Philip H. Howard

Michigan State University

This movie shows changes in the natural/organic distribution industry from 1982 to 2008. The date is displayed in light gray text at the top left of each image. At the beginning of this period the industry was composed of 29 cooperatively owned firms (blue circles), 23 additional regional distributors (red circles), and one national firm, Tree of Life (larger yellow circle). By 2008, Frontier was the only cooperatively owned distributor, and just three regional distributors remained to compete with the national distributors, Tree of Life and United Natural Foods. Tree of Life was acquired by Kehe in January, 2010.