Book chapters

  1. Paul, E. A., A. Kravchenko, A. S. Grandy, and S. Morris. 2012. Soil organic matter dynamics: controls and management for ecosystem functioning. Pages xx-xx in S. K. Hamilton, J. E. Doll, and G. P. Robertson, editors. The ecology of agricultural ecosystems: research on the path to sustainability. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, USA.
  2. Olander, L.P., A.J. Eagle, J.S. Baker, K. Haugen-Kozyra, B.C. Murray, A. Kravchenko, L.R. Henry, R.B. Jackson. 2012. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Opportunities and Implementation Strategies for Agricultural Land Management in the United States. Technical working group on agricultural greenhouse gases (T-AGG) report. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University.
  3. Kravchenko, A.N. 2008. Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Soil Electrical Conductivity. In B. Allred, J.Daniels, and R.Ehsani (eds.) Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics. pp.255-263. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
  4. Kravchenko, A.N. and Y.A. Pachepsky. 2004. Fractal techniques to assess spacial variability in soil processes. In J.Àlvarez-Benedí and R. Muńoz-Carpena (ed.) Soil-Water-Solute Process Characterization: An Integrated Approach. pp. 617-638. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
  5. Kravchenko, A., and R. Zhang, 1999. Estimation of soil hydraulic conductivity from particle-size distribution. In Th M. van Genuchten (ed.) Characterization and Measurement of the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Porous Media. pp.959-966. University California Riverside Press.

Refereed Publications (published and in press):


  1. Kutlu, T., A. K. Guber, M. L. Rivers, A. N. Kravchenko. 2018. Moisture absorption by plant residue in soil. Geoderma 316:47-55.


  1. Toosi, E.R., A.N. Kravchenko, A.K. Guber, M.L. Rivers. 2017. Pore characteristics regulate priming and fate of carbon from plant residue. Soil Biology and Biochem. 113:219-230.
  2. Kravchenko, A.N, E. R. Toosi, A.K. Guber, N. E. Ostrom, J. Yu, K. Azeem, M. L. Rivers, and G. P. Robertson. 2017. Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue. Nature Geoscience doi:10.1038/ngeo2963.
  3. Kravchenko, A. N., E. R. Toosi, A. K. Guber, N. E. Ostrom, J. Yu, K. Azeem, M. L. Rivers, and G. P. Robertson. 2017. Data from: Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.83150.
  4. Beehler J., J. Fry, W. Negassa, and A.K. Kravchenko. 2017. Impact of cover crop on soil carbon accrual in topographically diverse terrain. J. Soil Water Conservation 72(3): 272-279.
  5. Toosi, E.R., A.N. Kravchenko, M.M. Quigley, J. Mao, M.L. Rivers. 2017. Effects of management and pore characteristics on organic matter composition of macroaggregates, evidence from X-ray µ-tomography, FTIR and 13C-NMR. European J. of Soil Sci. doi: 10.1111/ejss.12411.
  6. Kravchenko, A.N., S.S. Snapp, and G. P. Robertson. 2017. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi:10.1073/pnas.1612311114.


  1. Gelfand, I., I. Scherbak, N. Millar, A. Kravchenko, G.P. Robertson. 2016. Long-term nitrous oxide fluxes in annual and perennial agricultural and unmanaged ecosystems in the upper Midwest USA. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.13426.
  2. Fry, J., A.K. Guber, M. Ladoni, J.D. Munoz, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2016. The effect of up-scaling soil properties and model parameters on predictive accuracy of DSSAT crop simulation model under variable weather conditions. Geoderma doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.08.012
  3. Kravchenko, A.N. and A.K. Guber. 2016. Soil pores and their contributions to soil carbon processes. Geoderma doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.06.027
  4. Ladoni, M., A. Basir, G.P. Robertson, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2016. Scaling-up: cover crops differentially influence soil carbon in agricultural fields with diverse topography. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 225:93-103.
  5. Wickings, K., A.S. Grandy, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2016. Going with the flow: landscape position drives differences in microbial biomass and activity in conventional, low input, and organic agricultural systems in the Midwestern U.S. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 218:1-10.


  1. Ladoni, M., A.N. Kravchenko, and G.P. Robertson. 2015. Topography mediates the influence of cover crops on soil nitrate levels in row crop agricultural systems. PLoS One DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143358.
  2. Kravchenko, A.N., W. C. Negassa, A. K. Guber, and M.L. Rivers. 2015. Protection of soil carbon within macro-aggregates depends on intra-aggregate pore characteristics. Scientific Reports 5 doi:10.1038/srep16261.
  3. Negassa, W., R. Price, A. Basir,S.S. Snap, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2015. Cover crop and tillage system effects on soil CO2 and N2O fluxes at contrasting topographic positions. Soil & Tillage Research 154:64-74.
  4. Ladoni,M., A. Basir, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2015. Which soil carbon characteristic is the best for assessing management differences? View from statistical power perspective. Soil Science Society of America J. 79:848-857. doi:10.2136/sssaj2014.10.0426
  5. Negassa, W., A. K. Guber, A. N. Kravchenko, T.L. Marsh, B. Hildebrandt, and M. L. Rivers. 2015. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria. PLoS One DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123999.
  6. Kravchenko, A.N. and G.P. Robertson. 2015. Statistical challenges in analyses of chamber-based soil CO2 and N2O emissions data. Soil Science Society of America J. 79:200-211.
  7. Melakeberhan, H. W. Wang, A. Kravchenko, and K. Thelen. 2015. Effects of agronomic practices on the timeline of Heterodera glycines establishment in a new location. Nematology, 17: 705-713.
  8. San Jose Martinez, F., F. J Muñoz Ortega, F. J. Caniego Monreal, A.N. Kravchenko, and W. Wang. 2015. Soil aggregates geometry: measurements and morphology. Geoderma 237-238:36-48.


  1. San Jose Martinez, F., F. J Muñoz Ortega, F. J. Caniego Monreal, A.N. Kravchenko, and W. Wang. 2014. Soil aggregates geometry: measurements and morphology. Geoderma 237-238:36-48.
  2. Kravchenko A.N., B. Hildebrandt, T.L. Marsh, W.C. Negassa, A.K. Guber, M.L. Rivers. 2014. Intra-aggregate pore structure influences phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in macroaggregates. Soil Science Society of America J. 78:1924-1939.
  3. Necpálová, M. R.P. Anex, Jr., A.N. Kravchenko, L.J. Abendroth, S.J. Del Grosso, W.A. Dick, M.J. Helmers, D. Herzmann, J.G. Lauer, E.D. Nafziger, J.E. Sawyer, P.C. Scharf, J.S. Strock, and M.B. Villamil. 2014. What does it take to detect a change in soil carbon stock? A regional comparison of minimum detectable difference and experiment duration in the north central United States. J. Soil Water Conserv. 69:517-531.
  4. Kladivko, E.J., M.J. Helmers, L.J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M.J. Castellano, D.S. Mueller, J.E. Sawyer, R.P. Anex, R.W. Arritt, B. Basso, J.V. Bonta, L.C. Bowling, R.M. Cruse, N.R. Fausey, J.R. Frankenberger, P.W. Gassman, A.J. Gassmann, C.L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J.G. Lauer, F.E. Miguez, E.D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L.B. Owens, P.R. Owens, P. Scharf, M.J. Shipitalo, J.S. Strock, and M.B. Villamil. 2014. Standardized research protocols enable transdisciplinary research of climate variation impacts in corn production systems. J. Soil Water Conserv. 69:532-542.
  5. Kravchenko, A.N., W. Negassa, A.K. Guber, and S. Schimidt. 2014. New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography. Soil Science Society of America J. 78:1177-1185.
  6. Munoz, J.D., J. Steibel, S. Snapp, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2014. Cover crop effect on corn growth and yield in agricultural fields with diverse terrain. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 189: 229-239.


  1. Wang, W., A. N. Kravchenko, T. Johnson, S. Srinivasan, A. J. M. Smucker, J. B. Rose, and M. L. Rivers. 2013. Intra-aggregate pore structures and Escherichia coli distribution within and movement out of soil macro-aggregates. Vadoze Zone J. (in press).
  2. Ananyeva, K., W. Wang, A.J.M. Smucker, M.L. Rivers, A.N. Kravchenko. 2013. Intra-aggregate pore structures are related to total C distribution within soil macro-aggregates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 57:868-875.
  3. Kravchenko A., H.-C. Chun, M. Mazer, W. Wang, J.B. Rose, A. Smucker, and M. Rivers. 2013. Relationships between intra-aggregate pore structures and distributions of Escherichia coli within soil macro-aggregates. Applied Soil Ecology 63:134-142.
  4. Munoz-Robayo, J.D. and A.N. Kravchenko. 2012. Deriving the optimal scale for relating topographical attributes and cover crop plant biomass. Geomorphology 179: 197-207.
  5. Wang, W., A.N. Kravchenko, A.J.M. Smucker, and M.L. Rivers. 2012. Intra-aggregate pore characteristics: X-ray computed microtomography analysis. Soil Sci. Soc Am J. 76:1159-1171.


  1. Kravchenko, A.N., W. Wang, A.J.M. Smucker, and M.L. Rivers. 2011. Long-term differences in tillage and land use affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. Soil Sci. Soc Am J. 75:1658-1666.
  2. Kravchenko, A.N., R. E. Falconer, D. Grinev, W. Otten. 2011. Fungal colonization in soils of contrasting managements: modeling growth in 3D pore volumes of undisturbed soil samples. Ecological Applications 21(4):1202-1210.
  3. Wang, W., A.N. Kravchenko, A.J.M. Smucker, and M.L. Rivers. 2011. Comparison of image segmentation methods in simulated 2D and 3D microtomographic images of soil aggregates. Geoderma 162: 231-241.
  4. Syswerda, S.P., A.T. Corbin, D.L. Mokma, A.N. Kravchenko, and G.P. Robertson. 2011. Agricultural management and soil carbon storage in surface vs. deep layers. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Journal 75: 92-101.
  5. Kravchenko, A.N., and G.P. Robertson. 2011. Whole-profile soil carbon stocks: The danger of assuming too much from analyses of too little. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 75: 235-240.


  1. Basso B, Amato M, Bitella G, Rossi R, Kravchenko A, Sartori L, Carvahlo LM, Gomes J. 2010. Two-dimensional spatial and temporal variation of soil physical properties in tillage systems using electrical resistivity tomography. Agronomy J. 102: 440-449.
  2. Munoz-Robayo, J.D., A. O. Finley, R. Gehl, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2010. Nonlinear hierarchical models for predicting red clover biomass using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Remote Sensing of Environment 114: 2833-2840.
  3. Po, E., S.Snapp, and A. Kravchenko. 2010. Potato variability across the landscape. Agronomy. J. 102:885-894.
  4. Smucker, A.J.M., W. Wang, A.N. Kravchenko and W.A. Dick. 2010. Forms and Functions of Meso and Micro-niches for Carbon within Soil Aggregates. Journal of Nematology Vol. 42:84-86.
  5. Melakeberhan, H., A. Kravchenko, J. Dahl, and D. Warncke. 2010. Effects of soil types and Meloidogyne hapla on arugula’s multi-purpose uses. Nematology, 12:115-120.
  6. Hudson, D.J., R.H. Leep, T.S. Dietz, A. Ragavendran, and A. Kravchenko. 2010. Integrated Warm- and Cool-Season Grass and Legume Pastures: I. Seasonal Forage Dynamics. Agron. J. 102:303-309.


  1. Senthilkumar, S., B. Basso, A. N. Kravchenko, and G.P. Robertson. 2009. Contemporary evidence for soil carbon loss under different crop management systems and never tilled grassland in the US corn belt. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J 73: 2078–2086.
  2. Senthilkumar, S., A. N. Kravchenko, and G.P. Robertson. 2009. Topography influences management system effects on total soil carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J 73: 2059–2067.
  3. Po, E., S.Snapp, and A. Kravchenko. 2009. Rotational and cover crop determinants of soil structural stability and carbon in a potato system. Agronomy. J. 101:175-183.
  4. Kravchenko A.N., M. A. Martin, A. Smucker, and M. L. Rivers. 2009. Theoretical and practical limitations in the determination of multifractal spectra from pore/solid soil aggregate images. Vadose Zone J. 8: 220–226.
  5. Kravchenko A.N., X. Hao, and G.P. Robertson. 2009. Mineralizable and total soil C and total N in surface soil were not affected by 7 years of continuously planted Bt corn. Plant and Soil 318:269-273.


  1. Lewis, J.M., C. A. Mackintosh, S. Shin, E. Gilding, S. Kravchenko, G. Baldridge, R. Zeyen, and G. J. Muehlbauer. 2008. Overexpression of maize Teosinte Branched1 in wheat suppresses tiller development. Plant Cell Reports 27:1217-1225.
  2. Huang, X., L. Wang, L. Yang, A. N. Kravchenko. 2008. Management practice effects on relationships of grain yields with topography and precipitation. Agronomy J. 100:1463-1471.
  3. Brewer, M.J., T. Noma, N.C. Elliott, A.N. Kravchenko, and A. L. Hild. 2008. A landscape view of cereal aphid parasitoid dynamics reveals sensitivity to farm- and region-scale vegetation structure. European J. of Entomology 105: 503–511.
  4. Kravchenko, A.N. and X. Hao. 2008. Organic management effects on spatial variability characteristics of surface mineralizable C. Geoderma 144:387-394.
  5. Kravchenko A.N. 2008. Stochastic simulation of spatial variability based on multifractal characteristics. Vadose Zone J. 7:521-524.
  6. Baributsa, D.N., E. F. Foster, K. D. Thelen, A. N. Kravchenko, D. R. Mutch, and M. Ngouajio. 2008. Corn and Cover Crop Response to Corn Density in an Interseeding System. Agron J. 100: 981-987.


  1. Shorey, R.I., K.T. Scribner, H.H. Prince, A.N. Kravchenko, D.R. Luukkonen, P.I. Padding. 2007. Spatial and temporal variability in the composition of cackling and Canada goose harvests in Michigan: genetic analysis of standardized collections. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 1458-1466.
  2. Huang, X., S. Senthilkumar, A. Kravchenko, K. Thelen, and J. Qi. 2007. Total carbon mapping in glacial till soils using Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Landsat Imagery, and topographical information. Geoderma 141:34-42.
  3. Horvath, B.J., A. N. Kravchenko, G. P. Robertson, and J. M. Vargas, Jr. 2007. Geostatistical analysis of dollar spot epidemics occurring on a mixed sward of creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass. Crop Sci. 47:1206-1216.
  4. Mackintosh, C.A., J. Lewis, L.E. Radmer, S. Shin, S.J. Heinen, L.A. Smith, M.N. Wyckoff, R. Dill-Macky, C.K. Evans, S. Kravchenko, G.D. Baldridge, R.J. Zeyen, and G.J. Muehlbauer. 2007. Overexpression of defense response genes in transgenic wheat enhances resistance to Fusarium Head Blight. Plant Cell Reports 26:479-488.
  5. Blanchong J.A., K. T. Scribner, A. N. Kravchenko and S.R. Winterstein. 2007. TB infected deer are more closely related than non-infected deer. Biology Letters 3:103-105.
  6. Kravchenko, A.N. and G. P. Robertson. 2007. Can dense topographical information and long-term yield monitor data substantially improve total soil C mapping by regression kriging? Agronomy J. 99: 12-17.
  7. Hao, X. and A.N. Kravchenko. 2007. Management practice effects on surface total carbon: Differences along a textural gradient. Agronomy J. 99:18-26.
  8. Melakeberhan, H., A. Xu, A. Kravchenko, S. Mennan, and E. Riga. 2007. Potential use of arugula (Eurica sativa L.) as a trap crop for Meloidogyne hapla. Nematology 8:793-799.


  1. Martin, N., G. Bollero, N.R. Kitchen, A.N. Kravchenko, K. Sudduth, W.J.Wiebold, D. Bullock. 2006. Two classification methods for developing and interpreting productivity zones using site properties. Plant and Soil 288: 357-371.
  2. Dale, T.M., K.A. Renner, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2006. Effect of herbicides on weed control and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) yield and quality. Weed Technology 20: 150-156.
  3. Kravchenko, A.N., G.P. Robertson, X.Hao, and D.G. Bullock. 2006. Management practice effects on surface total carbon: Differences in spatial variability patterns. Agronomy J. 98: 1559-1568.
  4. Kravchenko, A.N., G. P. Robertson, S.S. Snapp, and A.J.M. Smucker. 2006. Using spatial variability information for improved estimates of soil carbon. Agronomy J. 98:823-829.
  5. Harrigan, T.M., B.B. Bailey, W. Northcott, A.N. Kravchenko and C.A.M. Laboski. 2006. Field Performance of a Low-Disturbance, Rolling-Tine Dribble-Bar Manure Applicator. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22: 33-38.


  1. Salehi, H., Z. Seddighi, S. Kravchenko, and M. B. Sticklen. 2005. Expression of the cry1Ac in Common Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. ‘Arizona Common’) via Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation and Control of Black Cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 130(4): 619-623.
  2. Oraby, H.F., C.B. Ransom, A.N. Kravchenko, and M.B. Sticklen. 2005. Barley HVA1 gene confers salt tolerance in R3 transgenic oat. Crop Sci. 45:2218-2227.
  3. Hao, X., R. Zhang, and A. Kravchenko. 2005. A mass-conservative switching method for simulating saturated–unsaturated flow. J. of Hydrology. 311:254-265.
  4. Kravchenko, A.N., T. M. Harrigan, and B. B. Bailey. 2005. Soil electrical conductivity as a covariate to improve the efficiency of field experiments. Trans. ASAE. 48:1353-1357.
  5. Hansen, E., S. Berkheimer, A.Schilder, R. Isaaks, and S. Kravchenko. 2005. Rasberry variety performance in Southern Michigan. HortTechnology. 15(3): 716-721.
  6. Kravchenko, A.N., G. P. Robertson, K.D. Thelen, and R.R. Harwood. 2005. Management, topographical, and weather effects on spatial variability of crop grain yields. Agronomy J. 97: 514-523.
  7. Rugh, C.L., E. Susilawati, A.N. Kravchenko, J.C. Thomas. 2005. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during PAH rhizoremediation. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 60c:331-339
  8. Hao, X., R. Zhang, and A. Kravchenko. 2005. Effects of Root Density Distribution Models on Root Water Uptake and Water Flow under Irrigation. Soil Sci. 170:167-174.
  9. Olatinwo, R.O., A.M.C. Schilder, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2004. The incidence and causes of post-harvest fruit rot in stored Michigan cranberries. Plant Disease 88:1277-1282.
  10. Bughrara, S.S., D.R.Smitley, D. Cappaert, and A.N. Kravchenko. 2004. European chafer (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) consumption of roots of cool season turfgrasses: comparisons among 12 cultivars in four turfgrass species. J. Economic Entomology. 96(6):1898-1904.
  11. Thelen, K.D., A.N. Kravchenko and C.D. Lee. 2004. Utility of optical remote sensing for detecting herbicide injury in soybean. Weed Technol. 18:292-297.
  12. Daverede, I.C., A.N. Kravchenko, R.G. Hoeft, E.D. Nafziger, D.G. Bullock, J.J. Warren and L.C. Gonzini. 2004. Phosphorus runoff from incorporated and surface-applied fertilizer and manure. J.Environ. Quality 33:1535-1544.
  13. Officer, S.J., A. Kravchenko, G. A. Bollero, K.A. Sudduth, N.R. Kitchen, W.J. Wiebold, H.L. Palm, and D.G. Bullock. 2004. Relationships between soil bulk electrical conductivity and the principal component analysis of topography and soil fertility values. Plant and Soil. 258(1): 269-280.
  14. Kravchenko, A.N., K. Thelen, D.G. Bullock, and N. R. Miller. 2003. Relationship between crop grain yield, topography and soil electrical conductivity studied with cross-correlograms. Agronomy J. 95: 1132-1139.
  15. Kravchenko, A.N. 2003. Effect of spatial structure on mapping accuracy and performance of interpolation methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 67: 1564-1571.
  16. Daverede, I.C., A.N. Kravchenko, R.G. Hoeft, E.D. Nafziger, D.G. Bullock, J.J. Warren and L.C. Gonzini. 2002. Phosphorus runoff: impact of tillage and soil phosphorus levels. J.Environ. Quality 32: 1436-1444.
  17. Kravchenko, A.N. 2002. Application of the joint multifractal theory to study relationships between crop grain yields, soil electrical conductivity and topography. In M. M. Novak (ed.) Emergent Nature, pp.135-143, World Scientific. Proceedings of the 7th international Fractal 2002 Conference, Granada, Spain.
  18. Kravchenko, A.N., R.Omonode, G. A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66: 235-243.
  19. Kravchenko, A.N. and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Spatial variability of soybean quality data as a function of field topography: I. Spatial data analysis. Crop Sci. 42:804-815.
  20. Kravchenko, A.N. and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Spatial variability of soybean quality data as a function of field topography: II. A proposed technique for calculating the size of the area for differential soybean harvesting. Crop Sci. 42:816-821.
  21. Kravchenko, A.N., D. G. Bullock, and C.W. Boast. 2000. Analyzing relationships between crop yield and terrain slope using theory of joint multifractal measures. Agronomy J. 92:1279-1290.
  22. Kravchenko, A.N., and D. G. Bullock. 2000. Correlation of grain yield with topography and soil properties. Agronomy J. 92:75-83.
  23. Kravchenko, A.N., C.W. Boast, and D. G. Bullock. 1999. Multifractal analysis of the soil spatial variability. Agronomy J. 91:1033-1041.
  24. Kravchenko, A., and D. G. Bullock. 1999. A comparative study of interpolation methods for mapping soil properties. Agronomy J. 91:393-400.
  25. Kravchenko, A., and R. Zhang. 1998. Estimating the soil water retention function from particle-size distributions: a fractal approach. Soil Science 163:171-179.
  26. Zhang, R., P. Shouse, S. Yates, and A. Kravchenko, 1998. Applications of geostatistics in soil science. Trends in Soil Science 2:95-104.
  27. Kravchenko, A., and R. Zhang, 1997. Estimation of soil water retention function from texture and structure data: fractal approach. In M.M. Novak and T.G. Dewey (eds.), Fractal Frontiers. pp. 329-338, World Scientific, Proceedings of the 4th international Fractal 1997 Conference, Denver, USA.
  28. Kravchenko, A., and R. Zhang, 1997. Estimation of precipitation using geostatistical analysis with geographical and topographical information. Hydrological Science and Technology 13: 11-23.
Back to menu