's experience.  For example: Kosovo refugees; Kosovar refugees in Macedonia or
Albania; mental health of Kosovars in refugee camps; internally displaced Kosovars; voluntary repatriation
of Kosovo refugees; US policy towards Kosovo; Kosovar refugees  in the US.  Keep in mind that there have
been many US refugees: from the Revolution [fled to Canada and England]; the Civil War [to Mexico and
Brazil]; and Vietnam [to Canada and Sweden]; as well as the Mormon exodus to Utah and the violent
displacement of indigenous groups such as the Cherokee Trail of Tears.
 a particular THEME--refugee camps; asylum and refugee women; sexual violence against refugee
women; emergency assistance; voluntary agencies; voluntary repatriation; durable solutions; sanctuary;
religious refugees; xenophobia; 'ethnic cleansing'; the use of the military; humanitarian intervention; refugee
aid and development; unaccompanied minors; elderly refugees.
 PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES--the role of UNHCR or UNDP or DHA in refugee assistance; foreign
policy and refugees; promoting voluntary repatriation; assistance to vulnerable groups; medical assistance to
refugees; root causes of refugee problems; detention and deterrence of asylum seekers; government
programs for resettlement; ethnic enclaves; criteria for accepting refugees; tragic choices: resettlement or
overseas aid; prevention and protection; temporary asylum; aid to the poorer hosts; humanitarian
 refugee BEHAVIOR--survivor's guilt; the decision to flee; refugee adaptation; 'd.p. apathy'; the
'dependency' syndrome; the refugee experience; violence and trauma: for women, for children; post-
traumatic stress disorder; economic adjustment of refugees; refugee mental health; ethnic differences in
adaptation; generational problems.
 Topics must be approved by Friday 27 September.  Bring a typed topic and thesis statement to
class [or send me an email]--this can be as brief as a paragraph; however, it is best if you give me
everything you know or think you know, at this time.  It can be sketchy, outline form; but let me know where
you hope to go so that I can provide better advice and direction.  Papers are DUE at the final
examination [Wednesday 11 December].
 PAPERS MUST BE TYPED WITH FOOTNOTES, end of the paper acceptable, and a
BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Papers should be APPROXIMATELY 20 to 25 PAGES IN LENGTH--it is almost
impossible for 15 pages to get a 4.0.  A PROFESSIONAL paper--well written, complete research,
bibliography, neat, spelling corrected, grammatical--is demanded.  [Use a STANDARD FORMAT such as
Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations or Lester, Writing
Research Papers: A Complete Guide.]  MAKE A COPY, I keep all papers but I will trade a graded paper
for a clean copy.
(1) watch the dates of your sources--don't use a decade-old source to describe current conditions;
(2) bibliographies are very important [I read them first]--get the early, original materials, the latest word,
government and UN documents, contact the refugee agency or group directly;
(3) go beyond lecture and the syllabus--only in the rarest cases should you quote lecture notes, also find
your own reference materials--the textbook and course packs are a starting point, not a lazy main source;
(4) beware of adjectives, adverbs and generalizations--best, worst, greatest, unique, largest; that is, choose
your modifiers and conclusions with care.  Can you defend what you say.
(5) one inch margins top/bottom, left/right.  12 point font.  Do not use full justification.
     •    Some notes on writing term papers:   DON’T ANNOY THE PROF.  At the end of finals week I will
     grade 20 to 35 twenty page term papers in two to four days.  I get very irritable and students who
     invent their own confusing methods of citation and reference will get lower grades.
      •   this is social science not literature--avoid florid phrasing, hyperbole and emotional
     descriptions; one paper had “supremely,” brilliant,” “valor,” “admirable,” “valiantly,”
     and “magnificent,” just on its first page and went on to say “no nation on earth has
     struggled more for principles of equality,” while describing a WWII ally of Nazi Germany.
      •   opinions are not wanted in your paper, except in its conclusion.  All opinions are not equal
     and many student opinions are incomprehensible.  Opinions need to be passed on facts,
     documents, proofs.  They need to emerge from an argument, reasoned, logical and connected
     to texts and references.
      •   you must use a standard writing handbook.  Students must submit a sample of three
     bibliographic entries and one page of text with references three weeks before end of term.
     You must enable the reader--the professor grading your paper--to easily find your
     references.  E.g. “impact of armed conflict on children, p. 9" means nothing to me while
     “Machel, 1996:9" is well known in this field and very clear.
      •   don’t make assertions “one can be sure” etc. without offering proof--references and page
     numbers.  Students love to use words such as “genocide” without knowing the definition or
     history of the term.  Loaded words must be used with care and proof.
      •   proofread: spell check will not catch the difference between “the soldiers were prepared to
     bleed [breed] to death for their country.”
      •   papers are to be stapled.  That’s it, no folders, binders or covers.  Follow a hand-in
     checklist: margins are to be one inch on top, bottom, left and right; format can be footnotes
     at the end or the bottom of the page; cover page should have the title and student name and
     ID number; use a standard 12 point font.
      •   no encyclopedias: you can use them to get an overview but there has to be other source
     material.  Also, be sparing in your use of our textbooks or lecture notes--a research paper
     requires you to go out and find your own information.
      •   go to the library.  Your term paper will be at a major disadvantage if you try to do the
     research on the Internet.  Yes, there is a lot on the web but for almost all papers there are
     books and other materials on the shelves or in the library files that you need to browse
     through.  Use the web for some catalog searches but get to the library for books and
      •   if you use the web, be aware that there are special scholarly citation rules that kick in.
      •   not all source materials are equal: magazines and newspapers rank below scholarly journals
     and books from university presses.  IMR, JRS, IJRL, IO, FA
      •   first time it is United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); then you can later
     use just UNHCR.   Almost everyone recognizes “U.S.” or “US” but you will first write
     United States (US).  Why, because that is the correct form, get used to it.

 Citations:  How to cite information on the Internet in school papers, theses, reports, etc. There is no
definitive answer, but many people have made suggestions. Here are some places to go for recommended
electronic information citation guides.
 Generally it is preferred that you follow the style of the Government Publications Department of the
University of Memphis, at:
 Plagiarize: “to steal or pass off (the ideas of another) as one’s own; use (a created product) without
crediting the source; to commit literary theft; present as new and original an idea or product derived from an
existing source.”  (Webster’s, 1987) [Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield: 1987).]

their RESEARCH TOPIC during the last two class periods, 3 and 5 December.  Presentations are voluntary,
they can improve your term paper grade; they cannot harm it.  Notify me by Tuesday 26 November.
     GRADES: FINAL Exam--30%  MID-TERM Exam--20%  PAPER & PRESENTATION--50%
CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION is expected and will be rewarded.
     OFFICE HOURS: The half-hour after class and Wednesday and Friday 8:00-10:00 am or by
appointment.  I am available mornings and afternoons almost every Monday, Wednesday and Friday, please
feel free to drop in and chat.  Call first [355-1881] to check that I am in my office.

                          Films and CCTV
 •Tuesday 27 August -- CCTV:  "CBS Reports--The Boat People" at 3:50 pm on channel 4
•Thursday September 26 --- CCTV [ch 7]: "Global View50 Years of Protection;"
            "A Global View1998; "Promises to Keep;"
"Camp on Lantau Island;" "Refugee Women: The Courage to Move Onward"
•Thursday 7 November  – CCTV: “To Feel at Home” and “The Journey of Hope”

                          Course Outline

1.  Introduction: Who is a Refugee?  Refugee Research: Recurring Patterns.  Refugees, Displaced
Persons, Exiles, Immigrants, Economic Migrants, Asylees, Stayees.
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee
Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 1, "Who Is a Refugee?"
2) Bill Frelick, “The Year in Review,” USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 14-23.
1) Atle Grahl-Madsen, The Status of Refugees in International Law, v. I, pp. 73-101.
Cases:  The Boat Peoples: Indochinese, Haitian and Cuban Refugees; Chinese; European shores.
CCTV:  "CBS Reports--The Boat People" Tuesday 27 August at 3:50 pm on channel 4.

2.  Overview:  Refugees Today.  Historical Trends Increasing the Problem of Refugees. Multiple
Definitions for Multiple Purposes: Assistance or Asylum.  Humanitarian Assistance and Intervention.
Repatriation During Conflict.  Post-Cold War Era.  Prevention, Protection, Peacekeeping.  Relief to
Development.  Impact of the War on Terrorism.
1)   Susan F. Martin, “Global migration trends and asylum,” New Issues in Refugee Research (Working
Paper No. 41) April 2001.
2)  James C. Hathway, “Refugee Law Is Not Immigration Law,” Refugee Survey 2002, pp.  38-45.
3)   Susan F. Martin, “Forced migration and the evolving humanitarian regime,” New Issues in Refugee
Research (Working Paper No. 20) July 2000.
Cases:   Humanitarian Intervention.  Temporary Protection.  Emergencies. Post-Emergency Phase.
Internally Displaced Persons. Targeting Civilians and Assistance.  Failed States, Fragile Peace.  Human
Security.  Military Assistance to Refugees.  Security Council: Threats to Peace.  Globalization and
Migration: Trafficking Human Hope and Fear.  Rwanda: genocide, exodus, armed camps, intervention,
refoulement, war.

3.  Analysis of Refugees by Types and Classes.  Refugee Warriors, Refugees and Terrorism.
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee
Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 9, "Patterns of Social
Conflict and Refugee Movements."
3)  E. F. Kunz, "The Refugee in Flight," International Migration Review, 7(2) Summer 1973, pp. 125-46.
4) B. Stein and F. Cuny, "Repatriation During Conflict," USCR, World Refugee Survey 1991.
5) Jeff Crisp,  "Who has counted the refugees?" UNHCR and the politics of numbers, UNHCR Centre for
Documentation and Research, New Issues in Refugee Research:  Working Paper No. 12: June 1999.
6) Jeff Crisp, “Policy challenges of the new diasporas: migrant networks and their impact on asylum flows
and regimes,”  UNHCR and the politics of numbers, UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research, New
Issues in Refugee Research:  Working Paper No. 7: May 1999.
Cases:  The Horn of Africa. German Expellees, Indochinese, Palestinians, Cubans.

Thursday September 26 --- CCTV: "Global View50 Years of Protection;" "A Global View1998;
"Promises to Keep;" "Camp on Lantau Island;" "Refugee Women: The Courage to Move Onward"

    Arab refugees 1948

                                                                                                           1948 Jewish refugees

4.  From Nansen to Lubbers: The Development of an International Response to Refugee Problems.  The
Twentieth Century--Century of the Homeless Man.  Historical Scope of the Refugee Problem: Numbers,
Sources and Responses.  Post-Cold War Opportunities.
1)  David Forsythe, “UNHCR's mandate: the politics of being non-political,”  New Issues in Refugee
Research (Working Paper No. 33) March 2001.
2)  UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000)
“Introduction,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 1-11.
Chapter 1: “The Early Years,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 13-35.
Chapter 2: “Decolonization in Africa,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 37-57.
Chapter 3: “Rupture in South Asia,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp.59-77.
Chapter 4: “Flight from Indochina,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp.79-103.
Chapter 5: “Proxy Wars in Africa, Asia and Central America,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 105-
3)   Laura Barnett, “Global governance and the evolution of the international refugee regime,” New Issues in
Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 54) February 2002.
Cases:   Fridtjof Nansen and the League of Nations.  Balkan Wars and the Russian Revolution.  Tyranny in
the Thirties--Failure at Lausanne.  World War II--UNRRA and IRO.  The Expulsion of Germans from
Eastern Europe.  ?China?  Partition of India. Palestine--UNRWA.  The United Nations and UNHCR.  Shift
from Europe to the Third World--A Flexible Mandate for Changing Times.  1979 Geneva Conference on
Indochina.  1979 Arusha Conference on African refugees.  Refugee Assistance in Developing Countries.
ICARA I & II: Durable Solutions.  Operational UNHCR. CIREFCA 1989 (International Conference on
Central American Refugees).  1989 International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees.  Afghanistan
relief and return.  Fiscal Crisis and Three High Commissioners in One Year.  The UN and the Challenge of
Humanitarian Intervention for the Internally Displaced.: "Protection" in the 1990s. Humanitarian
Emergency Capacities: Response; Division of Labor; Decentralization; Coordination; Staff; and

           Friday 27 September–Term paper Topics Due

    mass graves at Srebrenica

drawings by torture victims
5.    International Protection of Refugees: The Classic Definition; Well-Founded Fear of Persecution;
1)  Beth Elise Whitaker, “Changing priorities in refugee protection: the Rwandan repatriation from Tanzania,”
New Issues in Refugee Research (Working Paper No.53), February 2002.
2) UNHCR, Note on International Protection, Executive Committee, 52nd Sess.,  13 Sep 2001.
3)  Matthew J. Gibney, “The state of asylum: democratization, judicialization and evolution of refugee policy
in Europe,” New Issues in Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 50) October 2001.
4) UNHCR, Note On International Protection, Executive Committee, 44rd Sess., A/AC.96/815, 31 August
1993. [pilot email]
5)  UNHCR, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status (Geneva: UNHCR,
reedited 1992).
1) A. Grahl-Madsen, The Status of Refugees in International Law, v. I, (Leyden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1966), pp.
Cases: Sanctuary for Central Americans: Well-Founded Fear or Generalized Violence.  Haitians: Refugees
or Economic Migrants.  Social Groups: Gender; Homosexuals; Birth Control.

6.  Overview: Who and Where are the Refugees?  Rwandan, Burundian, Congolese, Somali, Iraqi Kurds,
ex-Yugoslav [Kosovars, Bosniaks, Serbs, Croats, Macedonians], Haitian, Liberian, the newly-independent
states of the former Soviet Union, Palestinian, Sri Lankan, Sudanese, German, Vietnamese, Khmer, Lao,
Hmong, Ethiopian, Eritrean, Angolan, Mozambican, Cuban, Jewish, Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, Guatemalan,
Afghan, Chinese, Indian subcontinent, South African and other refugee groups.
1990--Kuwait; 1991--Kurds, Bosnia, Liberia, Angola, Eritrea, Ethiopia; 1992--Somalia, Bhutan,
Mozambique, Afghanistan, Cambodia; 1993--Burundi, Georgia, Haiti, Mogadishu; 1994--Rwanda genocide,
Cuban Balseros; 1995--Srebrenica, Dayton, Chechnya; 1996--Goma, Congo-Zaire; 1997--Sierra Leone; 1998-
-Kosovo; 1999–Kosovo, East Timor, Chechnya redux; 2000–Eritrea v. Ethiopia, Congo, Guinea, Sierra
Leone, Colombia; 2001–Macedonia, Palestine; 2002–Australia, Afghanistan. Sri Lanka, Europe.
1) USCR, "World Refugee Statistics," World Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 1-13.
2) "Africa," USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 52-109.
3) "East Asia and the Pacific," USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 110-141.
4) "South and Central Asia," USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 142-161.
5) "Middle East," USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 162-185.
6) "Europe," USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 186-259.
7) "The Americas and the Caribbean," USCR, Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 260-281.
8) Annex 2: “Number of refugees and others of concern to UNHCR, 31 December 1999,” UNHCR, World’s
Refugees 2000, pp. 306-309.

          Cambodia repatriation                                                  UNTAG in Namibia                                               Eritrean independence referendum


7.  Causes of Refugee Movements: Root Causes and Human Rights.  Political, Social and Economic Factors
Leading to Flight.
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee
Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Chapter 10. "Towards a Better
International Refugee Regime."
2)  Chapter 8: “Displacement in the Former Soviet Union,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 185-209.
Cases: German Expellees, Sudan.

Some people become refugees in an instant, as a matter of life or death.
The UN estimates 180,000 Rwandan Hutu refugees vanished in their trek across Congo.
8.   Nation-Building: Weak States and Failed States.  Nationalism and Independence.  New States,
Minorities.  The Principle of National Self-Determination stops here?
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee
Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989),
Chapter 2. "Ethnic Conflict in the New States of Sub-Saharan Africa;"
Chapter 4. "Separatism, Revolution, and War in Ethiopia and the Horn;" and,
Chapter 5. "Reorganization of Political Communities in South Asia."
1) Anthony D. Smith, "The Ethnic Sources of Nationalism," in Michael E. Brown, Ethnic Conflict and
International Security (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).
Cases:  Rwanda-Burundi.  Liberia.  Ethiopia--Eritrea, Tigre, Ogaden, Oromo.  Partition of India.
Afghanistan.  Sri Lanka.  Chechnya, Ossetia, Abkhazia, . . .  xYugoslavia.

9.  Revolution, Social Conflict, and War.
1) Aristide R. Zolberg, Astri Suhrke and Sergio Aguayo, Escape From Violence: Conflict and the Refugee
Crisis in the Developing World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989),
Chapter 3. "In the Long Shadow of South Africa;"
Chapter 6. "Revolution and Reaction in East Asia;"
Chapter 7. "Social Conflict and Refugees in Latin America;" and,
Chapter 8. "Social Revolutions and Refugees in Central America."
Cases: Cambodia, Central America.

           Afghanistan: Mujahadeen fought and beat the Soviets, then fought among themselves
10.  Generalized Violence.  External Aggression, Occupation, Foreign Domination or Events Seriously
Disturbing Public Order.  Revolutionary Change.  Tyranny, Racism.
1)  UNHCR, The State of The World's Refugees: in Search of Solutions, Oxford University Press 1995, “Box
2.1 Refugee women and girls: surviving violence and neglect.”
2)  UNHCR   The State of the World's Refugees 1997-98: A Humanitarian Agenda (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1997).  “Box 4.3 Women in war-torn societies.”
Cases: Mozambique.  Afghanistan. Uganda: From Obote to Amin to Obote to Museveni. Ethiopia, Somalia.
Sierra Leone

            MID-TERM ESSAY EXAMINATION, Thursday 17 OCTOBER 2002


1998 Southern Sudan
11.  Complex Emergencies and Humanitarian Intervention.  Emergency Relief and Initial Assistance.
Crossing the ‘Mog’ Line, Age of Terrorism.  .
1 ) Georg Frerks and Dorothea Hilhorst, “Evaluation of humanitarian assistance in emergency situations,”
New Issues in Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 56) February 2002.
2)  Larry Minear, “Partnerships in the protection of refugees and other people at risk: emerging issues and
work in progress,” New Issues in Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 13) July 1999.
3)  Larry Minear. “Humanitarian action in an age of terrorism,” New Issues in Refugee Research (Working
Paper No. 63) August 2002.

1) Frederick Cuny, Disasters and Development (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983).
2) Larry Minear et al., Humanitarianism Under Siege: A Critical Review of Operation Lifeline Sudan,
Trenton: Red Sea Press, 1991.
3) Larry Minear et al., United Nations Coordination of the International Humanitarian Response to the Gulf
Crisis 1990-1992, Brown University, Thomas Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, Occasional Paper
#13, 1992.
4) Robert Chambers, "Hidden Losers? The Impact of Rural Refugee Programs on Poorer Hosts," International
Migration Review, 1986.
Cases: Kosovo, Rwanda, Somalia, Bosnia, Kurdistan, Partition, Cambodia, Bangladesh.

12.  Asylum: Temporary Protection, Manifestly Unfounded or Abusive Claims, Restrictive Practices.  Human
1) Niklaus Steiner, “Arguing about asylum: the complexity of refugee debates in Europe,” New Issues in
Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 48), October 2001.
2)   Lee Anne de la Hunt, “Refugee Law in South Africa: Making the Road of the Refugee Longer?”  Refugee
Survey 2002, pp. 46-51.
3)  UNHCR, Guidelines on International Protection No. 1: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of
Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees
(HCR/GIP/02/01) 7 May 2002.
4)  UNHCR, Guidelines on International Protection No. 2: "Membership of a Particular Social group" within
the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of
Refugees (HCR/GIP/02/02) 7 May 2002.
1) A. Grahl-Madsen, Territorial Asylum, 1980, pp. 1-23.
2) G. Melander, Refugees in Orbit, 1978, pp. 1-38.
3) Ignatius Bau, This Ground is Holy: Church Sanctuary and Central American Refugees, NY: Paulist Press,
1985. Foreword, Introduction, and Chapter 1.
Cases:   Xenophobia in Europe; Detention and Interdiction of Haitians by the U.S.

                      PART IV: IN SEARCH OF SOLUTIONS

13.  Durable Solutions: Integration into a Society.  Rebuilding After the War.  Post-Return Assistance
During Conflict: Community Rehabilitation and Reconciliation.
1) Chapter 6: “Repatriation and Peacebuilding in the early 1990s,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 133-
2)  Jeff Crisp, “Mind the gap! UNHCR, humanitarian assistance and the development process,”  New Issues in
Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 43), May 2001.
3)  B.N. Stein, "Regional Efforts to Address Refugee Problems," 1997.
1) A. Lake et. al.  After the Wars.  New Brunswick: Transaction Pub., 1990.
Cases: Palestinians.  Rwandese refugees.  QIPs; Cross-Mandate Approach; Spot Reconstruction.

14.  Settlement in the country of first asylum.
1)  B. Stein & L. Clark, "Refugee Integration and Older Refugee Settlements in Africa," 1990. [pilot email]
2)  Karen Jacobsen, “The forgotten solution: local integration for refugees in developing countries,” New
Issues in Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 45), July 2001.
3)  Tania Kaiser, “UNHCR's withdrawal from Kiryandongo: anatomy of a handover,” Working Paper No. 32
UNHCR, (October 2000)
Cases:  African Hospitality: Tanzania and Sudan.  Mexico.

15.  Resettlement in a Third Country.
1)   Lavinia Limon, “Everything Has Changed,” Refugee Survey 2002, pp.  24-27.
2)  Bill Frelick, “Rethinking U.S. Refugee Admissions: Quantity and Quality,” Refugee Survey 2002, pp. 28-
Cases: Indochinese, Russians, Sudanese.

  Thursday 7 November  – CCTV: “To Feel at Home” and “The Journey of Hope”

16.  Voluntary Repatriation.
1) B. N. Stein, "The Challenge of Voluntary Repatriation," 1996.  [pilot email]
2) Chapter 10: “The Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp. 245 -273.
3) Joanna Macrae, “Aiding peace … and war: UNHCR, returnee reintegration, and the relief-development
debate,” New Issues in Refugee Research (Working Paper No. 14) December 1999.
4)  Sarah Petrin, “Refugee return and state reconstruction: a comparative analysis,”   New Issues in Refugee
Research (Working Paper No. 66), August 2002.
1) G.J.L. Coles, Voluntary Repatriation: A Background Study, Geneva: UNHCR, 1985.
2) B. Stein and F. Cuny, "Refugee Repatriation During Conflict: A New Conventional Wisdom," November
3) B. Stein and F. Cuny, "Voluntary Repatriation: Contemporary Practice," in B.N. Stein et. al., Refugee
Repatriation During Conflict: A New Conventional Wisdom. Dallas: The Center for the Study of Societies in
Crisis, 1995.
Cases: Spontaneous Repatriation in Africa and Central America.  Bangladesh.  Organized repatriation to
Laos, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.  Bosnia, Kosovo.  Rwanda

                      PART V: THE REFUGEE EXPERIENCE

17.  Flight: Who is Likely to Become a Refugee?
1) S. Prins, " The Individual in Flight," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955), 25-32.
2) S. Pedersen, "Reaching Safety," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955), pp. 33-43.
3)  Latvian President Vaira Vike-Freiberga, “A Survivor Speaks for All Who Died by the Roadside,” Refugee
Survey 2002, pp. 20-21.

1) S. Keller, Uprooting and Social Change, (Delhi: Manohar Book Service, 1975), Ch. 3.
Cases: The Indian Sub-Continent: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Burma.  World War II.  The
Boat People.  Central America.

18.  Consequences of Flight: Refugee Camps, Shock, and Adjustment.  Refugee Camps as a Long-Term
1)  Barbara Harrell-Bond, “Are refugee camps good for children?” Working Paper No. 29: (August 2000)
2)  Simon Turner, “Angry young men in camps: gender, age and class relations among Burundian refugees in
Tanzania,” UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research, New Issues in Refugee Research:  Working
Paper No. 9: June 1999.
3) H.B.M. Murphy, "The Camps," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955).
4) E. Bakis, "D.P. Apathy," in Murphy, ed., Flight and Resettlement (UNESCO, 1955).
1) Dorsh Marie de Voe, "Framing Refugees as Clients," International Migration Review, v. 15, no. 1-2, 1981.
2) S. Keller, Uprooting and Social Change, chapter 4.
3) F.A.S. Jensen, "Psychological Aspects of the Social Isolation of Refugees," International Migration Digest,
4) B. E. Harrell-Bond, Imposing Aid: Emergency Assistance to Refugees (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1986) Chapter 7, "The 'Over-Socialized Concept of Man.'"
Cases:   The Horn of Africa, Palestinians, Afghans, Indochinese.

Some refugee camps are entire cities, housing hundreds of thousands of refugees.
19.  Adjustment into a New Society.
1)  B. N. Stein, "The Experience of Being a Refugee:  Insights from the Research Literature," in Carolyn
Williams and Joseph Westermeyer, eds., Refugee Mental Health in Resettlement Countries (Washington,
D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1986). [pilot email]
Cases: Assimilation in American Life.

20.  Conclusion: Problems and Challenges.  International Refugee Policy in a new century.
1)  Chapter 11: “The Changing Dynamics of Displacement,” UNHCR, World’s Refugees 2000, pp.275-287.
2)  Sarah Collinson, “Globalization and the dynamics of international migration: implications for the refugee
regime,” New Issues in Refugee Research (Wprking Paper No. 1) July 1999.
3)  Jeff Crisp, “Africa's Refugees: Patterns, Problems and Policy Challenges,” Working Paper No. 28:
UNHCR August 2000.
1) Aristide Zolberg, "Discussion: Commentary on Current Refugee Issues," Journal of International Affairs 47
(2), Winter 1994.
2) UNHCR [Jeff Crisp], The State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions, New York: Oxford
University Press, 1995, Conclusion, "Investing in the Future."

        FINAL exam Wednesday 11 DECEMBER 2002 from 5:45pm to 7:45pm

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