Jewish Experience Study Abroad
JHVC -- Holocaust





An Act of Faith (from the CBS series Look up and Live)
As Hitler's forces occupied country after country, the Jews of Europe were subjugated and deported to concentration camps, resulting in six million deaths. In striking contrast to the experience in other countries, the Jews of Denmark were saved by countrymen who refused to hand over their compatriots to the Nazis. First the Danes, led by King Christian and their clergy, flaunted Hitler's orders of oppression. Then, when deportation orders came in October 1943, Danes hid both Jewish friends and mere acquaintances. When Sweden offered asylum to the Danish Jews the Danes responded by organizing risky, clandestine boat lifts to the neighboring country. Ninety-seven percent of Denmark's Jewish population of 8,000 survived the war because of the courage and compassion of their countrymen. An Act of Faith tells this story. 1961, 28 mins. 

Anne Frank Remembered*
Anne Frank, the young Jewish teenager who went into hiding in an attic in Amsterdam during the Nazi occupation and later perished in Bergen-Belsen, has become internationally known for the expressions of courage and individuality written in her diary. This Academy Award-winning documentary uses photographs, archival footage, and interviews to trace the life of Anne Frank from her girlhood before the war, to her family's time in hiding, to deportation, to her death almost at the end of the war. Through the powerful personal testimony of those who knew her the film makes the history real, and through the story of one person it conveys the terrible magnitude of the millions of lives lost during the Holocaust. 1995, 117 mins. 

The Attic: The Hiding of Anne Frank
The diary of Anne Frank is internationally renowned as one of the most moving personal testimonies to emerge from the Holocaust. Anne, along with her family and four others, was hidden from the Nazis for two years in an attic in Amsterdam. Their survival was facilitated by four courageous family friends including Miep Gies, a former employee of Anne's father, Otto Frank. After the Gestapo discovered the inhabitants of the secret annex, Miep was able to salvage Anne's diary, stories, and sketches. Beginning with the Nazi invasion of Holland, The Attic chronicles the devastating events that befell the Frank family prior to and during their years in hiding. Based on the book Anne Frank Remembered by Miep Gies, the drama features Mary Steenburgen in a sensitive and compelling portrayal of Miep. 1992, 95 mins 

Au Revoir, Les Enfants
During the Nazi occupation of Europe, local populations responded to actions against the Jews by collaborating, rescuing, or standing by. All these attitudes are captured in Au Revoir, Les Enfants, Louis Malle's autobiographical story of the year 1944, when three Jewish boys are sheltered at a Catholic boarding school outside Paris. The film captures the danger that those in hiding lived with daily, fearing any small slip that would condemn them to death. Julien Quentin, a sensitive twelve-year-old, forms a shaky friendship with Jean Kippelstein (alias Bonnet), sharing the normal confusions and curiosities of adolescence. But these are not normal times. When Julien learns Jean's secret, he awakens to an adult world of ambiguous moral textures. Soon he will suffer a devastating loss of innocence and learn about guilt, betrayal, and the terrible consequences of evil. 1987, 103 mins. 

The Boat Is Full
In 1942 Switzerland declared that it had more than enough refugees, and according to Swiss law Jews fleeing the Nazis were to be sent back. They explicitly were not considered political refugees, who were eligible for asylum, as were soldiers deserting from the German army. The only exceptions were children under the age of six, along with their parents, and the elderly. The Boat Is Full is a drama of five Jews who escape from Germany and attempt to elude deportation by posing as a family that qualifies to stay in Switzerland. The five are both protected and betrayed by a rural innkeeper and her husband, who respond to the strangers in their midst with a shifting mix of suspicion, resentment, humanity, compassion and doubt. The refugees' story ultimately unravels, and small minded Swiss bureaucrats carry out the letter of the law. 1980, 104 mins. 

Border Street
In 1940, German troops occupying Warsaw herded the city's Jewish population behind a wall enclosing the ghetto district. Over the next few years, the Nazis began systematically deporting the community to concentration camps. By 1943, the population had dwindled from 500,000 to 60,000. The remaining Jews staged a valiant uprising in April of that year, fighting to near extinction against their oppressors. Border Street, one of the first post-war films to depict the Holocaust, captures the fervor and terror of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, as seen through the eyes of four youths. Bronek and Wladek are gentiles who consider the occupation an affront to their Polish heritage. For Jews David and Jadzia, fighting back is their only choice. Their stories intertwine in an emotional fury as they gallantly defend their lives. 1948, 122 mins. 

The Camera of My Family
In the 1920s the German Jewish community of about half a million people was mainly urban and secular, with a substantial proportion in the professions, finance, and retail trade. The accession of Hitler in 1933 and the swift imposition of antisemitic laws took many by surprise, and they struggled to gauge what the future might hold. The Camera of My Family is narrated by Catherine Hanf Noren, whose family made the difficult decision to flee Germany in 1938, just before it was too late. Years later, in old family photographs, Noren discovers haunting images of family outings, decorated soldiers who proudly fought for Germany in World War I, her grandfather's factory in Dachau all testimony to the integration of German-Jews into the larger society. The trove of photographs leads her to ask questions: Who am I? Where do I belong? How did those to whom I am connected live and die? 1979, 18 mins. 

Daniel's Story*
More than a million Jewish children were murdered at the hands of the Nazis. That tragic fact is difficult enough for adults to assimilate; how can one explain it to children? Daniel's Story, a 14-minute production of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, attempts not only to personalize the fate of those children but also to educate youngsters about the events that led up to that terrible outcome. Daniel, age 10, is a composite of the Jewish children who experienced the war. In a child's voice and language, Daniel recalls the chain of events that took him from his happy middle-class German life to the concentration camps: racial laws that forced him out of school, the yellow star he had to wear, moving to the ghetto, losing the people he loved. The story is enhanced by photos of real people and situations, though none too graphic for young children's eyes. 1993, 14 mins. 

Danzig, 1939
In July of 1939, ten crates of ritual objects arrived at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. The objects, many antique and extremely valuable, came from the Great Synagogue of Danzig, Germany, a magnificent temple which had boasted 1600 congregants. The sale of these objects, arranged by the League of Nations, enabled the Jews of Danzig to buy passage out of Germany. They were the only community to do so, and the artifacts they sold to buy their freedom comprise the only such collection to escape the Holocaust. Many current and former residents of the city are interviewed in Danzig, 1939. They tell of a liberal, mixed Jewish community made up of native Germans and Russian and Polish refugees. Many of the people interviewed among them Rabbi Iwan Gruen of the Great Synagogue remember little antisemitism before Hitler. Yet all were forced to confront the tide of hate that Hitler summoned, and their escape, along with the sale of their collection of artifacts, is one of the unique tales of survival to come out of the Holocaust. 1980, 30 mins. 

The Devil Is a Gentleman
Fifteen years after the end of World War II, Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi chief of Jewish affairs, was abducted by Israeli intelligence agents in Argentina and taken to Jerusalem. From April to December 1961, Eichmann stood trial for his role in administering the Final Solution of the Jewish Problem. Eichmann was found guilty and executed for crimes against the Jewish people, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. The Devil Is a Gentleman, a 12 minute segment from the CBS newsmagazine 60 Minutes, reviews Eichmann's career in the Nazi party and subsequent trial in Israel in an attempt to examine the nature of his character. Drawing upon interviews with people who knew Eichmann, including the prosecuting attorney, a former SS colleague, a psychiatrist, and a Holocaust survivor, the program raises fundamental questions about judgment and responsibility. 1983, 12 mins. 

The Diary of Anne Frank
Since the publication of her diary in 1947 and its translation into dozens of languages, Anne Frank has become a symbol of innocent suffering in the Holocaust, and her story the vehicle through which millions of people been introduced to this era of history. While hiding with her family and others for two years in a secret attic apartment in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam, Anne detailed her thoughts and emotions as an adolescent girl coming of age. A play based on the diary was brought to the stage and became the basis of this film, made in 1959. The Diary of Anne Frank captures Anne's fears, joys, and defiance as the residents of the attic struggle to maintain a semblance of normality in the face of overwhelming odds. The film's conventional Hollywood treatment and upbeat ending, however, have been criticized as inappropriate to the subject and its true outcome. 1959, 151 mins. 

Enemies, A Love Story
Memories pursued Holocaust survivors when they tried to reestablish their lives after World War II. For many who came to America, the vast differences between their new lives and what they had experienced created problems that were difficult to resolve. Enemies, A Love Story, based on a novel by Isaac Bashevis Singer, follows the intertwined affairs of Herman Broder, a writer haunted by nightmares as he tries to settle into his new life in New York. Married to Yadwiga, the Polish woman who saved him, he has a Jewish mistress, fellow survivor Masha. His life and deceptions become even more frenetic as his first wife, Tamara, arrives in New York, having also survived. Ron Silver, Anjelica Huston and Lena Olin all give superb performances in this compelling movie. 1989, 121 mins. 

Europa, Europa
The story of Solomon Perel is one of the most incredible tales to come out of World War II. A young Jew, Perel was able to not only pass for German, but became an honored Nazi soldier during the war. Europa, Europa follows Solomon's life from pre-war Germany to Lodz, Poland, and then to a Soviet orphanage. His Russian-language skills, quick wits and Aryan looks keep Solomon alive after the Germans capture him. He improbably becomes a valued German asset as long as he can hide his Jewishness. The nerve-wracking charade carries Solomon to an elite Hitler Youth school in Berlin, where he must mouth the Nazi line and remain silent in the face of antisemitism. The anxiety mounts when he romances a Jew-hating woman. Europa, Europa depicts Solomon's desperate bid for survival as the Red Army closes in. 1991, 115 mins. 

Facing Hate*
At fifteen, Elie Wiesel and his family were taken by the Nazis to Auschwitz. On their first night in the death camp, his mother and younger sister were murdered. His father, weakened by starvation, died later that year. Yet Wiesel tells Bill Moyers that his reaction to the Holocaust was never to become filled with hate; it was more complex. Hatred is not only destructive but self-destructive, says Wiesel in Facing Hate, an interview that explores the origins and manifestations of hatred. Wiesel, who has organized conferences on the subject, talks about why vengeance was not an adequate response for him, about the differences between anger and hate; and of the inadequacy of reconciliation. He and Moyers also explore the heritage of hate, the way the hater dehumanizes the victim, and the question of faith and meaning after Auschwitz. 1991, 60 mins. 

The Garden of the Finzi-Continis
Despite Mussolini's alliance with Hitler, the Jews of Italy experienced some degree of protection because of the reluctance of Italian police and citizens to assist in the deportation of their Jewish compatriots. Once the Germans invaded Italy in September 1943, however, arrests were stepped up, and about 8,000 Italian Jews lost their lives in the Holocaust. The Garden of the Finzi-Continis, which won the Oscar¬ for Best Foreign Film in 1971, is an exquisite film about an aristocratic Italian-Jewish family during this period. The Finzi-Continis hide behind the high stone walls of their magnificent estate, inviting friends to play tennis on their court when the country club shuts its doors to Jews in compliance with ñracial laws. Their attempts to preserve their way of life become increasingly strained, however, and are ultimately doomed. 1971, 95 mins. 

Genocide (from The World at War)
Nazi racial theory, an ideology that captivated millions of Germans in the 1920s and 30s, was translated into concrete policies by Heinrich Himmler, who created the SS. Once the Nazis came to power, the concept of the Aryan ñmaster raceî was taught in classrooms throughout Germany. The doctrine was implemented in anti-Jewish laws and actions and, ultimately, the Final Solution, in which the Jewish population of Nazi-occupied Europe was systematically deported and murdered. This program, narrated by Laurence Olivier, traces the role of the demonization of the Jews in the rise of Nazism and the Holocaust. Using archival footage, much of it shot by the Nazis, as well as testimony from the Eichmann trial, the film follows the systemized antisemitism of the Nazis from its formation to the end of the war. In grim, graphic images and straightforward narration, it sets out the events that define its topic. 1975, 52 mins. 

Their friendships have lasted since they were children growing up in prewar Libau, Lithuania, a small resort town on the Baltic Sea. Although they are now elderly women, they still call themselves the girls. In Girlfriends, the women reveal the extraordinary moments of mutual support that helped them survive the war years, including time in the ghetto, labor camps, and witnessing of Nazi atrocities. The documentary, set in Israel, is filled with laughter, song, card playing, warm visits, classic kibitzing and joy in their ongoing connections, even as their shared tragic past informs their daily lives. With openness and not always agreeing they tell their individual and collective stories, passing on their legacy to future generations. 1994, 52 mins. 

Good Evening, Mr. Wallenberg
Raoul Wallenberg, an attache to the Swedish Embassy, was sent at the initiative of Swedish Jewish businessmen on a rescue mission of Hungarian Jews. He distributed Swedish papers (Wallenberg passports'), protected Jews in ñWallenberg houses, internationalized the ghetto to give the 33,000 Jews within it more protections, and saved thousands of Jews from deportation. On January 17, 1945, Wallenberg was taken to Moscow as a Soviet prisoner. He was never released, and his fate has remained a mystery. Good Evening, Mr. Wallenberg, a Swedish feature film, chronicles the last days of the war in Budapest. The Soviet noose is tightening around the city, yet the unrelenting mass murder of Jews continues. In this almost surreal atmosphere, where only the victims seem sane, Wallenberg fights tirelessly to save as many as he can and to preserve a semblance of humanity amidst the nihilistic horror. 1990, 115 mins. 

Judgment at Nuremberg
In the years following World War II, the victorious Allies set up a court in which to try Nazi leaders for war crimes. As the world watched in fascination, the Nuremberg trials brought to light issues of accountability and responsibility under the Nazi regime. Judgment at Nuremberg was Hollywood's first attempt to confront issues of guilt and innocence in the Holocaust. It premiered in Berlin to an invited international audience, and won the Oscar for Best Picture. Judgment at Nuremberg presents the trial of a group of German judges charged with crimes committed in the name of the law. Starring Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Judy Garland and Maximilian Schell, the film addresses the complex issue of assigning culpability. 1961, 187 mins. 

Kitty: A Return to Auschwitz
Kitty Felix was the spirited, independent-minded second child of a well-educated Jewish family, growing up in Bielsko, Poland, in the 1930s. In 1943, at the age of seventeen, she was sent to Auschwitz along with her mother. Kitty: A Return to Auschwitz follows Kitty, now a radiographer in England, as she goes back with her grown son to the camp where she survived for two years. She revisits the barracks, the work areas, and the latrines, recalling what existence was like there. While this is clearly painful for her, she endures it to tell her story which is the story of millions of others as well. She describes the support she and her mother gave each other and the things they did to survive. You are here, she tells her son, just to see that it is true, that it was true, and you can tell your children. 1979, 82 mins. > 

Lodz Ghetto
Ghettoization was the first step in the Nazis destruction of the Jews of Europe. Crowded together and forced to labor and live in horrendous conditions, the denizens of the ghettos searched for any method to make meaning out of an existence that seemed doomed and completely meaningless. Lodz Ghetto examines the nightmarish struggle for survival that was the daily lot of the people trapped in the longest lasting of the Jewish ghettos. Using historical and contemporary footage, diaries, monographs, and the voices of survivors, Lodz Ghetto shows how the inhabitants persevered in the face of the terrible forces arrayed against them. The film also examines the role of Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski, the leader of the ghetto, who enforced the German policies even as they killed thousands of his people. 1989, 118 mins. 

Music Box
The trial of John Demjanjuk highlighted the problems of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice so many years after the fact. The dwindling numbers of people on both sides, the reliability of elderly witnesses' memory, and the simple passage of time conspire to make assessments of guilt or innocence extremely difficult. Questions of memory and emotion loom large in Music Box, an intense courtroom thriller about a Chicago attorney (Jessica Lange) who defends her Hungarian immigrant father (Armin Mueller-Stahl) against charges of war crimes. As Ann Talbot, Lange must establish innocence even as she wrestles with growing doubts about her father's dubious past. In a sudden twist, the trial shifts to Hungary, where Ann's waning objectivity succumbs to anger. 1988, 126 mins. 

Night and Fog
The essential fact of the Holocaust that millions of lives were extinguished for arbitrary, political reasons is brought home in Alain Resnais's harrowing 1955 documentary. Every aspect of the Nazi orchestra of death, from the roundup and labeling of the victims to their eventual death in the gas chambers, is shown. Contrasting images of the camps during the war with the desolate, overgrown, and run-down edifices that exist in the present, the film challenges its viewers not to forget what happened even as the reminders dwindle. No description, no shot can restore [the camps] true dimension, the narrator says. Still, Night and Fog comes as close as it is possible to get to the horrors of the concentration camps. 1955, 34 mins. 

Now... After All These Years
In the 1920s, Rhina was the only Prussian village whose population was evenly divided between Jews and Christians. Jews had lived there for generations and were integrated into the local economy. Under the Nazis the town's synagogue was burned, windows were smashed, and Jews were beaten; those who did not escape were arrested and deported. Today, the town has no Jewish population. How do current residents of Rhina recall that time? In Now... After All These Years, a German filmmaker tries to reconstitute Rhina's history by talking to Jewish survivors living in New York and to the Germans who remain. Everywhere in Rhina he is met with denial, avowed ignorance, and an angry refusal to confront the past. The residents' evasive responses reveal much about the climate leading up to the Holocaust as well as the unwillingness of ordinary men and women to acknowledge or atone for their part in it. 1981, 60 mins. 

The Oppermanns
The years 1932-33 were critical ones for Germany's Jews, when popular disaffection and political turmoil fueled by an economic crisis set the stage for Hitler's rise to power. As Nazi views took hold, the Jews fully integrated into German society and accepting the nation's ideals as their own were increasingly viewed as foreigners and enemies, which many found incomprehensible. This mood culminated in the boycott of Jewish stores and professionals in 1934. The Oppermanns, a drama made for German TV, recounts how one wealthy German-Jewish family responded during these pivotal years. As the film opens, the family meets to discuss merging their furniture business with that of an old rival, who may be a Nazi. But the Oppermann brothers the store's manager, a doctor and a man of letters continue to emotionally resist acknowledging the extent of Nazi gains. Finally, they can resist no longer. 1986, 235 mins. 

A Painful Reminder
Efforts to document the Holocaust began while it was still happening. A Painful Reminder is a documentary filmed by a unit of the British Army's psychological warfare division in the spring of 1945; Alfred Hitchcock helped shape the raw material. Considered too controversial at the time, it was not publicly viewed until the 1980s. The film sketches Hitler's rise to power, then provides gruesome details of concentration and extermination camps such as Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Buchenwald and Auschwitz. Besides on-the-scene comments by British troops, A Painful Reminder follows the stories of several Jewish survivors, and carefully shows German municipal officials and citizens at the death camps. The film addresses the post-war political considerations that led to its being shelved for so many years. 1985, 69 mins. 

Partisans of Vilna
Partisans of Vilna explores the moral dilemmas and continuous dangers facing young Jews who organized an underground resistance in the Vilna ghetto and fought as partisans in the woods. Interviews with survivors of the Jewish resistance movement tell the largely unknown story of the Jews who risked their lives and those of others to fight the Nazis. Among those who speak are Israeli poet Abba Kovner, a resistance leader, and Chaika Grossman, former Israeli Knesset member. The survivors, whose stories are interspersed with rare archival footage from 1939-44, tell how enforced ghetto life, unbearable in many respects, led to plans to build grenades, blow up a train, and continually fight back, under constant threat of death. 1986, 130 mins. 

The Pawnbroker
Sol Nazerman is a refugee from a nightmare. His memories of the family and life he lost in the Holocaust influence his every action. A man whose emotional life was wrenched from him, he maintains a cold distance toward all who approach him. Played brilliantly by Rod Steiger, Nazerman eventually comes to recognize human suffering beyond his own when his capacity for sorrow is belatedly revived by a dramatic turn of events. But Nazerman is a controversial figure, and the film raises difficult questions about whether parallels can be drawn between the ghettos of New York and Europe, and between victim and victimizer. Based on a novel by American Jewish writer Edward Lewis Wallant, this is the first American film to portray the inside of the death camps. 1965, 120 mins. 

Oskar Schindler started World War II as a charming playboy and black-market dealer and emerged at its end the savior of over 1,000 Polish Jews. Bribing SS cronies, Schindler established a factory where Jews could be employed and thus escape deportation. Protection of his workers continued at the Plaszow labor camp. Schindler initially profited from his efforts Ü but is that why he did it? Schindler is a riveting documentary that offers testimony from those who knew the real man: his wife, the mistress of Amon Goeth, SS supervisor of the Plaszow camp, and many of Schindler's Jews. However elusive his motives or flawed his character, to them Schindler was an angel in the midst of hell. 1983, 82 mins. 

In Shoah, director Claude Lanzmann piles detail upon detail to give the most comprehensive account of the Holocaust available on film. This riveting epic uses no historical footage of Nazi Germany or the death camps. Instead, Lanzmann tells the story of the Holocaust through interviews with concentration camp survivors, Nazi SS, historians of the era, and regular people who saw the trains of the condemned pass by their homes or watched their cities become Judenrien. Lanzmann's camera eloquently lingers over the miles of train tracks that made the extermination of the Jews possible while the voices of his interviewees recount the methodical psychological, bureaucratic, and physical horrors of the era. Equally powerful are the completely silent scenes of snow falling over the crematoria, the faces of those tortured by their memories, and of others, who are apparently unmoved. 1985, 570 mins. 

The Shop on Main Street
This film examines the moral compromises of occupied populations in World War II that helped make possible the destruction of European Jewry. Self-interest, greed, petty animosities, indifference, and fear, as well as an ingrained tradition of antisemitism, made ordinary people accomplices in the Nazi agenda. In The Shop on Main Street, Tono Britko is a simple, out-of-luck carpenter in a Czech village during the occupation. His fortunes seemingly change when he is appointed Aryan Controller of a button shop owned by a Jewish widow. But Mrs. Lautmann, the frail shopowner, played by the great Yiddish actress Ida Kaminska, seems unable to understand her change of status or the irrational events of the time. The relationship that develops between the two culminates in an agonizing decision. 1965, 128 mins. 

So Many Miracles
Many of the Jews who survived the Holocaust owe their lives to righteous gentiles who imperiled their own lives by assisting Jewish friends and neighbors. The emotions of those years remain undimmed by the passage of time, as Jews recall the fateful decisions, personal courage, and twists of luck that helped them slip through the Nazis' killing machine. In So Many Miracles, survivors Israel and Frania Rubinek return to Poland to meet with Sofia, the woman who hid them. Aware of German atrocities, the couple had lived in a bunker in the town of Pinczow, fled, then returned to hide with Sofia, who sheltered them despite her husband's reluctance. They all stayed in the same house for over two years, narrowly avoiding detection at times. Their reunion, 40 years later, speaks of the power of bonds forged at a time when they were forbidden. 1987, 58 mins. 

Swing Kids
Swing Kids, based on a historical movement, is about a group of young men in Nazi Germany who defied the Third Reich to listen and dance to forbidden swing music from America. These Swing Kids make a moral choice to pursue their personal freedom at the risk of being sent to work camps. Robert Sean Leonard (star of Dead Poets Society) is Peter, the leader of a rebellious group of Swing Kids. Every week, Peter and his friends openly defy the Gestapo by dancing the jitterbug at parties in Hamburg. But as the pressure to join the Hitler Youth takes its toll on the Swing Kids, one by one, each is faced with a brutal choice loyalty to their cause or loyalty to Germany's. 1993, 114 mins. 

Terezin Diary
In March l939 the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, and two years later they turned the fortress town of Terezin, near Prague, into a concentration camp. Here l40,000 Jews from Western and Eastern Europe were imprisoned, prior to being sent to Auschwitz. Through interviews with survivors who were children in the camp, Terezin Diary documents the terrible conditions of life in Theresienstadt, as the Germans called it, as well as the artistic, educational, and spiritual activities that sustained inmates who were spared deportation. Using Terezin as a model camp to demonstrate to the world that they were not mistreating the Jews, the Nazis permitted a degree of cultural life there that was impossible in death camps. Terezin Diary emphasizes the enormous role that art played in the lives of these Jews, many of whom continued their music, painting, writing, and theater in their later lives. 1990, 88 mins. 

Transport from Paradise
In Terezin, nothing was what it seemed: a beautiful fortress town, Theresienstadt (as the Germans called it) was also a concentration camp where hunger, disease, and death were the daily rations. A ghetto where many of the inmates were prominent musicians, artists, and intellectuals, its cultural activities were preludes to deportation. A model city intended to show the Nazis humane treatment of Jews, it served as a way station to Auschwitz. Transport from Paradise captures the surreal atmosphere of Theresienstadt during a 24-hour period marked by preparations for an inspection tour by the Red Cross, the making of a propaganda film depicting a well-fed and happy populace, and the deportation that followed. An original, masterful work, Transport from Paradise depicts the charade of the city that the Nazis proclaimed was given by the Fuehrer to the Jews. 1963, 94 mins. 

Trial at Nuremberg
At the end of World War II in Nuremberg, Germany, twenty-one former officials in the Nazi regime were tried before the International Military Tribunal, composed of judges from the United States, England, France, and the Soviet Union. The defendants, ranging from SS policy makers to high-level hatchetmen, stood accused of crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, and war crimes. From 1945 to 1946, testimony and evidence presented at this first of twelve Nuremberg Trials revealed the scope of Nazi atrocities. Trial at Nuremberg was broadcast in 1958 on the CBS documentary series, The Twentieth Century, hosted by Walter Cronkite. The program is a review of key moments from the trial and includes captured German Army film footage depicting the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the horrors of the concentration camps. 1958, 30 mins. 

Triumph of the Spirit*
When the Nazis occupy Greece, Salamo Arouch, a young boxing champion, is rounded up with his family and Jewish neighbors and deported from Salonika to the Auschwitz death camp. Recognized by his captors for his fighting skill, he is chosen to box for the entertainment of the camp guards. These are matches with only one rule fight until one man drops. If Salamo wins he might bring a small prize of bread to his starving father and brother, but he also sends his opponent to the gas chamber. If he loses death is assured. While grimly depicting daily life in Auschwitz including the rarely dramatized life of the captors the film presents the ethical dilemmas that existed even for prisoners who had little control over their lives. 1987, 121 mins. 

The Wannsee Conference
On January 20, 1942, at a house in Wannsee, a Berlin suburb, a meeting was held with 14 key representatives of the Nazi party, SS, and government bureaucracy. The meeting led by Reinhardt Heydrich, the head of the German secret police lasted 90 minutes and had one item on the agenda: the implementation of The Final Solution to the Jewish Question in Europe. This dramatization of the Wannsee Conference uses actual notes from that meeting, along with letters written by Hermann Gûring and Adolf Eichmann. While the Nazi officials enjoy a buffet lunch, brandy, and cigarettes, they discuss in a clinical, businesslike manner the methods, stages, and logistics by which they hope to exterminate 11 million Jews from all parts of Europe. 1984, 87 mins. 

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
In the autumn and winter of 1941-42, word of mass exterminations in the East made itsway back to the Warsaw Ghetto. The situation in the ghetto was dire: every day hundreds died of hunger, disease, and malnutrition. But with the realization that the Nazis were implementing their Final Solution, some young people in the ghetto organized a resistance. Their campaign to defend Jewish lives and honor and to revenge Jewish deaths gathered force as their situation grew more desperate, culminating in a battle in which they fought the German army with molotov cocktails and stolen guns. Their struggle remains a stirring episode of courage and humanity against a backdrop of horror. Using archival footage and memoirs, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising recounts the events that led to the formation of the ghetto, the impassioned resistance, and the final conflagration. 1993, 22 mins. 

Weapons of the Spirit
Throughout Occupied Europe, people were forced to make a critical moral decision: how to react to Nazi actions against the Jews. Most stood by apathetically. But in France, where collaborators delivered 75,000 Jews, including 10,000 children, to the Nazi death trains, the people of the small village of Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon quietly sheltered at least 5,000 Jews over four years. It was the goal of filmmaker Pierre Sauvage, who was born in the village in 1943, to understand how this conspiracy of goodness came about. In interviews with the aging rescuers and rescued, and with historical footage, Sauvage explores the Chambonais seemingly effortless decision to spiritually oppose Nazism. He looks at the power of their Huguenot memories of persecution, their solid faith, the quality of their leadership, and emphasis on individual conscience. Appended to the film is a Bill Moyers interview with Sauvage. 1989, 35 mins. 

Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die?
Why was the American response to the extermination of European Jewry so inadequate? Could an aggressive approach by American-Jewish leaders have changed the fate of millions? Was President Roosevelt hamstrung by an isolationist Congress and antisemitic public opinion, or would different tactics have persuaded him to make Jewish rescue a war aim earlier? Did the State Department obstruct such attempts? These troubling questions still plague many Jews and historians. Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die? takes a hard look at the U.S. failure to open its doors to Jewish refugees and the Jewish role in that failure. The film includes interviews with those active in and out of government in the 1940s Ü Peter Bergson, Nahum Goldmann, and John Pehle of the War Refugee Board, among others whose views range from scathing indictments to rationales for what most agree was too little, too late. 1982, 90 mins. 

Witnesses to the Holocaust: The Trial of Adolf Eichmann
Fifteen years after World War II, Lieutenant-Colonel Adolf Eichmann, chief of the SS Bureau of Jewish Affairs, was abducted by Israeli agents near his residence in Argentina and taken to Israel. From April to December, 1961, the world watched as Eichmann stood trial for his role in administering the systematic annihilation of European Jewry. Eichmann was found guilty and sentenced to death for crimes against the Jewish people, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Narrated by actor Joel Grey, Witnesses to the Holocaust was compiled from portions of the court proceedings that still exist on videotape (two-thirds of the tapes have been lost). Eyewitness testimony and documentary evidence provide a comprehensive examination of the Nazi attempt to carry out the Final Solution. 1987, 90 mins. 

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