CURRICULUM  VITAE

 

Alvin J.M. Smucker

Professor of Soil Biophysics                              Voice: 517/355‑0271, ext. 251

Co-Director of National Needs Water Fax:     517/355‑0270           

    Science Fellows Program at MSU                E‑mail:  smucker@msu.edu

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Website:  http://www.msu.edu/~smucker

Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI 48824

 

Education:                                                     

1965 B.S. Goshen College (Indiana), Biology

1969 M.S. Michigan State University, Soil Science                                                      

1971 Ph.D. Michigan State University, Soil Physics and Plant Physiology          

 

Primary Research Interests:

        Terrestrial C sequestration by soil aggregates

        Root C contributions to soil aggregate formation, function and stability

        Microtomographic quantification of intra-aggregate porosity

        Water quality in belowground plumes of riparian landscapes

        Phytoremediation of soils by root demographics and function

 

Professional Experiences

2004    Alexander von Humboldt Research Professor, Kiel,

            Germany (Sabbatical)

2001-present    Visiting Chair Professor of Soil Science, Scottish Agriculture College

1999-present    Co-Director, National Needs Water Sciences Graduate Fellows at MSU

1999-present    Visiting Research Soil Scientist, Argonne National Laboratories

1998                Visiting Research Soil Scientist, Argonne National Laboratories (Sabbatical)

1987‑1988       Visiting Root Physiologist, CSIRO Fellow, Perth, W. Australia (Sabbatical)

1983‑present    Professor, Michigan State University

1977‑1983       Associate Professor, Michigan State University

1979‑1980       Visiting Associate Professor, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (Sabbatical)

1974‑1977       Assistant Professor, Michigan State University

1971‑1974       Exchange Professor and Co‑chair, Argentine Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences (MSU‑USAID), Buenos Aires, Argentina

 

Awards:

2005-   Distinguished Faculty Award at Michigan State University

2003-06  Alexander von Humboldt Research Award: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

2000    Senior Faculty Research Award, MSU Chapter of Sigma Xi Research Society

1998    Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1997    Fellow, Crop Science Society of America

1989    Fellow, American Society of Agronomy

1989    Fellow, Soil Science Society of America

1988  Peruvian Soil Research Distinguished Service Award

1988  Intíl Atomic Energy Agency Soil/Root Instruction Award

1988-89  President, MSU Chapter of Sigma Xi Research Society

1987-88  Distinguished MacMaster Research Fellow, CSIRO, Australia

1971-74  Co-Chair, Soil Science Department, Graduate School of

               Agricultural Sciences, INTA, Castellar, Argentina

 

Memberships and Honorary Societies:

        1976-present American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

        1968-present  Amer. Society of Soil Science (SSSA)

        1968-present  Amer. Society of Agronomy  ASA)

        1979-02  Crop Sci. Society of Amer.(CSSA)

        1968-present  Intíl. Soil Sci. Society (ISSS)

        1969-present  Sigma Xi Research Society

 

Panel Reviews:  USDA/NRICGP; NSF/Soil Processes, Managed Ecosystems; USAID /BARD/SBIR; NSF/Ecosystems/SBIR; USDA/CRDF; German DFG/DAAD; Switzerland NSF; Finland NAS; Italian NAS and FAO/IAEA

 

Journal Reviews:  Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., J. Env. Qual., Nature, Science, Soil Biol. and Biochem., Vadose Zone J., Soil Science, Soil Ecology, Agron. J., Geoderma, Ann. Rev. Phytopath., Euphytica, and Crop Science

 

Soil Science Research:

 

Primary Research Interests and Achievements: Soil physical and biophysical modifications of plant root development and rhizosphere functions; biogeochemistry and biophysics of soil C sequestration by aggregates; intraaggregate pore geometries and connectivities, soil nitrification inhibition by epigallocatechins root responses to soil compaction, and anaerobic/toxic soil horizons; heavy metal flux rates and soil water quality surrounding Red Cedar River on the MSU campus (MSU-WATER) and the Great Lakes (Great Lakes Commission).

        Associated collaborative research included: below-ground food-chains among roots and microbes; mesofaunal bioassays of transgenic food crops, plant genetic modifications of root system architecture; soil diseases, plant root energy losses; and associated redistributions of plant photoassimilates due to accelerated root exudation processes in the rhizosphere.

Directed or co-directed research and/or instructional projects totaling $5.67 million during past 33 years. Interdisciplinary and collaborative research projects totaling more than $26.8 million.

 

Project director and/or PI of 3-5 research proposals annually by federal, state and industry agencies generating annual operating budgets ranging from $140,000 to $320,000.  Participant in collaborative 20-year NSF/LTER, regional and international, and research programs.

 

Author or co‑author of more than 308 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, abstracts and research reports. Refereed journals, book chapters, papers, abstracts and posters are listed below.

 

Patents: Two patents have been licensed for commercial root separation processes (U.S. Patent No. 4,478,710 in 1984 and Canadian Patent No. 1,207,473 in 1986). The hydropneumatic elutriation system has become the global standard method of root extraction from soils for literally thousands of scientists in more than 25 countries. The second licensed patent is marketed as a trace evidence concentrator (TEC) of trace evidence at crime scenes for use by the forensic sciences.

 

First-time scientific discoveries by Smucker, et al:

        Root infection mechanisms to soil anaerobiosis (Smucker and Erickson, 1976)

        Hydropneumatic separation of roots from mineral soils (Smucker, et al., 1982)

        Combined soil compaction and plant genetic modifications of plant root demographics (Asady, et al., 1985).

        Web-based root image processing with residue eliminators (Smucker, et al., 1987)

        Biogeochemical gradients between exterior to interior regions of soil aggregates (Santos, et al., 1997)

        Root recolonization or root induced micropores, the rotation effect (Rasse and Smucker, 1998)

        Inhibition of soil nitrification processes by natural legume root epigallocatechins (Erickson, et al., 2000).

        Non-invasive X-ray synchrotron micro-imaging and high speed 3D image rendering of internal pore networks within soil aggregates. (Albee, et al., 2001).

         

Soil Science Teaching:  (25%)

        Environmental Soil Biophysics; CSS 440 (more than 835 students have been enrolled since 1978)

        Environmental Soil Physics; CSS 840 (8 to 15 students enrolled during odd years, more than 143 students have been enrolled since 1985)

        Soil Management and Environmental Impacts; CSS 310; 27 to 38 students  per year, since 2001.

        Developed New Research Option for Undergraduates; CSS 499, (2002-present), Placed four courses on Blackboard and now Angel website teaching (2000-04) Published three journal articles for teaching plant root-soil interactions, and developed an Instructional Graphics Systems with IBM (1982)

        Major and Co- advisor to 26 graduate students (15 Ph.D. and 11 MS). I have served on at least 117 graduate student mentoring committees from 11 departments and 4 Colleges at MSU. Eleven Ph.D. and M.S. graduate students and 3 research associates completed degree and research programs in the soil biophysics laboratories since 1998.

        Hired and trained more than 76 undergraduate students in my soil biophysics and root image processing laboratories, more than 44% were minority students during the period from 1975 to 2004.

        Mentor of at least 25 College Minority Apprentice Program (MAP) and University High School Honors Program for Minorities (1985-2003).

        Eight Research Associates and at least 26 visiting scientists have conducted significant collaborative research in my lab for periods of 2 months to 3 years.

 

Service:

        MSU Faculty Affairs Committee, Budget Subcommittee chair, 2000/01

        President of MSU Chapter of Sigma Xi, 1986, have served as membership chair

         awards committee chair, banquet committee chair, and treasurer 1980-94

        College Advisory Council: 1984/86, 1992/94, 1997/98; Chair in 1984/85

         and 2002/03

        Deanís strategic planning and staff planning committees: 1992-94 and 2000/01

        Department Advisory Committee, 1978/79, 1985/86, 2000/01

        Departmental Graduate Programs Committee: 1976/78, 1982/85, 1991/93,

         1997; Chair 1978/9 and 1982-84

        All University Electron Microscope Equipment Committee: 1982-1985

        Search committees for six new faculty in departments and college: 1974-02

Numerous research and journal review panels at MSU, state, federal and international agencies listed above.

        Served on 6 junior faculty mentoring committees in three departments, chair of two

        Served on a variety of boards and review committees, for local church, high school, and

      community agencies. Consultant to three NGOs for international development

     1974 to present

 

International Activities:

                    Alexander von Humboldt Research Award, University of Kiel, Germany, 2003-06.

                    Visiting Chair Professor at Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, Scotland

                 2001-present.

                    Mentor to 23 international graduate and undergraduate students from

            16 countries.

                    Soil Science Department co-chair and professor of soil science for MSU Graduate

            School in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1971-74.

                    Signed Memoranda of Understanding and/or conducted significant research programs between MSU and 6 international research and teaching institutions in Argentina, India, Taiwan, Peru, Nigeria, Kenya, and Scotland.

                    Garnered at least $500,000 of collaborative research, workshop, and instructional

            programs and consulted/presented invited seminars in more than 28 countries.

                    Board member of Associates in Rural Enterprise Development

            (ARED), an international NGO, 1994-present.

        Vice president of International Society of Root Research (ISRR)1994-present

 

International Collaboration: 1967 to present research papers on soil biophysical and root C activities, consulted, and coordinated research projects in at least 42 countries. Selected few presentations and projects

 

2004         Keynote presentation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation annual

                  meeting, Bonn, Germany

2003         Keynote presentations and consultant to OECD, Ismir and Turkey Soil Sci. Soc.

                 Society, Canakale, Turkey and to the ILTER in Nice, France.

2002         Keynote address to International Society of Root Research Conf., Kyoto, Japan

2002         Coordinated and presented keynote paper for Soil C Sequestration Conference in Agro-Forestry Workshop, ICRAF, Nairobi,Kenya

2001         Keynote address to DFG Soil C Sequestration Conference,

                  Wittenberg, Germany

2000         Annual lectures, research projects in soil C sequestration, Edinburgh

                   and Aberdeen, Scotland

1999-01   Soil C accumulations in rhizospheres of agro-forestry project, ICRAF,

                  Nairobi, Kenya

1998         Consultant for soil C sequestration in root zones of vineyards in

                  Stallenbach, S. Africa

1999         Keynote paper to the Finnish Soil Science Society annual conference

1996-99   USAID Soil C and N in agroforestry systems in Africa Conferences, IITA,

                  Ibadan, Nigeria

1987-88   Root research of soil C and N, CSIRO, Perth, Australia

1985&87  Root C, nutrients, and water quantification in agroforestry,

                  ICRISAT, Hydrabad, India

1985         Taught courses and consulted on soil and root science methods,

                  IAEA/FAO, Stallenbach, Austria

1980         NSF Soil-Plant-Animal Continuum Nutrient Project in Lima, Peru

1971-74   Presented 6 graduate soil science courses, conducted research on no till, and mentored 5 graduate students on soil research projects, INTA, Castellar, Argentina

1973         Research consultant and graduate education consultant in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Columbia, and Uruguay

1967         Seven month research assignment on water retention by soils treated by asphalt barriers for rice and sugar cane production, Taiwan Sugar Corporation, Tainan, Taiwan

 

New Instrument Developments and Discoveries:

                    Designed first HPLC and associated protocols that identified nano and picomole quantities of amino acids in plant and soil extracts

                    Designed and developed hydropneumatic elutriation system for separating plant

            roots from mineral soils, patented and purchased by at least 200 labs.

                    Expanded the elutriation system for crime scene use in the forensic sciences

                    Developed new model of Soil Aggregate Erosion (SAE) chamber in

collaboration with Peak Industries, Dearborn, MI. These have become commercially available and are being sold world wide.

                    Expanded and converted the educational RHIZOGEN model that develops 2D graphic root growth displays to soil compaction, soil water and soil fertility from       DOS to Windows environments, in collaboration with Dr. L. Wu, biological modeler, Land Management Dept. of SAC in Aberdeen, Scotland.

 

Administration:

  Co-Director of MSU Water Sciences Fellows Program: This program includes writing  proposals in the amounts of $210K to $250K every two years, assembling a multidisciplinary core faculty of 12-14 MSU professors, confirming the presentation of 75 to 80 graduate-level courses in 8 departments at MSU, recruiting and reviewing 10-12 Ph.D. applications annually, assembling and chairing an executive committee who sets policy and approves applicants, the construction and maintenance of a website for the MSU Water Science Fellows Program.  This position is responsible for communicating, record keeping of an on-going program of 11 Water Science Doctoral Fellows in 5 departments across the colleges of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Natural Sciences.

 

  Director of MSU Root Image Processing Laboratory (RIPL): This web-based computer plant root imaging analyses system http://rootimage.css.msu.edu/ analyzes root systems from washed samples and minirhizotron recordings of root systems in grassland, forest and agroecosystems throughout the Americas, in Europe, Australia, Japan, Turkey, Africa, India, etc.  Computer algorithms were developed in collaboration with the NSF Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Laboratory in Computer Science and Engineering. Currently, this web-based RIPL is used by scientists and students from more than 15 countries.

 

  Director of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer and C and N Analyses Laboratory. This lab services soil and plant research programs for at least 9 research faculty from four departments at MSU and several scientists across the USA and internationally. This fee-based facility analyzes approximately 4000 plant and soil materials annually.

 

Publications: Smuckerís soil biophysical and plant root research activities have resulted in more than 308 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, abstracts and research reports.

Eight most significant published contributions: 

 

1.   Smucker, A.J.M. and A.E. Erickson. 1976. An aseptic mist chamber system: A method for measuring root processes of peas. Agron. J. 68:59-62.

 

2.   Smucker, A.J.M.  1984. Carbon utilization and losses by plant root systems. In: Roots, Nutrient and Water Influx, and Plant Growth.  Barber and Boulden, eds. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI, pp. 27-46.

 

3.   Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1985. Carbon transport and root respiration of split root systems of Phaseolus vulgaris subjected to short term localized anoxia. Plant Physiology 78:359-364.

 

4.   Smucker, A.J.M. 1993. Soil environmental modifications of root dynamics and measurement. Annual Rev. Phytopathol. 31:191-216.

 

5.   Santos, D., S.L.S. Murphy, H. Taubner, A.J.M. Smucker and R. Horn. 1997. Uniform separation of concentric surface layers from soil aggregates.  Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 61(3):720-724.

 

6.   Rasse, D.P. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1998. Root recolonization of previous root channels in corn and alfalfa rotations. Plant and Soil 204:203-212.

 

7.   Smucker, A.J.M., D. Santos, Y. Kavdir and E.A. Paul. 1998. Concentric gradients within stable soil aggregates. Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of Soil Science, Montpellier, France.

 

8.   Erickson, A.J., R.S. Ramsewak, A.J. M. Smucker and M.G. Nair. 2000. Nitrification inhibitors from the roots of Leucaena leucocephala. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:6174-6177.

 

Refereed Journal Articles and Referred Book Chapters (including above 8)

 

1.         Erickson, A.E., C.M. Hansen and A.J.M. Smucker. 1968. The influence of subsurface asphalt barriers on the water properties and the productivity of sand soils. 9th Intíl.  Congress of Soil Science Transactions. Vol. 1, Paper 35, pp. 331-337.

 

2.         Erickson, A.E., C.M. Hansen, A.J.M. Smucker, K.Y. Li, L.C. Hsi, T.S. Wang and R.L. Cook. 1968. Subsurface asphalt barriers for the improvement of sugarcane production and the conservation of water on sand soil. International Society of Sugarcane Technologists Proceedings, 13th Congress, Taiwan. pp. 787-792.

 

3.         Smucker, A.J.M. and R.H. Leep. 1975. Influence of peroxide and polyelectrolyte treatments on germination, seedling, emergence and yield. Proc. Association of Official Seed Analysts 65:147-153.

 

4.         Smucker, A.J.M. and R.E. Lucas. 1975. Development of the Castelar graduate soil science program in Argentina Ė A cooperative effort. J. Agronomic Education 4:49-52.

 

 

5.         Smucker, A.J.M. and A.E. Erickson. 1976. An aseptic mist chamber system:  A method for measuring root processes of peas. Agron. J. 68:59-62.

 

6.         Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1978. Influence of mechanical impedance upon the morphology, growth, and O2 uptake by Phaseolus vulgaris roots. Reports for Commission Papers, Vol. 1., pp. 97-98. 11th Congress of International Society of Soil Science. Edmonton, Canada.

 

7.         Smucker, A.J.M., B.D. Knezek and G.R. Hooper. 1979. Influence of short-term oxygen stress upon the translocation of zinc in navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In: The Root_Soil Interface. J.L. Harley and R. Scott Russell, eds. Academic Press.  p. 434.

 

8.         Pessoa da Costa, G.T. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1981. Interactions of oxygen-nitrogen-salinity stresses on plant growth and mineral content of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in sand culture. J. of Plant Nutrition 3(6):887-903.

 

9.         Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1981. Mechanical impedance effects on oxygen uptake and porosity of drybean roots. Agron. J. 73:51-55.

 

10.       Smucker, A.J.M., S.L. McBurney and A.K. Srivastava. 1982. Quantitative separation of roots from compacted soil profiles by the hydropneumatic elutriation system. Agron. J. 74:500-503.

 

11.       Srivastava, A.K., A.J.M. Smucker and S.L. McBurney. 1982. An improved mechanical soil-root sampler. Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 868-871.

 

12.       Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1983. Measurement of  CO2 dissolved in  aqueous solutions using a modified infrared gas analyzer system. Plant Physiol.  72:212-214.

 

13.       Schumacher, T.E., A.J.M. Smucker, A. Eshel and R.B. Curry. 1983. Measurement of short-term root growth by prestaining with neutral red. Crop Science 23:1212-1214.

 

14.       Ghaderi, A., A.J.M. Smucker and M.W. Adams. 1984. Expected correlated responses in selecting dry beans for tolerance to soil compaction. Euphytica 33:377-385.

 

15.       Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1984. Effect of localized anoxia on Phaseolus vulgaris L. root growth. J. Experimental Botany 35(156):1039-1047.

 

16.       Smucker, A.J.M. 1984. Carbon utilization and losses by plant root systems. In: Roots, Nutrient and Water Influx, and Plant Growth.  Barber and Boulden, eds. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI, pp. 27-46.

 

17.       Asady, G.H., A.J.M. Smucker and M.W. Adams. 1985. Seedling test for the quantitative measurement of root tolerances to compacted soil. Crop Science 25:802-806.

18.       Mulligan, M.F., A.J.M. Smucker and G.F. Safir. 1985. Tillage modifications of dry edible bean root colonization by VAM fungi. Agron. J. 77:140-144.

 

19.       Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1985. Carbon transport and root respiration of split root systems of Phaseolus vulgaris subjected to short term localized anoxia.  Plant Physiology 78:359-364.

 

20.       Smucker, A.J.M. 1985. Soybean crop responses to soil environmental stresses. In: World Soybean Research Conference III: Proceedings. R. Shibles, ed.  Westview Press, Ames, IA. pp. 1000-1006.

 

21.       Smucker, A.J.M. and G.R. Safir. 1985. Root and soil microbial interactions which influence the availability of photoassimilate carbon to the rhizosphere. In: Microfloral and Faunal. M.J. Mitchell, ed. pp. 203-244.

 

22.       Allmaras, R.R., J.M. Kraft and A.J.M. Smucker. 1986. Soil compaction and crop residue management effects on root diseases of annual food legumes. International Food Legume Research Conference, Spokane, WA. pp. 627-647.

 

23.       Smucker, A.J.M., J.C. Ferguson and J.T. Ritchie. 1986. Visualization of the rhizospheres of intensively cultivated soils. XIIIth Congress of the Int'l. Soc. of Soil Sci., Hamburg. Volume II, p. 639.

 

24.       Schumacher, T.E. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1987. Ion uptake and respiration of dry bean roots subjected to localized anoxia. Plant and Soil 99:411-422.

 

25.       Smucker, A.J.M. and A.E. Erickson. 1987. Anaerobic stimulation of root exudates and disease of peas. Plant and Soil 99:423-433.

 

26.       Smucker, A.J.M., J.C. Ferguson, W.P. DeBruyn, R.K. Belford and J.T. Ritchie. 1987. Image analysis of video-recorded plant root systems. In: Minirhizotron Observation Tubes: Methods and Applications for Measuring Rhizosphere Dynamics. S.A. Barber and C.D. Boulden, eds. Agron. Soc. of Amer. Special Publication No. 50, pp. 67-80.

 

27.       Hasenstein, K.H., M.L. Evans, C.L. Stinemetz, R. Moore, W.M. Fondren, E.C. Koon, M.A. Higby and A.J.M. Smucker. 1988. Comparative effectiveness of metal ions in inducing curvature of primary roots of Zea mays. Plant Physiology 86:885-889.

 

28.       *Smucker, A.J.M. 1988. Video recording and image analyses of the rhizosphere. Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw-Hill.  3 pp.

 

29.          Asady, G.H. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1989. Compaction and root modifications of soil aeration. Soil Science Soc. Amer. J. 53(1):251-254.

 

 

30.         Box, J.E., Jr., A.J.M. Smucker and J.T. Ritchie. 1989. Minirhizotron installation techniques for investigating root responses to drought and oxygen stresses. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53(1):115-118.

 

31.         Ferguson, J.C. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1989. Modifications of the minirhizotron video camera system for measuring spatial and temporal root dynamics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53(5):1601-1605.

 

32.       Smucker, A.J.M. and A.E. Erickson. 1989. Tillage and compactive modifications of gaseous flow and soil aeration. In: Mechanics and related processes in structured agricultural soils. W.E. Larson et al., eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 205-221.

 

33.       Schroeder Murphy, S.L., B. Huang, R.L. King and A.J.M. Smucker. 1990. Measurement of whole plant responses to compacted and flooded soil environments in the teaching laboratory. J. Agron. Ed. 19(2):171-175.

 

34.       Smucker, A.J.M. 1990. Quantification of root dynamics in agroecological systems. In: Instrumentation for Studying Vegetation Canopies for Remote Sensing in Optical and Thermal Infrared Regions, Remote Sensing Reviews. V.S. Goel and J.M. Norman, eds. 5(1):237-248.

 

35.       Snider, R.J., R. Snider and A.J.M. Smucker. 1990. Collembolan populations and root dynamics in Michigan Agroecosystems. In: J.E. Box and L.C. Hammond, eds.  Rhizosphere Dynamics. AAAS Selected Symposium 113, pp. 168-191.

 

36.       Smucker, A.J.M., A. Nunez-Barrios and J.T. Ritchie. 1991. Root dynamics in drying soil environments. Belowground Ecology, Spring, pp. 4-5.

 

37.       Smucker, A.J.M., A.K. Srivastava, M.W. Adams and B.D. Knezek. 1991. Secondary tillage and traffic compaction modifications of the growth and production of dry edible beans and soybeans. Amer. Soc. of Ag. Engineers 7(2):149-152.

 

38.       Huang, C., A.K. Jain, G.C. Stockman and A.J.M. Smucker. 1992. Automatic image analysis of plant root structures.  Proceedings of the 11th IAPR Conference on Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems.  The Hague, The Netherlands.  pp. 1-8.

 

39.       Huang, Q., A.K. Jain, G.C. Stockman and A.J.M. Smucker. 1992. A new perspective on segmentation:  Token-based grouping at multiple levels. Image Processing:  Theory and Applications on Segmentation, pp. 1-9.

 

40.       Majdi, H., A.J.M. Smucker and H. Persson. 1992. A comparison between minirhizotron and monolith sampling methods for measuring root growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant and Soil 147:127-134.

 

 

41.       McLean, M., G.S. Howell and A.J.M. Smucker. 1992. A minirhizotron system for In Situ root observation studies of Seyval grapevines. American J. Enol. Viticulture 43(1):87-89.

 

42.       Smucker, A.J.M. 1992. Contemporary analytical methods for quantifying plant root dynamics. L. Kutschera et al., eds. Root Ecology and its Practical Application. Verein fur Wurzelforschung, Vienna.  pp. 721-726.

 

43.       Smucker, A.J.M. and R.M. Aiken. 1992. Dynamic root responses to water deficits. Soil Science 154(4):281-289.

 

44.       Taylor, H.M., Y. Waisel, A.J.M. Smucker and R.W. Zobel. 1992. Study of roots and their functions in plants. J. Plant Nutrition 15:6-7.

 

45.       Smucker, A.J.M. 1993. Soil environmental modifications of root dynamics and measurement. Annual Rev. Phytopathol. 31:191-216.

 

46.       Smucker, A.J.M. and R.R. Allmaras. 1993. Whole plant responses to soil compaction. In:  International Crop Science I. Crop Science Soc. of Amer., Madison, WI.  pp. 727-731.

 

47.       Smucker, A.J.M. and J.T. Ritchie. 1993. Plant physiological responses to the soil Ė Discussion. In: Intíl. Crop Science I, D.R. Buxton, et al. (eds.), Amer. Soc. Agron./Crop Science Soc. of Amer., Madison, WI. pp. 747-748.

 

48.       Smucker, A.J.M. and J.T. Ritchie. 1993. Plant physiological responses to the soil Ė Symposium conclusions.  In:  Proc. of the First Intíl. Crop Sci. Cong. D.R. Buxton (ed.), Ames, IA, pp. 747-748.

 

49.       Murphy, J.A., M.G. Hendricks, P.E. Rieke, A.J.M. Smucker and B.E. Branham. 1994. Turfgrass root systems evaluated using the minirhizotron and video recording methods. Agron. J. 86(2):247-250.

 

50.       Murphy, S.L. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1995. Evaluation of video image analysis and line intercept methods for measuring root systems of alfalfa and ryegrass. Agron. J. 87(5):865-868.

 

51.       Pietola, L.M. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1995. Fine root dynamics of alfalfa after multiple cuttings and during a late invasion by weeds.  Agron. J. 87(6):1161-1169.

 

52.       Smucker, A.J.M., B.G. Ellis and B.T. Kang. 1995. Alley cropping on an alfisol in the forest savanna transition zone: Root, nutrient, and water dynamics. Agroforestry, pp. 103-121.

 

 

53.       Smucker, A.J.M., W. Richner and V.O. Snow. 1995. Bypass flow via root-induced macropores (RIMS) in subirrigated agriculture.  Clean Water Clean Environment for the 21st Century, Conf. Proc., Vol. III: Practices, Systems, and Adoption. Kansas City, MO.  March 5, 1995, pp. 255-258.

 

54.       Aiken, R.M. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1996. Root system regulation of whole plant growth. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 34:325-346.

 

55.       Smucker, A.J.M., D. Santos and Y. Kavdir. 1996. Concentric layering of carbon, nitrogen and clay minerals within soil aggregates from tilled and non-tilled agroecosystems and natural grasslands. Third Eastern Canada Soil Structure Workshop Proceedings.  pp. 129-140.

 

56.       Santos, D., S.L.S. Murphy, H. Taubner, A.J.M. Smucker and R. Horn. 1997. Uniform separation of concentric surface layers from soil aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 61(3):720-724.

 

57.       Asseng, S., J.T. Ritchie, A.J.M. Smucker and M.J. Robertson.  1998.  Root growth and water uptake during water deficit and recovering in wheat.  Plant and Soil 201:265-273.

 

58.       Dowdy, R.H., A.J.M. Smucker, M.S. Dolan and J.C. Ferguson. 1998. Automated image analyses for separating plant roots from soil debris elutriated from soil cores. Plant and Soil 200:91-94.

 

59.       Kemner, K.M., W. Yun, Z. Cai, B. Lai, H.-R. Lee, D.G. Legnini, W. Rodrigues, J. Jastrow, R.M. Miller, S.T. Pratt, M.A. Schneegurt, C.F. Kulpa, Jr. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1998. Using x-ray microprobes for environmental research. Proceedings ĖThe Intíl. Soc. for Optical Eng., Vol. 3449, pp. 45-54.

 

60.       Ostrom, N.E., K.E. Knoke, L.O. Hedin, G.P. Robertson and A.J.M. Smucker. 1998. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope values of nitrate leaching from an agricultural soil. Chem. Geol. 146:219-227.

 

61.       Pietola, L. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1998. Fibrous carrot root responses to irrigation and compaction of sandy and organic soils. Plant and Soil 200:95-105.

 

62.       Rasse, D.P. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1998. Root recolonization of previous root channels in corn and alfalfa rotations. Plant and Soil 204:203-212.

 

63.       Smucker, A.J.M., D. Santos, Y. Kavdir and E.A. Paul. 1998. Concentric gradients within stable soil aggregates. Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of Soil Science, Montpellier, France.

 

64.       Akinnifesi, F.K., A.J.M. Smucker and B.T. Kang. 1999. Below-ground dynamics in agroforestry systems. Annals of Arid Zone 38(3&4):239-273.

65.       Fahey, T.J, C.S. Bledsoe, F.P. Day, R.W. Reuss and A.J.M. Smucker. 1999. Fine root production and demography.  In:  Standard Soil Methods for Long Term Ecological Research.  G.P. Robertson et al., eds.  Oxford University Press, New York, NY.  pp. 437-455.

 

66.       Rasse, D.P. and A.J.M. Smucker. 1999. Tillage effects on soil nitrogen and plant biomass in a corn-alfalfa rotation. J. Environ. Qual. 28(3):873-880.

 

67.       Rasse, D.P., A.J.M. Smucker and O. Schabenberger. 1999. Modifications of soil nitrogen pools in response to alfalfa root systems and shoot mulch. Agron. J. 91(3):471-477.

 

68.  Albee, P.B., G.C. Stockman, and A.J.M. Smucker. 2000. Extraction of pores from microtomographic reconstructions of intact soil aggregates. Argonne National Lab./Mathematics and Computer Sci. Div. P790-0100.

 

69.   Collins, H.P., E.T. Elliott, K. Paustian, L.G. Bundy, W.A. Dick, D.R. Huggins, A.J.M. Smucker and E.A. Paul. 2000. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in long-term corn belt agroecosystems. Soil Biol. and Biochem. 32:157-168.

 

70.  Erickson, A.J., R.S. Ramsewak, A.J. M. Smucker and M.G. Nair.  2000. Nitrification inhibitors from the roots of Leucaena leucocephala. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:6174-6177.

 

71.  Rasse, D.P., J.T. Ritchie, W.R. Peterson, J. Wei and A.J.M. Smucker.  2000.  Rye cover crop and nitrogen fertilization effects on nitrate leaching in inbred maize fields.  J. Environ. Qual. 29(1):298-304.

 

72.  Rasse, D.P., A.J.M. Smucker and D. Santos. 2000. Alfalfa root and shoot mulching effects on soil hydraulic properties and aggregation. Soil Science Soc. of Amer. J. 64(2):725-731.

 

73.  Dell, C., Y. Kavdir and A.J.M. Smucker. 2001. Management modifications of concentric gradients within soil aggregates. In: Fourth Eastern Canada Soil Structure Workshop (W.D. Reynolds et al., eds.). Proceedings of the Soil Structure/Carbon Workshop. Leamington, Ontario, p. 177-187.

 

74.  Smucker, A.J.M. 2001. New approaches for soil aggregation research during the next century (Invited Keynote Address). In: Fourth Eastern Canada Soil Structure Workshop (W.D. Reynolds et al., eds.). Proceedings of the Soil Structure/Carbon Workshop. Leamington, Ontario, p. 157-164.

 

75.  Atwell, B.J., I.R.P. Fillery, K.J. McInnes and A.J.M. Smucker. 2002. The fate of carbon and fertiliser nitrogen when dryland wheat is grown in monoliths of duplex soil.  Plant and Soil 241:259-269.

 

 

76.  Kavdir, Y. and A.J.M. Smucker. 2002. Soil aggregate sequestration of cover crop root and shoot residue nitrogen. International Conference on Sustainable Land Use and Management. Canakkale, Turkey, p. 134-142. 

 

77.  Smucker, A.J.M. and Y. Kavdir. 2002. Biophysical infrastructures that promote carbon sequestration within soil aggregates. International Conference on Sustainable Land Use and Management. Canakkale, Turkey, p. 129-133.

 

78.  Smucker, A.J.M., Y. Kavdir, C.J. Dell and D.P. Rasse. 2002. Plant carbon and nitrogen contributions to the formation and function of soil aggregation processes in sustainable agroecosystems. Innovative Soil-Plant Systems for Sustainable Agricultural Practices, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Workshop, Izmir, Turkey, p. 93-103.

 

79.  Smucker, A.J.M., C.J. Dell and D. Santos. 2003. Tillage modifications of carbon sequestration within soil aggregates. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of ISTRO.  p. 1157-1159.

 

80.  Smucker, A.J.M. 2003. Root carbon contributions to soil aggregate formation and function. Jun Abe (Ed.), Roots: The Dynamic Interface between Plants and the Earth.   Pp. 421-426.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

 

81.  Kavdir, Y and A.J.M. Smucker. 2004. Comparison of root image processing programs for quantifying plant root parameters. In: Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the International Soil Congress, June 2004, Erzurum, Turkey.

 

82.  Park, E.J. and A.J.M. Smucker. 2005. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity within macroaggregates modified by tillage. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 69:38-45.

 

83.  Horn, R. and A.J.M. Smucker. 2005. Structure formation and its consequences for gas and water transport in unsaturated arable and forest soils. Soil Tillage Res. 82:5-14.

 

84.  Park, E.J. and A.J.M. Smucker. 2005. Soil polar tensile strength and surface erosivities of soil aggregates from conventional and no-till agroecosystems.  Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. (in press).

 

85.  Kavdir, Y., D.P. Rasse, A.J.M. Smucker. 2005. Specific contributions of decaying alfalfa roots to nitrate leaching in a Kalamazoo loam soil. Agri. Ecosystem and Environ. 109:97-106.

 

86.  Blackwood, C.B., C.J. Dell, E.A. Paul, A.J.M. Smucker. 200_. Eubacterial community response to position within soil macroaggregates and soil management. Soil Biol. Biochem. (submitted).

 

87.  Kavdir, Y. and A.J.M. Smucker. 2005. Soil aggregate sequestration of cover crop root and shoot derived soil nitrogen. Plant and Soil 272:263-276.

 

88.  Pietola, L. and A.J.M. Smucker. 200_. Elimination of non-root residue by image analysis of very fine roots.  European J. Agron. (submitted).

 

89.  Sissoko, F., A.J.M. Smucker and E.A. Paul. 200_. Simulated root and root exudates enhancements of soil aggregates during wetting and drying. Soil Biology and Biochem. (submitted).

 

91.  Peng, X., R. Horn, S. Peth, A.J.M. Smucker. 200_. Quantification of soil shrinkage in 2D by digital image processing of soil surfaces. Catena. (submitted)