Dr. John Monberg

Department of Writing, Rhetoric, and American Cultures

Michigan State University

jmonberg@msu.edu
 

Exploring the Social Spaces Created by Interactive Electronic Networks:

Renegotiating "Public," "Community," "Local," and "Identity"

Information technology-based social spaces are relatively new and increasingly important phenomena, but these networks are not built out of thin air.  Literatures from social and political theory, science and technology studies, communication studies, and cultural studies help to illuminate critical aspects of the construction and reconstruction of modern/postmodern publics.  Drawing upon particular subspecialties from these traditions provides a more nuanced and detailed understanding of the intersection of mutually shaping, crosscuting, and overlapping influences upon and outcomes of the formation of publics.

 

Cultural Theory Communication Theory  Social Theory  STS Theory  Political Theory
 

Cultural Theory

Themes that are important in the anthropology/cultural studies/cultural geography literature include the following: the bases and logic of individualism and social-cultural solidarity; the relationship between the structuring of world views and perceptions of space and time, and the structure of capital, government and civil society; the representation of place, especially global cities, postsuburban cities and virtual spaces; the debate surrounding the modernism/postmodernism transition, especially the role of technological infrastructures, economic webs, multiculturalism, reflexivity, the role of the academy, and the spaces available for critique.

Agnew, John. "Representing Space: Space, Scale and Culture in Social Science". Place/Culture/Representation. 1993. eds. James Duncan and David Ley. London: Routledge. 

Alliez, Eric and Feher, Michael. 1986. "Notes on the Sophisticated City". Zone 1/2 City. New York: Urzone.

Appadurai, Arjun. "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy". The Phantom Public Sphere. 1993. ed. Bruce Robbins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad Vs. McWorld". Atlantic Monthly. March 1992.

Baudrillard, Jean. 1983. Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).

____. 1987. America. trans. Chris Turner. London: Verso.

_____. 1988. Selected Writings. ed. Mark Poster. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Benedikt, Michael. ed. 1993. Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Berland, Jody. "Angels Dancing: Cultural Technologies and the Production of Space". Cultural Studies. eds. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler. 1992. New York: Routledge.

Buck-Morss, Susan. 1989. The Dialectics of Seeing. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Certeau, Michel de. 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Crapanzano, Vincent. "The Postmodern Crisis: Discourse, Parody, Memory". Cultural Anthropology. November 1991.

Crary, Jonathon. "Critical Reflections". Artforum. February 1994.

Critical Perspectives on Media and Society. 1991. eds. Robert K. Avery and David Eason. New York: Guilford Press.

The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space. 1993. eds. Robert Rotenberg and Gary McDonogh. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey.
 

Culture and Society Contemporary Debates. 1990. eds. Jeffery Alexander and Steven Seidman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cultural-Political Interventions in the Unfinished Project of Enlightenment. 1992. eds. Axel Honneth, Thomas McCarthy, Claus Offe, and Albrecht Wellmer. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Cultural Politics in Contemporary America. 1989. eds. Ian Angus and Sut Jhally. New York: Routledge.

Delueze, Gilles and Guattari, Felix. "City/State". 1986. Zone 1/2 City. New York: Urzone.

Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and Danger: An analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. New York: Pantheon.

Eagleton, Terry. 1990. The Ideology of the Aesthetic. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ewen, Scott. 1988. All Consuming Images. New York: Basic Books.

Featherstone, Mike. 1991. Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage.

_____. "Global and Local Cultures" in Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change. eds. Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, George Robertson and Lisa Tickner. 1993. New York: Routledge. 

Fish, Stanley. 1994. There's No Such Thing as Free Speech and It's a Good Thing, Too. New York: Oxford University Press.

_____. 1980. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Fisher, Michael M. J. "Is There a Difference between Public Culture 1789 and 1989? A Reply to Greg Urban." Public Culture. 1993.

Foster, Hal. 1983. The Anti-Aesthetic Essays on Postmodern Culture. Seattle: Bay Press.

Garnham, Nicholas. "The Mass Media, Cultural Identity, and the Public Sphere in the Modern World". Public Culture. 1993.

Geertz, Clifford. 1983. Local Knowledge. New York: Basic Books.

Ginsberg, Faye. "Indigenous Media: Faustian Contract or Global Village". Cultural Anthropology. February 1991.

Grossberg, Lawrence. "Cultural Studies and/in New Worlds". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (1993).

Gottdiener, M. "A Marx for Our Time: Henri Lefebvre and The Production of Space". Sociological Theory. March 1993. 

Guattari, Felix. "Regimes, Pathways, Subjects". Incorporations. 1992. eds. Jonathon Crary and Sanford Kwinter. New York: Urzone.

Gregory, Derek. "Interventions in the Historical Geography of Modernity: Social Theory, Spatiality, and the Politics of Representation". Place/Culture/Representation. 1993. eds. James Duncan and David Ley. London: Routledge. 

Gunn, Giles. 1987. The Culture of Criticism and the Criticism of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hannerz, Ulf. 1992. Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hansen, Miriam. "Unstable Mixtures, Dilated Spheres: Negt and Kluge's The Public Sphere and Experience, Twenty Years Later". Public Culture. 1993.

Hanson, Jarice. "Initiatives and Ownership: HDTV and the Influence of Corporatism in the United States". Communication Research. December 1992.

Haraway, Donna. "Teddy Bear Patriarchy: Taxidermy in the Garden of Eden, New York City, 1908-1936".Culture/Power/History: A Reader in Contemporary Social Theory. eds. Nicholas B. Dirks, Geoff Eley, and Sherry B. Ortner. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

_____. "A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s". Feminism/Postmodernism. 1990. ed. Linda J. Nicholson. New York: Routledge.

_____. "The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others". Cultural Studies. eds. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler. 1992. New York: Routledge.

_____. "A Game of Cat's Cradle: Science Studies, Feminist Theory, Cultural Studies". Configurations. 1994 (1).

Hall, Stuart. "Ideology and Communication Theory". in Rethinking Communication 1: Paradigm Dialogues. eds. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

_____. "Cultural Studies and its Theoretical Legacies". Cultural Studies. eds. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler. 1992. New York: Routledge.

Hayles, N. Katherine. "The Materiality of Informatics". Configurations. 1992.

Hebdige, Dick. "Training Some Thoughts on the Future" in Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change. eds. Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, George Robertson and Lisa Tickner. 1993. New York: Routledge. 

_____. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen.

Jackson, Peter. "Toward a Cultural Politics of Consumption" in Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change. eds. Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, George Robertson and Lisa Tickner. 1993. New York: Routledge. 

Janik, Allan and Stephen Toulmin. 1973. Wittgenstein's Vienna. New York: Touchstone.

Jameson, Frederic. 1991. Postmodernism. Durham: Duke University Press.

Joyrich, Lynne. "Television and the Cyborg Subject(ed)". University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Twentieth Century Studies, Working Paper No. 8, Fall 1989.

Kellner, Douglas. "Popular Culture and the Construction of Postmodern Identities". Modernity and Identity. 1992. eds. S. Lash and J. Friedman. Oxford: Basil Blackwood. 

Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 - 1918. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Lanham, Richard A. 1993. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology and the Arts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Leiss, William; Kline, Stephen and Jhally, Sut. 1988. Social Communication in Advertising. Scarborough, Ontario: Nelson Canada.

Leps, Marie-Christine. "Crossdisciplinary Inquiry in the Information Age". Social Epistemology. 1990, Vol. 4, No. 3.

Lyotard, Jean-Francois. 1984. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1984. After Virtue. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Marcus, George and Michael M. J. Fisher. 1986. Anthropology as Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Martin, Emily. "The End of the Body". American Ethnologist. 19:1 (1992).

McDonogh, Gary. "The Geography of Emptiness". The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space. 1993. eds. Robert Rotenberg and Gary McDonogh. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey.

Meyerowitz, Joshua. 1985. No Sense of Place. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nichols, Bill. "The Work of Culture in the Age of Cybernetic Systems". Screen. Winter 1988.

Paul, Robert. "What Does Anyone Want? Desire, Purpose, and the Acting Subject in the Study of Culture". Cultural Anthropology. November 1990.

Place/Culture/Representation. 1993. eds. James Duncan and David Ley.New York: Routledge.

Poster, Mark. 1990. The Mode of Information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rabinow, Paul. "Representations Are Social Facts: Modernity and Post-Modernity in Anthropology". Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. 1986. eds. James Clifford and George Marcus. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy, Individuality and the Self in Western Thought. eds. Thomas C. Heller, Morton Sosna and David E. Wellbery. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Reddy, William. "Postmodernism and the Public Sphere: Implications for an Historical Ethnography". Cultural Anthropology. May 1992.

Robbins, Bruce. ed. 1993. The Phantom Public Sphere. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Rodman, Margaret. "Beyond Built Form and Culture in the Anthropological Study of Residential Community Spaces" .The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space. 1993. eds. Robert Rotenberg and Gary McDonogh. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey.

Rotenberg, Robert. "On the Salubrity of Sites". The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space. 1993. eds. Robert Rotenberg and Gary McDonogh. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey.

Rorty, Richard. 1989. Contingency, Irony and Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rose, Gillian. "Some Notes toward Thinking about Spaces of the Future" in Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change. eds. Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, George Robertson and Lisa Tickner. 1993. New York: Routledge. 

Ross, Andrew. 1989. No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture. New York: Routledge.

_____. "The Fine Art of Regulation". The Phantom Public Sphere. 1993. ed. Bruce Robbins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Sack, Robert David. 1992. Place, Modernity and the Consumer's World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Sennett, Richard. 1990. The Conscience of the Eye: The Design and Social Life of Cities. New York: Norton.

Soja, Edward. 1990. Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory. London: Verso.

Stone, Allucquere Roseanne. "Virtual Systems". Incorporations. 1992. eds. Jonathon Crary and Sanford Kwinter. New York: Urzone.

_____. "Will the Real Body Stand Up". Cyberspace: First Steps. 1991. ed. Micaeh Benedikt. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_____. "Split Subjects, Not Atoms; or, How I Fell in Love with My Prothesis". Configurations. 1994 (1).

Tester, Keith. 1992. Civil Society. London: Routledge.

Thompson, E. P. 1966. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Vintage.

Thompson, John B. 1990. Ideology and Modern Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Toulmin, Stephen. 1990. Cosmopolis: the Hidden Agenda of Modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Urban, Greg. "Culture's Public Face". Public Culture. 1993.

Vattimo, Gianni. 1992. The Transparent Society. trans. David Webb. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Villa, Dana. "Postmodernism and the Public Sphere". American Political Science Review. September 1992.

Warner, Michael. "The Mass Public and the Mass Subject". The Phantom Public Sphere. 1993. ed. Bruce Robbins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Warren, Stacey. "'This Heaven Gives Me Migraines' The Problems and Promise of Landscapes of Leisure".Place/Culture/Representation. 1993. eds. James Duncan and David Ley. London: Routledge. 

Weimann, Robert. "(Post)Modernity and Representation: Issues of Authority, Power, Performativity". New Literary History. August 1992.

Wuthnow, Robert. 1987. Meaning and Moral Order: Explorations in Cultural Analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

_____. "Cultural Change and Sociological Theory". Social Change and Modernity. eds. Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser.
 

Communication Theory

Themes important in the communication studies literature include: definitions of the public sphere, the political economy of the media, media as place, the relative power and autonomy in the relationship between individual subjectivity and mediated construction of reality, the history and character of specific media technologies such as cable television, interactive multimedia,  the use of databases, and the tension between information as a public good and information as a commodity.

Adams, Paul C. "Television as Gathering Place". Annals of American Geographers. 82(1) 1992.

Akhavan-Majid, Roya. "American Mass Media and the Myth of Libertarianism: Toward an 'Elite Power Group' Theory",Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 8(1991).

Ang, Ien. 1989. "Wanted: Audiences. On the Politics of Empirical Audience Studies". Remote Control: Television, Audiences and Cultural Power. eds. Gabriele Kreutzner and Eva-Marie Warth. New York: ROutledge.

Arnett, Ronald C. "The Practical Philosophy of Communication Ethics and Free Speech as the Foundation for Speech Communication". Communication Quarterly. Vol 38, No. 3, Summer 1990.

Aufderheide, Patricia. "Cable Television and Public Interest". Journal of Communication. Winter, 1992.

Bagdikian, Ben. 1990. The Media Monopoly. 3d ed. Boston: Beacon Press.

Barnes, Beth E. and Lynne M. Thomson. "Power to the People (Meter): Audience Measurement Technology and Media Specialization" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Bates, Benjamin. "Information as an Economic Good: Sources of Individual and Social Value". The Political Economy of Information. eds. Vincent Mosco and Janet Wasko. 1988. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Brown, Duncan H. "The Academy's Response to the Call for a Marketplace Approach to Broadcast Regulation". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Septmber 1994.

Cantor, Muriel Goldsman. "The Role of the Audience in the Production of Culture" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Carey, James W. 1988. Communication As Culture. New York: Routledge.

Cerulo, Karen A. and Janet M. Ruane, Mary Chayko. "Technological Ties That Bind: Media-Generated Primary Groups".Communication Research. February 1992.

Critical Perspectives on Media and Society. 1991. eds. Robert K. Avery and David Eason. New York: Guilford Press.

Deetz, Stanley. 1992. Democracy in an Age of Corporate Colonization. Albnay: State University of New York Press.

-----. "Future of the Discipline: The Challenges, the Research, and the Social Contribution". in Communication Yearbook 17. ed. Stanley Deetz. 1994. London: Sage.

Entman, Robert M. and Steven S. Wildman. "Reconciling Economic and Non-Economic Perspectives on Media Policy: Transcending the 'Marketplace of Ideas'". Journal of Communication. Winter, 1992.

Ettema, James S. and D. Charles Whitney. "The Money Arrow: An Introduction to Audiencemaking" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Gandy, Oscar H. 1993. The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information. Boulder: Westview Press. 

_____. "Toward a Political Economy of Personal Information". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (1993).

Gumpert, Gary and Susan J. Drucker. "From the Agora to the Electronic Shopping Mall". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 9 (1992).

Hanson, Jarice. "Initiatives and Ownership: HDTV and the Influence of Corporatism in the United States". Communication Research. December 1992.

Hardt, Hanno. "Authenticity, Communication, and Critical Theory". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (1993).

-----. 1992. Critical Communication Studies: Communication, History and Theory in America. New York: Routledge.

Harrison, Teresa M. "Communication and Interdependence in Deemocratic Organizations". in Communication Yearbook 17. ed. Stanley Deetz. 1994. London: Sage.

Hay, James. "Advertising as a Cultural Text (Rethinking Message Analysis in a Recombinant Culture)" in Rethinking Communication. ed. Brenda Dervin. 1989, London: Sage.

Hayes, Sharon and Laura Miller. "Informed Control: Dun and Bradstreet and the Information Society". Media, Culture & Society. vol. 16. 1994.

Herbst, Susan and James R. Beniger. "The Changing Infrastructure of Public Opinion" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Iyengar, Shanto and Donald R. Kinder. 1987. News That Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kahnin, Bruce. "Information Policy and the Internet: Toward a Public Information Infrastructure in the United States".Government Publications Review. Vol. 18. 1991.

Kellner, Douglas. 1990. Television and the Crisis of Democracy. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Lembo, Ronald. "Culture, Television, and Opposition: Rethinking Cultural Studies". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 7(1990).

Mass Media and Society. 1991. eds. James Curran and Michael Gurevitch. London: Edward Arnold.

Mattelart, Armand and Michele Mattelart. 1992. Rethinking Media Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

McLusie, Ed. "Against Transformation of Communication into Control: Continuities in the Critical Theory of Jürgen Habermas". Journal of Communication. Winter 1993.

McQuail, Denis. "Is Media Theory Adequate to the Challenge of New Communications Technologies?". in Mass Communication Review Yearbook Volume Six. eds. Michael Gurevitch and Mark R. Levy. 1987. London: Sage.

Miller, Peter. "Made-to-Order and Standardized Audiences" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Moores, Shaun. 1993. Interpreting Audiences: The Ethnography of Media Consumption. London: Sage Publishing.

Mosco, Vincent and Wasko, Janet. 1988. The Political Economy of Information. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

Mumby, Dennis K. "Ideology and the Social Construction of Meaning: A Communication Perspective". Communication Quarterly. Vol 37, No.4, Fall 1989. 

Penman, Robyn. "Communication in the Public Domain: Whither the Citizens' Reality?". Australian Journal of Communication. Vol 17(3), 1990.

Peterson, Richard A. "Measured Markets and Unknown Audiences" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Poole, Ithiel de Sola Pool. 1983. Technologies of Freedom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Rucinski, Dianne. "The Centrality of Reciprocity to Communication and Democracy". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 8(1991).

Shiller, Herbert. 1989. Culture, Inc. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slack, Jennifer Daryl. "Contextualizing Technology" in Rethinking Communication. ed. Brenda Dervin. 1989, London: Sage.

Slack, Jennifer Daryl and Laurie Anne Whitt. "Ethics and Cultural Studies". Cultural Studies. eds. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler. 1992. New York: Routledge.

Streeter, Thomas. "Selling the Air: Property and the Politics of US Commercial Broadcasting". Media, Culture and Society. vol. 16 (1994).

Webster, James G. and Patricia F. Phalen. "Victim, Consumer, or Commodity? Audience Models in Communication Policy" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Wildman, Steven S. "One-Way Flows and the Economics of Audiencemaking" in Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. eds. James S. Ettema and D. Charles Whitney. 1994. London: Sage.

Willmott, Hugh. "Social Constructivism and Communication Studies: Hearing the Conversation But Losing the Dialogue". in Communication Yearbook 17. ed. Stanley Deetz. 1994. London: Sage.

Wilson, Kevin. 1988. Technologies of Control. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Zarefsky, David. 1993. "The Postmodern Public: Revitalizing Commitment to the Public Forum". Speech Delivered before the Speech Communication Association, Miami Beach, Florida, November 20, 1993.
 

Social Theory

The following themes important from social theory: the process/engine/dynamic by which social structures are created, maintained, coordinated and contested.  Emphasis on the technical/institutional infrastructures, scale, diffferentiation and stratification, and the forms of administrative and organizational power.  Critical theory as an applied analytical tool: system imperatives versus communicative rationality, the social bases of identity formation under consumer capitalism.
 

Alexander, Jeffery. 1988. Action and Its Environments. New York: Columbia University Press.

_____. "Durkheim's Problem and Differentiation Theory Today". Social Change and Modernity. eds. Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser.

Anderson, Perry. 1992. A Zone of Engagement. London: Verso Press.

Aronowitz, Stanley. "Is Democracy Possible? The Decline of the Public in American Debate". The Phantom Public Sphere. 1993. ed. Bruce Robbins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bellah,Robert N., Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Stephen M. Tipton. 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Berger, Peter and Thomas Luckmann. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality. Garden City: Doubleday.

Berman, Marshall. 1982. All That is Solid Melts Into Air. New York: Viking.

Bernstein, Richard J. 1992. The New Constellation: The Ethical-Political Horizon of Postmodernity. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Borgmann, Albert. 1992. Crossing the Postmodern Divide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. "Structures, Habitus, Power: Basis for a Theory of Symbolic Power". Culture/Power/History: A Reader in Contemporary Social Theory. eds. Nicholas B. Dirks, Geoff Eley, and Sherry B. Ortner. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

-----. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power. London: Polity Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre and Loic J. D. Wacquant. 1992. An Introducation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Boyer, M. Christine. "The Imaginary Real World of CyberCities". Assemblages. 18 1992.

Braudel, Fernand. 1979. The Structures of Everyday Life. trans. Sian Reynolds. New York: Harper and Row Press.

_____. 1982. The Wheels of Commerce. trans. Sian Reynolds. New York: Harper and Row Press.

_____. 1984. The Perspective of the World. trans. Sian Reynolds. New York: Harper and Row Press.

Brown, Richard Harvey. "Rhetoric and the Postmodern Turn in Social Theory". Sociological Theory. Fall 1991.

Bryant, Christopher G. A. "Sociology without Philosophy? The Case of Gidden's Structuration Theory". Sociological Theory. Fall 1992.

Calhoun, Craig. 1992. Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_____. "The Infrastructure of Modernity: Indirect Social Relationships, Information Technology, and Social Integration". Social Change and Modernity. eds. Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser.

_____. "Indirect Relationships and Imagined Communities: Large-Scale Social Integration and the Transformation of Everyday Life". Social Theory for a Changing Society. 1991. eds. Pierre Bourdieu and James S. Coleman. Boulder: Westview Press.

Callinicos, Alex. 1990. Against Postmodernism. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Chandler, Alfred D. 1990. Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

_____. 1977. The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cities of the 21st Century: New Technologies and Spatial Systems. 1991. eds. John Brotchie, Michael Batty, Peter Hall and Peter Newton. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Collins, Patricia Hill. "Transforming the Inner Circle: Dorothy Smith's Challenge to Sociological Theory". Sociological Theory. Spring 1992.

Collins, Randall. 1975. Conflict Sociology. New York: Academic Press.

_____. 1988. Theoretical Sociology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

_____. "Market Dynamics as the Engine of Historical Change". Sociological Theory. Fall 1990.

Connell, R. W. "A Sober Anarchism". Sociological Theory. Spring 1992.

Critical Theory and Public Life. 1988. ed. John Forester. Cambridge MIT Press.

Cultural-Political Interventions in the Unfinished Project of Enlightenment. 1992. eds. Axel Honneth, Thomas McCarthy, Claus Offe, and Albrecht Wellmer. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Dallmayr, Fred R. 1984. Polis and Praxis. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Dandeker, Christopher. 1990. Surveillance, Power and Modernity: Bureaucracy and Discipline from 1700 to the Present Day. New York: St. Martins.

Dewey, John. 1916. Democracy and Education. New York: Macmillan.

_____. 1927. The Public and Its Problems. New York: Henry Holt.

Feenberg, Andrew. 1991. Critical Theory of Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fischer, Claude S. 1982. To Dwell Among Friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fraser, Nancy. "Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy". University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Twentieth Century Studies, Working Paper No. 10.

Fraser, Nancy and Linda J. Nicholson. "'Social Criticism without Philosophy: An Enounter between Feminism and Postmodernism". Feminsim/Postmodernism. ed. Linda J. Nicholson. New York: Routledge. 

Gay, Paul du. "'Numbers and Souls': Retailing and the De-differentiation of Economy and Culture". British Journal of Sociology. Vol. 44. no. 4. December 1993.

Giddens, Anthony. 1979. Central Problems in Social Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.

_____. 1987. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

_____. 1990. Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 

Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.

Gottdiener, M. "A Marx for Our Time: Henri Lefebvre and The Production of Space". Sociological Theory. March 1993. 

Habermas, Jurgen. "Modernity - An Incomplete Project" in The Anti- Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. ed. Hal Foster. 1983. Seattle: Bay Press.

_____. 1979. Communication and the Evolution of Society. Boston: Beacon Press.

_____. 1984. Theory of Communicative Action. Volume One. Reason and the Rationalization of Society. trans. Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press.

_____. 1987. Theory of Communicative Action. Volume Two. Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. trans. Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press. 

_____. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. trans. Thomas Burger. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_____. 1990. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. trans. Frederick G. Lawrence. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_____. 1990. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. trans. Christian Lenhardt and Shierry Weber Nicholsen. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_____. 1992. Postmetaphysical Thinking: Philosophical Essays. trans. William Mark Hohengarten. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hardt, Hanno. "Authenticity, Communication, and Critical Theory". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (1993).

Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.

_____. "From Space to Place and Back Again" in Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change. eds. Jon Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, George Robertson and Lisa Tickner. 1993. New York: Routledge. 

Hennion, Antione and Cecile Meadel. "The Artisans of Desire: The Mediation of Advertising between Product and Consumer". Sociological Theory.

Hickman, Larry. 1990. John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage.

Jürgen Habermas on Society and Politics: a Reader. 1989. ed. Stephen Seidman. Boston: Beacon Press. 

Kujundzic, Nebojsa and William Buschert. "Staging the Life-World: Habermas and the Recuperation of Austin's Speech Act Theory". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 23:1.

Laudon, Kenneth. 1986. Dossier Society. New York: University of Colombia Press.

Lemert, Charles. "Subjectivities Limit: The Unsolved Riddle of the Standpoint". Sociological Theory. Spring 1992.

Lewis, David, Raymond McLain and Andrew Weigert. "Vital Realism and Sociology: A Metatheoretical Grounding in Mead, Ortega, and Shultz". Sociological Theory. March 1993.

Markovsky, Barry, John Skovoretz, David Wiler, Michael J. Lovaglia and Jeffrey Erger. "The Seeds of Weak Power: An Extension of Network Exchange Theory". American Sociological Review. April 1993.

McCarthy, Thomas. "The Critique of Impure Reason: Foucault and the Frankfurt School". Political Theory. August 1990.

_____. "Doing the Right Thing in Cross-cultural Representation". Ethics. April 1992. 

Mead, G. H. 1967. Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Oldenburg, Ray. 1991. The Great Good Place. New York: Paragon.

Peters, John Durham. "Democracy and American Mass Communication Theory: Dewey, Lippman and Lazarsfeld".Communication. 1989

Smith, Dorothy E. "Sociology from Women's Experience: A Reaffirmation". Sociological Theory. Spring 1992.

Smith, Tony. 1991. The Role of Ethics in Social Theory. Albany: SUNY Press.

Social Theory Today. 1987. eds. Anthony Giddens and Jonathon Turner. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Soja, Edward. 1990. Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory. London: Verso.

Taylor, Charles. 1979. Hegel and Modern Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Turner, Jonathon. 1988. A Theory of Social Interaction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1991. Geopolitics and Geoculture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Warf, B. "Structuration Theory" review article. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. 1992, Volume 10.

White, Stephen K. 1988. The Recent Work of Jurgen Habermas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wolfe, Alan. 1989. Whose Keeper? Social Science and Moral Obligation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
 

Science and Technology Studies Theory

The following ideas are taken from the field of science and technology studies: the relationship between science and technology and politics and values; critiques of established forms of reason and rationality; the representation, contestation, and insulation of authority; social constructivism and actor network theory; strong objectivity; and the relationship between the public sphere, technological citizenship and expertise.
 

Aronowitz, Stanley. 1988. Science As Power: Discourse and Ideology in Modern Society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Callon, Michel. 1986. "Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and Fisherman of St Brieux Bay". Power, Action, and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge?. ed. John Law. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

_____. "Society in the Making: The Study of Technology as a Tool for Sociological Analysis". The Social Construction of Technological Systems. 1989. eds. Wiebe Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes and Trevor Pinch. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Callon, Michel and Bruno Latour. "Don't Throw the Baby Out with the Bath School! A reply to Collins and Yearley".Science as Practice and Culture. 1992. ed. Andrew Pickering. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Feenberg, Andrew. 1991. Critical Theory of Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Feyerabend, Paul. 1987. Farewell to Reason. London: Verso. 

Frankenfeld, Phillip. "Technological Citizenship: A Normative Framework for Risk Studies". Science, Technology, and Human Values. Vol 17 Number 4, Fall 1992.

Fuchs, Stephan. 1992. The Professional Quest for Truth: A Social Theory of Science and Knowledge. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Harding, Sandra. "Feminism, Science and the Anti-Enlightenment Critiques". Feminsim/Postmodernism. 1990. ed. Linda J. Nicholson. New York: Routledge. 

_____. 1989. "Is There a Feminist Method?". Feminism and Science. 1989. ed. Nancy Tuana. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. 

_____. 1991. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. 

_____. "After the Neutrality Ideal: Science, Politics, and 'Strong Objectivity'". Social Research. Vol. 59, No. 3 Fall 1992.

Knorr-Cetina, Karin D. 1981. The Manufacture of Knowledge. Oxford: Pergamon.

_____. "Strong Constructivism - from a Sociologist's Point of View: A Personal Addendum to Sismondo's Paper". Social Studies of Science. Vol. 23 (1993).

Latour, Bruno. "Give Me a Laboratory and I Will Raise the World". Science Observed. 1983. eds. Karin Knorr-Cetina and Michael Mulkay. London: Sage.

Latour, Bruno. 1987. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

_____. 1988. The Pasteurization of France. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

_____. "Where Are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts". Shaping Technology/Building Society. 1992. eds. Wiebe Bijker and John Law. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_____. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Longino, Helen. 1990. Science as Social Knowledge. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

MacKenzie, Donald. "Kissle Accuracy: A Case Study in the Social Processes of Technological Change" in The Social Construction of Technological Systems. eds. Wiebe Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes and Trevor Pinch. 1987. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Mumford, Lewis. 1963. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

_____. 1961. The City in History. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Restivo, Sal. 1983. The Social Relations of Physics, Mysticism and Mathematics. Dordrecht: D. Reidal.

_____. "Modern Science as a Social Problem". Social Problems. June 1988.

_____. "In the Clutches of Daedalus: Science, Society, and Progress". Science, Technology and Social Progress. 1989. ed. Steven L. Goldman. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses.

_____. "The Social Roots of Pure Mathematics". Theories of Science in Society. 1990. eds. Susan E. Cozzens and Thomas F. Gieryn. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

_____. 1993. Science, Society and Values: Toward a Sociology of Objectivity. Lehigh.

Sclove, Richard. "Democratizing Technology". The Chronicle of Higher Education. January 12, 1994. 

Wacjman, Judy. 1991. Feminism Confronts Technology. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. 

Winner, Langdon. 1977. Autonomous Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

_____. 1988. The Whale and the Reactor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

_____. 1989. "Technological Frontiers and Human Integrity". Science, Technology, and Social Progress. ed. Steven L. Goldman. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses.

_____. 1990. "Living in Electronic Space". Lifeworld and Technology. eds T. Casey and L. Embree. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America.

_____. 1992. "Silicon Valley Mystery House". Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and the End of Public Space. ed. Michael Sorokin. New York: Noonday Press.

_____. 1993. "Citizen Virtues in a Technological Order", Inquiry. No. 35.

Woodward, Wayne. "Toward a Normative-Contextualist Theory of Technology". Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (1993).
 

Political Theory

The following themes from political theory inform my project: classic democratic theory; feminist critiques; political subjectivity especially the structures of actual participation; the social construction of media, groups, agendas, issues, crises, and enemies; the relationship between ownership, property, community and responsibility, especially intellectual property; changed conceptions of justice in a polycultural or global world; the rights of autonomy and privacy; the boundaries between markets, governments, civil society and private life; the limits, penalties and benefits of representation versus participation; the scales, boundaries, and bases of citizenship and community in flux.

Arendt, Hannah. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Aristotle. 1976. Ethics. New York: Penguin Classics.

Aronowitz, Stanley. "Is Democracy Possible? The Decline of the Public in American Debate". The Phantom Public Sphere. 1993. ed. Bruce Robbins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Barber, Benjamin. 1984. Strong Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

_____. 1977. Political Participation and the Creation of Res Publica. Bloomington: Poynter Center. 

Benhabib, Seyla. 1992. Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics. New York: Routledge.

_____. "Epistemologies of Postmodernism: A Rejoinder to Jean-Francois Lyotard". Feminsim/Postmodernism. ed. Linda J. Nicholson. New York: Routledge. 

Benhabib, Selya and Dallmyr, Fred. ed. 1990. The Communicative Ethics Controversy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Berry, Jeffery M., Kent E. Portney, and Ken Thomson. 1993. The Rebirth of Urban Democracy. Washington: Brookings Institution.

Bowles, Samuel and Herbert Gintis. 1987. Democracy and Capitalism: Property, Community, and the Contradictions of Modern Social Thought. New York: Basic Books.

Branscomb, Anne. "Common Law for the Electronic Frontier", Scientific American. September 1991.

_____. "Property Rights in Information". in Mass Communication Review Yearbook Volume Six. eds. Michael Gurevitch and Mark R. Levy. 1987. London: Sage.

Burchell, Graham. "Peculiar Interests: Civil Society and Governing 'The System of Natural Liberty'" in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. 1991. eds. Graham Burchall, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Buskirk, Martha. "Commodification as Censor: Copyrights and Fair Use". October.

Dahl, Robert A. 1956. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

_____. 1985. Controlling Nuclear Weapons Democracy Versus Guardianship. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

_____. 1986. Democracy, Liberty, and Equality. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

_____. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Daniels, Norman. 1976. Reading Rawls. New York: Basic Books.

Day, Richard B.; Beiner, Ronald; and Masciulli, Joseph. 1988. Democratic Theory and Technological Society. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.

De Michelis, Gianni. "Beyond Newtonian Democracy". New Perspectives Quarterly. Fall 1992.

Dennett, Daniel C. 1984. Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Dryzek, John S. 1990. Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dryzek, John S. and Jeffery Berejikian. "Reconstructive Democratic Theory". American Political Science Review. March 1993.

Edelman, Murray. 1988. Constructing the Political Spectacle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

-----. 1964. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Fraser, Nancy. "Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy". University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Twentieth Century Studies, Working Paper No. 10.

_____. 1989. Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ginsberg, Benjamin. 1986. The Captive Public. New York: Basic Books.

Gould, Carol C. 1989. Rethinking Democracy: Freedom and Social Cooperation in Politics, Economy, and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Henderson, Hazel. "Perfecting Democracies Tools". New Perspectives Quarterly. Fall 1992.

Jasper, James M. "The Politics of Abstractions: Instrumental and Moralist Rhetorics in Public Debate". Social Research. Summer 1992.

Kaufman-Osborn, Timothy. 1991. Politics/Sense/Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Laclau, Ernesto. "Universalism, Particularism and the Question of Identity". October. Summer 1992.

Lasswell, Harold. 1977. On Political Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lessnof, Michael. 1990. Social Contract Theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Lienesch, Michael. "Wo(e)begon(e) Democracy". American Journal of Political Science. November 1992.

Lindblom, Charles E. 1977. Politics and Markets. New York: Basic Books.

_____. 1990. Inquiry and Change: The Troubled Attempt To Understand and Change Society. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Luke, Timothy. 1989. Screens of Power. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Mansbridge, Jane. 1980. Beyond Adversary Democracy. New York: Basic Books.

Mill, John Stuart. 1978. On Liberty. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.

Mouffe, Chantal. "Citizenship and Political Identity". October. Summer 1992.

Mueller, John. "Democracy and Ralph's Pretty Good Grocery: Elections, Equality, and the Minimal Human Being".American Journal of Political Science. November 1992.

Oakeshott, Michael. 1991. Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.

Okin, Susan Moller. 1989. Justice, Gender , and the Family. New York: Basic Books.

Pateman, Carole. 1970. Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Plato. 1974. The Republic. trans. G. M. A. Grube. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.

Pennock, J. Roland. 1979. Democratic Political Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pritchard, Michael S. 1991. On Becoming Responsible. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press.

Ranciere, Jacques. "Politics, Identification and Subjectivization". October. Summer 1992.

Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Reiman, Jeffery. "Privacy, Intimacy, and Personhood". Philosophy and Public Affairs. 6(1) Fall 1976.

Rosen, Stanley. 1987. Hermeneutics as Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1967. The Social Contract. ed. Lester E. Crocker. New York: Washington Square Books.

Sagoff, Mark. 1988. The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law and the Environment. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sandel, Michael. 1982. Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

_____. 1984. Liberalism and Its Critics. New York: New York University Press.

_____. "Post-National Democracy Vs. Electronic Bonapartism". New Perspectives Quarterly. Fall 1992.

Schick, Frederic. "Liberty, Equality and Diversity: Some Reflections on Rorty". Social Research. Summer 1992.

Squires, James D. "Death of the Fourth Estate". New Perspectives Quarterly. Fall 1992.

Walzer, Michael. 1983. Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality. New York: Basic Books.

Warren, Mark. "Liberal Constitutionalism as Ideology: Marx and Habermas". Political Theory. November 1989.

_____. "Democratic Theory and Self-Transformation". American Political Science Review. March 1992.

West, Cornel. 1989. The American Evasion of Philosophy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

White, Stephen K. 1991. Political Theory and Postmodernism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Young, Iris Marion. "Polity and Group Difference: A Critique of the Ideal of Universal Citizenship". Ethics. January 1989.