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Department of Linguistics, Germanic, Slavic, Asian & African Languages


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I am a Professor and Associate Chair in the Department of Linguistics & Germanic, Slavic, Asian, & African Languages at Michigan State University, where I directed the MA Program in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) for many years. My main area of research is second language (L2) writing. I am particularly interested in the various research methods and measures used in studying L2 writing as well as the interface between the fields of L2 writing and second language acquisition. I have also published and done research in the areas of second language acquisition, foreign language classroom discourse, and behavior differences in novice vs. experienced teachers.

I conduct workshops for foreign language teachers through MSU's Center for Language Education and Research, a federally funded center of which I am co-director, and the Center for Language Teaching Advancement. I have been a visiting instructor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto and Teachers College, Columbia University. I have taught ESL at MSU, UCLA, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Graduate School in Beijing, and Philadelphia Community College.

I am the past editor of the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics,and the co-editor of the Modern Language Journal . I have served on the editorial boards of Journal of Second Language Writing and TESOL Quarterly.

Description: Charlene Polio, Linguist Extraordinaire


A-714 Wells Hall
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824

phone: 517.884.1502
fax: 517.432.1149



PhD, Applied Linguistics, UCLA (1992)
MS, TESOL, University of Pennsylvania (1984)
BA, Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania (1983)




Lavolette, B., Polio, C., & Kahng, J. (in press). The accuracy of computer-assisted feedback and students’ responses to it. Language Learning and Technology.

Polio, C. & Park, J.H. (in press). Language development in second language writing. In R. Manchón & P. Matsuda (Eds.), Handbook of L2 writing. New York: Routledge.

Polio, C. & Shea, M. (2014). Another look at accuracy in second language writing development. Journal of Second Language Writing, 23, 10-27.

Connor-Linton, J. & Polio, C. (2014). Comparing perspectives on L2 writing: Multiple analyses of a common corpus: Introduction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 23, 1-9.

Gass, S. & Polio, C. (2014). Methodological Influences of Interlanguage (1972): Data then and data now. Han, Z.H. & Tarone, E. (Eds.), Interlanguage: 40 year later, pp. 147-142. Amsterdam/New York: John Benjamins.

Polio, C. (2012). The relevance of second language acquisition theory to the written error correction debate. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 375-389.

Polio, C. & Shi, L. (2012). Perceptions and beliefs about textual appropriation and source use in second language writing: Introduction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 95-101.

Polio, C. (2012). Replication in published applied linguistics research: An historical perspective.  G. Porte, (Ed.), Replication in applied linguistics: A practical guide, pp. 47-91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Polio, C. (2012). How to research second language writing. Gass, S. & Mackey, A., (Eds.) Second language research methods , pp. 139-157. New York: Routledge.


Polio, C. (2012). Second language writing.  Gass, S. & Mackey, A., (Eds.) Handbook of second language acquisition, pp. 319-334. New York: Routledge.

Mackey, A. & Polio, C. (Eds.) (2009). Multiple perspectives on interaction: Second language research in honor of Susan M. Gass. Taylor & Francis/Routledge.

Polio, C. & Zyzik, E. (2009). Don Quixote meets ser and estar: Multiple perspectives on language learning in Spanish literature classes. Modern Language Journal.

Polio, C. & Williams, J. (2009). Teaching and testing writing. In Long, M.H. & Doughty, C. (Eds.). The handbook of language teaching. Wiley-Blackwell.

Zyzik, E. & Polio, C. (2008). Incidental focus on form in university Spanish literature classes. Modern Language Journal.

Sachs, R. & Polio, C. (2007). Learners’ Uses of Two Types of Written Feedback on an L2 Writing Revision Task. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.

Polio, C. (2007). A history of input enhancement: Defining an evolving concept. In C. Gascoigne (Ed.). Assessing the impact of input enhancement in second language dducation. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.

Polio, C., Gass, S. & Chapin, L. (2006). Using stimulated recall to investigate native speaker perceptions in native-nonnative speaker interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 237-267.

Mackey, A., Polio, C. & McDonough, K. (2004). Teachers' use of incidental focus on form techniques in L2 classrooms. Language Teaching Research.

Polio, C. (2003). Second language writing research: What we investigate and how. In B. Kroll (Ed.). Exploring second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Presss.

Polio, C. (2001). Research methodology in second language writing: The case of text-based studies. T. Silva and P. Matsuda. (Eds.) On second language writing. (p. 91-116). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Polio, C. & Wilson-Duffy, C. (1998). International students' perspective on a North American MA TESOL practicum. TESOL Journal, 7, 24-29.

Polio, C. & Gass, S. (1998). The effect of interaction on the comprehension of nonnative speakers. Modern Language Journal, 82, 308-319.

Polio, C., Fleck, C. & Leder, N. (1998). "If I only had more time:" ESL learners' changes in linguistic accuracy on essay revisions. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7, 43-68.

Polio, C. & Gass, S. (1997). Replication and reporting. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 499-508.

Polio, C. (1997). Measures of linguistic accuracy in second language writing research. Language Learning, 47, 101-143.

Polio, C. (1996). Issues and problems in reporting classroom research. Second Language Classroom Research: Issues and Opportunities. S. Gass and J. Schachter (Eds.). (p. 61-80) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Polio, C. & Glew, M. (1996). ESL writing assessment tasks: How students choose. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 25-50.

Polio, C. (1995). Acquiring nothing?: The use of zero pronouns by nonnative speakers of Chinese and the implications for the acquisition of nominal reference. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 353-377.

Polio, C. (1994). Nonnative speakers' use of nominal classifiers in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 29, 51-66.

Polio, C. & Duff, P. (1994). Teachers' language use in university foreign language classroom: A qualitative analysis of English and target language alternation. Modern Language Journal, 78, 313-326.

Duff, P. & Polio, C. (1990). How much foreign language is there in the foreign language classroom? Modern Language Journal, 74, 154-166.




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