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Antibiotic Resistance:
Case Study



UNIT 8: Classification and Kingdoms of Life

What you should know:

Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. Scientists use binomial nomenclature, which is a two-word system, to name organisms. This system was developed by a Swedish biologist by the name of Carolus Linnaeus. Scientific names are written in Latin and give biologists a common way of communicating, regardless of the language they speak. The scientific name of an organism consists of its genus name followed by a second name, which is it's species name. Organisms are classified into different categories based on common characteristics. Scientists use a seven-level system to classify organisms. These levels are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. These levels can be further subdivided into 30 different taxonomic levels.

Biologists usually define species based on their appearance and structure. The biological species concept defines species based on their ability to breed with each other. The downfall of using the biological species concept is that it cannot be used to classify asexually reproducing species.

There are different ways to classify organisms. Cladistics focuses on sets of unique characterisitics found in a particular group of organisms to reconstruct an evolutionary history. Another method of classification is called evolutionary systematics. This system is a more subjective method of classification than is cladistics, but evolutionary systematics allows greater evolutionary importance to be placed on certain characteristics.

There are six kingdoms used to classify organisms. They are eubacteria, archaebacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia. Members of the six kingdoms are grouped according to their cell type, cell complexity, body type, and nutrition. Eubacteria and archaebacteria are unicellular prokaryotes. Protists include multicellular and unicellular eukaryotes and can be heterotrophs or autotrophs. Fungi are eukaryotic, usually multicellular heterotrophs. Plants and animals are multiceullar and have specialized cells organized into structures called tissue, organs, and organ systems. These cells have special functions and coordinate their activities with one another. Plants are photosynthetic eukaryotes with tissue. Their cells have cell walls. Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial food webs. They release oxygen gas and aid in resource cycling. Animals are multicellular heterotrophs with cells that lack a cell wall. Animal cells are organized into tissues, and are mostly dipoid. Animals reproduce sexually.

How you make sense of things:

Initial EPE before lab

Observations you make
in your daily life:
Patterns you notice:
Explanations for the patterns:

Several people have the same name as someone else.

There are several names for a mountain lion such as cougar, puma, catamount, and Florida panther.

There are several different breeds of dogs and muts that are mixes between breeds.

A mule is a mix between a horse and a donkey. Mules are sterile.

Some animals like sharks and dolphins have similar body structures.

Having the same name as someone else can cause confusion and problems in communication with others.

Having more than one name for something can make it confusing when trying to communicate.




Goal EPE after lab

Observations you make
during lab:
Patterns you notice
in the data:
Explanations for the patterns:


Classification Discussion
There are several different breeds of dogs and muts that are mixes between breeds. Thre are several types of flowers that do not mix with other flower types.

A mule is a mix between a horse and a donkey. Mules are sterile.

Some animals like sharks and dolphins have similar body structures that are built for gliding through the water easily (slender bodies with fins in same locations.)

Primate Phylogeny
Day 1: Anatomical, Morhpological Evidence
Comparison of pictures and body characteristics of several primates including: gibbon, gorilla, orangutan, spider monkey, lemur, chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, rhesus monkey.

Day 2: Biochemical Evidence
Blood analysis of primates
The anti-human antibodies clot with the chimp, human and gorilla blood.

Day 3: Biochemical Evidence
Amino acid sequence comparison
Chimp and human amino acid sequences are the same. One amino acid difference between gorillas and humans.

Day 4: Biochemical Evidence
DNA gel electrophoresis (dry lab simulation)
Chimp DNA bands are more similar to humans than the gorilla.

Bacterial Growth Experiment
Students count number of colonies of bacterial growth from each of four locations tested around the school.

Students observe the characteristics of each colony's shape, edge and elevation.

Classification Discussion
All breeds of dogs can breed with each other. Not all flowers can breed.

Horses and donkeys are different species but can breed to have a mule.

Sharks and dolphins do not share a common ancestor and both live in a common environment.

Primate Phylogeny
Day1: Monkeys and lemurs are farther away from humans than the great apes.

Day 2: Humans are the most closely related to chimps and gorillas.

Day 3: Chimps are more closely related to humans than gorillas.

Day 4: Chimps are more closelly related to humans than gorillas.

Bacterial Growth Experiment
Some locations have more colonies growing than others.

Classification Discussion
Dogs are all the same species. Flowers are different species. A biological species is a group of organisms that can interbreed with themselves.

Species that are not completely reproductively isolated can still breed and give birth to sterile hybrids like mules, ligers and wolf-dogs.

Sharks and dolphins have undergone convergent evolution in which they have similar structures because they have both adapted to the same environment. These similar structures are called analogous characters.

Primate Phylogeny
Phylogenies are evolutionary trees that show the relationships between different species. We used anatomical and biochemical evidence to determine the relatioships between primates and which primate is the most closely related to humans.

Bacterial Growth Experiment
Locations with the greatest number of colonies growing had the most bacteria and are less sanitary than other locations.

Bacteria require nutrients such as agar to grow and reproduce.

What you should be able to do:

1. Explain that living things can be classified based on structural, embryological, and molecular (relatedness of DNA sequence) evidence.
2. Analyze the relationships among organimsms based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and functional processes.
3. Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria.
4. Recognize that while viruses lack cellular structure, they have the genetic material to invade living cells.