This multiple exposure photograph featuring Dennis Stanford, PhD shows the whiplike force imparted to a dart by the atlatl (throwing board)

Photo by National Geographic Photographers Joe Bailey and Larry D. Kinney. -- National Geographic Vol. 155, No. 1

Very strong evidence for atlatl hunter success can be found in National Geographic vol. 155, no.1 January 1979. On page 114 you will find "Bison Kill by Ice Age Hunters" by Dennis Stanford, PhD. Dr. Stanford examined a site 150 miles east of Denver Colorado were the bones of several hundred bison were found. The site has been estimated to be 10,000 years old. Scattered among the bones were scores of projectile points and fragments. The stone points were made from material that came from Colorado as well as Kansas, Nebraska, Texas and Wyoming. Many of the spear points had been trimmed along one edge indicating that they had been resharpened when used to butcher the bison.  

Dr. Stanford is also featured butchering a deceased elephant using stone tools in an attempt to duplicate signs of butchering found on Ice Age mammoth bones discovered several miles from the bison kill site. Geologic dating of the mammoth site put it 15,000 to 17,000 years before present which would confirm human existence in the area 3,000 years before evidence of habitation on the Great Plains! "Wielding flint knives, scientists sawed easily through the thick hide. The exposed a mighty foreleg bone and fractured it with a rock. Chipping by a bone knapper wrought an implement almost identical to one found in the Yukon, made perhaps 30,000 years ago. A bone tip fashioned for the spear easily pierced the hide, indicating that even without stone, Stone Age hunters could pull down the greatest of animals."