Henry Irving


The Henry Irving Archive:

Digital Resources for Scholars and Students

     Bibliography and Document Archive

Major manuscript collections

For major Irving/Terry manuscript collections in the UK, including the Laurence Irving Collection at the Theatre Museum, the Bram Stoker Collection at the Shakespeare Centre Library in Stratford-upon-Avon (on microfilm, see below), the Percy Fitzgerald Collection at the Garrick Club (on microfilm, see below), the University of Bristol Theatre Collection, and the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum in Bournemouth, see www.backstage.ac.uk.

More than 40 other manuscript collections containing Irving/Terry material, mostly those of local historical societies and libraries, can be found at the "Access to Archives" (A2A) website. Type in "Henry Irving" or "Ellen Terry" in the search box.

Microfilm: "Actors and Managers of the English and American Stage: Series One: The Papers of Henry Irving and Ellen Terry from the Shakespeare Centre Library, Stratford-upon-Avon, Parts One and Two." (The Bram Stoker Collection.) Harvester Microform, now distributed by Primary Source Microfilm. 30 reels.

Microfilm: "The Garrick Club Collections: The Life and Work of Henry Irving," 22 scrapbooks collected and arranged by Percy Fitzgerald. (Henry Irving: His Life and Characters Illustrated by Portraits, Scenes, and Sketches Together with Criticisms by Clement Scott.) ProQuest Information and Learning/UMI Research Collections. 11 reels.

Major American collections of Irving/Terry manuscript and printed material include:

Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C. Includes printed copies of most of Irving's writings and speeches, printed copies of Shakespeare's plays as arranged for production at the Lyceum, a microfilm copy of the promptbook for Irving's 1888 production of Macbeth, letters to and from Irving (most dated between 1860 and 1904), a group of letters from theatre critic William Winter, and a substantial part of Irving's personal library.

Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Items of interest here include the Edward Gordon Craig Collection, 1901-1943; the William Winter Papers, 1857-1920; and the George Bernard Shaw Collection. Craig (1872-1966) was Ellen Terry's son, an actor in juvenile parts at Irving's Lyceum, and a noted twentieth-century stage designer; Winter (1836-1917) was theatre critic for the New York Tribune from 1865 to 1909 and close personal friend of Irving's; Shaw (1856-1950) was a theater critic, playwright, and Irving nemesis.

The Huntington Library, San Marino, California. The "Letters of Sir Henry Irving, 1880-1904" collection here includes more than 100 letters written by Irving to Clement Scott, theatre critic of the Daily Telegraph. The collection also contains press clippings and miscellaneous programmes. The library holds additional letters by Irving that are not part of this collection. It also boasts proof sheets of the incidental music for Irving's 1888 production of Macbeth, which was composed by Arthur Sullivan.

Houghton Library / Harvard Theatre Collection, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Among the many treasures here are the Shakespeare Promptbook Collection, which includes Irving's promptbooks for Hamlet and Richard III; the George Bernard Shaw Papers, 1897-1939, which include the playwright's reminiscences of Irving; a collection of press notices compiled by George Alexander related to the 1887-88 American tour of the Lyceum company; some scrapbooks and correspondence.

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York. The Irving-Disher Collection in the Rush Rhees Library contains six boxes of material, including correspondence, financial records, and memorabilia, assembled by Maurice Willson Disher (1893-1969), English critic and author.

The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, California. The Irving/Terry/Craig Collection, part of the Geraldine Womack and Norman D. Philbrick Library of Dramatic Literature and Theatre History at the Honnold/Mudd Library, includes diaries, scapbooks, typescripts, manuscripts, photographs, newspaper clippings, letters written by prominent theatrical and literary figures, theatre programs, playbills, prospectuses, proofs, theatrical designs, and original wood engravings by Craig.


Correspondence project

The Henry Irving Foundation, established by John H.B. Irving (Sir Henry's great-grandson) aims to record the Victorian actor’s correspondence and fully illustrate his life, career, and achievement in raising the reputation and status of the theatre in nineteenth-century Britain and North America. Irving’s correspondence is widely distributed, with three British archives having major holdings. The Victoria & Albert Museum Theatre Collections hold the largest number of letters, from collections acquired from and given by the actor’s grandson and biographer Laurence Irving. Collections at the Shakespeare Centre Library in Stratford-upon-Avon and Leeds University Library derive from Irving’s acting manager, Bram Stoker. Other British and American libraries and archives hold items containing valuable additional information. The Correspondence project aims to draw these sources together for the use of all those interested in the history of the theatre and its place in Victorian society. The managers of the Sir Henry Irving Correspondence Project include Frances Hughes, chairman of the Irving Society; Helen Smith, formerly of the Theatre Museum; and John H. B. Irving.

Irving in the periodical press: newspaper, magazine, and journal articles about Henry Irving and his circle published between 1871 and 1905

Writings of Henry Irving and Ellen Terry

Irving, Henry. The Drama. New York: Tait, Sons & Co., 1892. Includes four speeches: "The Stage As It Is" (delivered at Edinburgh in 1881); "The Art of Acting" (delivered at Harvard University in 1885); "Four Great Actors" (delivered at Oxford University in 1886); and "The Art of Acting" (delivered at Edinburgh in 1891).

Irving, Henry. Preface to François Joseph Talma, Talma on The Actor's Art. London, Bickers and Son, 1883. (An English translation of Réflexions sur Lekain et sur l'art théâtral.)

Irving, Henry. English Actors: Their Characteristics and Their Methods. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1886.

The Henry Irving Shakespeare. Edited by Henry Irving and Frank A. Marshall with illustrations by Gordon Browne; published by Blackie & Son. Eight volumes published between 1888 and 1890. Volume I includes Irving's essay "Shakespeare as a Playwright."

Irving, Henry. "The Character of Macbeth: Address Delivered at Columbia College, New York, on 20th November, 1895." New York: 1895.

Irving, Henry. "The Study of Shakespeare in Small Communities." Windsor Magazine 17: 96 ("Xmas Number," December 1902), 100-110.

Irving, Henry. Shakespeare and Bacon. 1902.

Irving, Henry; Coquelin, Constant; and Boucicault, Dion. The Art of Acting. New York: Dramatic Museum of Columbia University, 1926. Includes "Actors and Acting" by Coquelin; "M. Coquelin on Actors and Acting" by Irving; "Coquelin-Irving," by Boucicault; "A Reply to Mr. Henry Irving" by Coquelin; and "A Reply to Mr. Dion Boucicault" by Coquelin.

Terry, Ellen. The Story of My Life. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1908. Also see Ellen Terry's Memoirs. Ed. Edith Craig and Christopher St. John. New York: Putnam, 1932.

ALSO: Many important primary documents have been collected by Jeffrey Richards in Sir Henry Irving: Theatre, Culture and Society--Essays, Addresses, and Lectures (Keele University Press, 1994), which brings together 36 essays and speeches by Irving, arranged in four parts (Irving's philosophy of acting, theatre in general, the social role of the stage, and Shakespeare) with a substantial and useful introduction. For a list of the documents included in this book, click here.

Souvenir programmes for Lyceum productions
[click title for JPG facsimile]

FAUST [JPG coming soon]: Joseph Hatton. The Lyceum Faust. London: J. S. Virtue & Co., 1886.

MACBETH: Partridge, Bernard, and Cattermole, Charles. Souvenir of Macbeth: Produced at the Lyceum Theater by Henry Irving, 29th December, 1888, by William Shakespeare. London: Cassell, 1888.

THE DEAD HEART: Souvenir of The Dead Heart by Watts Phillips: Presented at the Lyceum Theatre by Henry Irving, 28 Sept., 1889. London: Cassell, 1889.

RAVENSWOOD: Partridge, Bernard. Souvenir of Ravenswood: A Play by Herman Merivale, from the Story of "The Bride of Lammermoor." Presented at the Lyceum Theatre, 20th Sept., 1890, by Henry Irving. London: Cassell, 1890.

HENRY VIII: Partridge, J. Bernard; Telbin, W.; Harker, J.; and Hawes Craven. Souvenir of Shakespeare's Historical Play King Henry the Eighth, Presented at the Lyceum Theatre, 5th January 1892, by Henry Irving. London: The "Black and White" Publishing Company, Ltd.

KING LEAR: Partridge, Bernard, and Hawes Craven. Souvenir of Shakespeare's Tragedy, King Lear: Presented at the Lyceum Theatre, 10th November, 1892, by Henry Irving. London: Offices of Black and White, 1892.

BECKET: Partridge, Bernard. Souvenir of Becket, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson; First Presented at the Lyceum Theatre, 6th Feb., 1893, by Henry Irving.

KING ARTHUR: Partridge, Bernard, and Hawes Craven. Souvenir of King Arthur, presented at the Lyceum Theatre. London: Cassell & Co. 1895.

MADAME SANS-GENE: Souvenir of Madame Sans-Gêne: A Comedy in a Prologue & Three Acts. London: G. Bell, 1897.

DANTE [JPG coming soon]: Souvenir of Dante. New York: R.H. Russell, 1903.

Music used in Lyceum productions

"Arthur Sullivan: Incidental Music for Macbeth, King Arthur, The Merry Wives of Windsor." Performed by the RTE Concert Orchestra, Dublin, conducted by Andrew Penny. Marco Polo CD 8.223635, 1993. Contains substantial excerpts of Sullivan's incidental music for Irving's productions of Macbeth (1888) and King Arthur (1895).

Mackenzie, Alexander. "Sir Henry Irving and Music: Some Reminiscences." The Musical Times 46, no. 753 (November 1, 1905): 714-716.

Mayer, David. "Nineteenth Century Theatre Music." Theatre Notebook 30: 3 (1976): 115-122.

Mayer, David, and Scott, D. Four Bars of Agit: Incidental Music for Victorian and Edwardian Melodrama. London: Samuel French, 1983.


DeLong, Kenneth. "Stanford, Tennyson, and Irving at the Lyceum Theatre 1876-93." Victorian Studies Association of Western Canada Newsletter 10:1 ( 1984): 24-27.

DeLong, Kenneth, and Denis Salter. "C. V. Stanford's Incidental Music to Henry Irving's Production of Tennyson's Becket." Theatre History Studies 3 (1983): 69-86.

Mayer, David, ed. Henry Irving and The Bells: Irving's Personal Script of the Play by Leopold Lewis. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1980. Includes a discussion of the play's incidental music.

Tetens, Kristan. "Commemorating the French Revolution on the Victorian Stage: Henry Irving's The Dead Heart," Nineteenth Century Theatre and Film, vol. 32, no. 2 (Winter 2005): 36-69.

The Huntington Library in San Marino, California, holds proof sheets of the incidental music for the 1888 production of Macbeth, composed by Arthur Sullivan.


Tetens, Kristan. "Commemorating the French Revolution on the Victorian Stage: Henry Irving's The Dead Heart," Nineteenth Century Theatre and Film, vol. 32, no. 2 (Winter 2005): 36-69.

Irving's estate: catalogues

Catalogue of the Collection of Theatrical Relics, Costumes, Bronzes, Silver, Furniture and Decorative Objects, the property of Sir Henry Irving ... which (by order of the executors) will be sold by auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woods ... on Thursday, December 14, 1905, and following day. London: Christie, Manson and Woods, 1905.

Catalogue of the Collection of Ancient and Modern Pictures, Water-Colour Drawings and Theatrical Portraits; the property of Sir Henry Irving ... which ... will be sold by auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woods ... December 16, 1905. London: W. Clowes, 1905.

Catalogue of the Valuable Library and the Collection of Old Play-Bills and Theatrical Prints of Sir Henry Irving ... which (by the order of the executors) will be sold by auction by Christie, Manson & Woods ... on Monday, December 18, 1905. London: Christie, Manson and Woods, 1905.

Illustrated Catalogue of Books from the Library of Sir Henry Irving including many presentation and annotated copies, also personal relics and paintings and drawings from his collections, for sale ... London: H. Sotheran & Co., 1906.

Books and essays about Henry Irving and his circle by his contemporaries

Archer, William, and Lowe, Robert William. The Fashionable Tragedian: A Criticism. Edinburgh: T. Gray and Co., 1877.

Archer, William. Henry Irving: A Short Account of His Public Life. New York: W. S. Gottsberger, 1883.

Archer, William. Henry Irving, Actor and Manager: A Critical Study. London: Field & Tuer, 1883.

Austin, L. F. Henry Irving in England and America 1838-84. London: T.F. Unwin, 1884.

Brereton, Austin. Henry Irving: A Biographical Sketch. London: David Bogue, 1883.

Brereton, Austin. The Lyceum Theatre and Henry Irving. London: Lawrence & Bullen, 1903.

Brereton, Austin. Henry Irving. London: Anthony Treherne, 1905.

Brereton, Austin. The Life of Henry Irving. 2 vols. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908.

Brereton, Austin. "H.B." and Laurence Irving. London: Grant Richards, 1922.

Caine, Hall. Richard III and Macbeth: The Spirit of Romantic Play in Relationship to the Principles of Greek and of Gothic art, and to the Picturesque Interpretations of Mr. Henry Irving: A Dramatic Study. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1877.

Calvert, Walter. Souvenir of Sir Henry Irving; [an anecdotal, biographical and critical monograph]. London: H.J. Drane, 1895.

Calvert, Walter. Sir Henry Irving and Miss Ellen Terry: A Record of Over Twenty Years at the Lyceum Theatre. London: H.J. Drane, 1897.

Clapp, Henry Austin. Reminiscences of a Dramatic Critic, with an Essay on the Art of Henry Irving. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1902.

Coleridge, Stephen. Memories. London: John Lane, 1913.

Comyns Carr, Alice. Mrs. J. Comyns Carr's Reminiscences. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1926.

Comyns Carr, Joseph. Some Eminent Victorians: Personal Recollections in the World of Art and Letters. London: Duckworth & Co., 1908.

Comyns Carr, Joseph. Coasting Bohemia. London: Macmillan and Co., 1914.

Craig, Edith, and St. John, Christopher, eds. Ellen Terry's Memoirs. New York: Putnam, 1932.

Craig, Edward Gordon. Henry Irving, Ellen Terry: A Book of Portraits. 1899.

Craig, Edward Gordon. Henry Irving. London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1930.

Craig, Edward Gordon. Ellen Terry and Her Secret Self. London: S. Low, Marston & Co., 1931.

Daly, Frederic. Henry Irving in England and America. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1884.

Darbyshire, Alfred. The Art of the Victorian Stage: Notes and Recollections. London: Sherratt & Hughes, 1907.

Drew, Edwin. Henry Irving, On and Off the Stage: His Macbeth, Faust, etc., etc., Including a Chapter on Irving in Evening Dress. London: Henry J. Drane. n.d.

Ervine, St. John. The Theatre in My Time. London: Rich & Cowan, 1933.

Escott, T. H. S. "Sir Henry Irving," in Personal Forces of the Period. London: Hurst and Blackett, Ltd., 1898: 284-296.

Fitzgerald, Percy. Henry Irving: A Record of Twenty Years at the Lyceum. London: Chapman and Hall, 1893.

Forbes-Robertson, Beatrice. "Memories of Henry Irving and Ellen Terry." Listener. (October 23, 1958): 645-646.

Forshaw, Charles F. In Memoriam; Tributes to the Memory of the Late Sir Henry Irving. London: E. Stock, 1905.

Harker, Joseph. Studio and Stage. London: Nisbet & Co., Ltd., 1924. Harker was one of the Lyceum's set designers and painters.

Hatton, Joseph. Henry Irving's Im pressions of America Narrated in a Series of Sketches, Chronicles and Conversations. Boston: J.R. Osgood, 1884.

"Henry Irving: Remininscences of Austin Brereton, Bram Stoker, Ellen Terry, and Walter Herries Pollock." Edinburgh Review
208: 427 (January 1909): 29-48.

Hiatt, Charles. Henry Irving: A Record and Review. London: George Bell and Sons, 1899.

Jones, Henry Arthur. The Shadow of Henry Irving. New York: B. Blom, 1969. Originally published in 1931.

Knight, Joseph. Theatical Notes. 1883.

Macbeth at the Lyceum: Mr. Irving and his critics, By two amateurs. London: Bickers & Son, 1875.

Macfall, Haldane. Sir Henry Irving. Edinburgh, London: T.N. Foulis, 1906.

Marshall, Francis Albert. Henry Irving, Actor and Manager: A Criticism of a Critic's Criticism. London, New York: G. Routledge, 1883.

Martin-Harvey, John. Autobiography. London: S. Low, Marston, 1933.

Menpes, Mortimer. Henry Irving. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1906.

Mr. Henry Irving and Miss Ellen Terry in America: Opinions of the Press. Chicago: John Morris, 1884.

Pollock, Walter Herries. Impressions of Henry Irving, Gathered in Public and Private During a Friendship of Many Years. New York: B. Blom, 1971. Originally published in 1908.

Russell, Edward Richard (Baron Russell). Irving as Hamlet. London: King, 1875.

Russell, Percy. Sir Henry Irving. London: S. Champness & Co., nd.

St. John, Christopher Marie. Henry Irving. London: Green Sheaf, 1905.

St. John, Christopher Marie. Ellen Terry. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1907.

St. John, Christopher Marie. Ellen Terry: A Short Biography. Harbledown, Canterbury (Eng.): J. A. Jennings, 1942.

Saintsbury, H.A., and Cecil Palmer. We Saw Him Act. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1939.

Scott, Clement. From "The Bells" to "King Arthur": A Critical Record of the First-Night Productions at the Lyceum Theatre from 1871 to 1895. London: Macqueen, 1896.

Scott, Clement. Ellen Terry. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1900.

Shaw, George Bernard. Our Theatre in the Nineties. London: Constable and Company, 1932.

Stoker, Bram. Personal Reminiscences of Henry Irving. 2 vols. London: William Heinemann, 1906.

Stoker, Bram. "Irving and Stage Lighting." The Nineteenth Century and After. May 1911: 903-912.

Telbin, William (the Younger). "Art in the Theatre: The Painting of Scenery." Magazine of Art 12 (1889): 195-201.

Walker, A. Stodart. "Reminiscences of Sir Henry Irving." Chambers's Journal, Sixth Series, 25 November 1905: n.p.

Wills, Freeman. W.G. Wills: Dramatist and Painter. New York: Longmans, Green and Co, 1898.

Winter, William. Henry Irving. New York: George J. Coombes, 1885.

Modern studies of Henry Irving and his circle


Auerbach, Nina. Ellen Terry: Player in Her Time. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987.

Baker, Michael. The Rise of the Victorian Actor. London: Croom Helm, 1978.

Belford, Barbara. Bram Stoker: A Biography of the Author of Dracula.

Bingham, Madeleine. Henry Irving and the Victorian Theatre. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1978. (Also published as Henry Irving: The Greatest Victorian Actor, New York: Stein and Day, 1978.)

Church, Howard Wadsworth. Henry Irving and Goethe's Faust. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928.

Farson, Daniel. The Man Who Wrote Dracula: A Biography of Bram Stoker. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975.

Fecher, Constance. Bright Star: A Portrait of Ellen Terry. London: Gollancz, 1970.

Findlater, Richard. The Player Kings. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1971.

Holmes, Martin Rivington. Stage Costume and Accessories in the London Museum. London: H.M.S.O., 1968.

Hughes, Alan. Henry Irving, Shakespearean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Irving, Laurence. Henry Irving: The Actor and His World. London: Faber & Faber, 1951.

Irving, Laurence. The Successors. London: Rupert-Hart Davis, 1967.

Irving, Laurence. The Precarious Crust. London: Chatto and Windus, 1971.

Irving, Laurence. Designing for the Movies: The Memoirs of Laurence Irving. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2006.

King, W.D. Henry Irving's Waterloo: Theatrical Engagements with Arthur Conan Doyle, George Bernard Shaw, Ellen Terry, Edward Gordon Craig, Late-Victorian Culture, Assorted Ghosts, Old Men, War and History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Ludlam, Harry. A Biography of Dracula: The Life Story of Bram Stoker. London: W. Foulsham, 1962.

Manvell, Roger. Ellen Terry. New York: Putnam, 1968.

Mayer, David, ed. Henry Irving and The Bells: Irving's Personal Script of the Play by Leopold Lewis. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1980. Includes a memoir by Eric Jones-Evans.

Miller, Orville C. Sir Henry Irving, the Public Speaker, n.d.

Murray, Paul. From the Shadow of Dracula: A Life of Bram Stoker. London: Jonathan Cape, 2004.

Quick, Richard. Souvenir of the Irving Collection [Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum, Bournemouth]. Bournemouth, England, 1927.

Recklies, D. The Lighting Practice of Henry Irving [at the Lyceum Theatre]. Theatre Research Institute, Ohio State University, 1981.

Richards, Jeffrey. Sir Henry Irving: Theatre, Culture and Society--Essays, Addresses, and Lectures. Keele University Press, 1994.

Richards, Jeffrey. Sir Henry Irving: An Actor and His World. Hambledon & London, 2005.

Rowell, George. Theatre in the Age of Irving. Oxford: Basil Blackwell/Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1981.

Rowell, George. The Victorian Theatre 1792-1914: A Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. 2nd edition. Previously published as The Victorian Theatre (1956).

Sanderson, Michael. From Irving to Olivier. A Social History of the Acting Profession in England, 1880-1983. London: The Athlone Press, 1984.

Shearer, Moira. Ellen Terry. Stroud, Gloustershire: Sutton Publishing, 1998.

Stokes, John. Bernhardt, Terry, Duse: The Actress in Her Time. Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Teasdill, Graham. The Actor Knight [catalog of an exhibition at the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum, from 12th July to 10th September, 1975]. Bournemouth, England: Borough of Bournemouth Art Gallery and Museums, 1975.

Trewin, J.C. Benson and the Bensonians.  London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1960.

Van Riper, Charles. Costume Practice at the Lyceum under the Management of Henry Irving, 1878-1902. Austin, Texas: 1975.

West, Edward Joseph. Ellen Terry, Histrionic Enigma. Boulder, Colorado, 1940.

Wilson, A. E. The Lyceum. London: D. Yates, 1952.

Articles and chapters in books

Barker, Kathleen. "The Death of Irving's Mother." Theatre Notebook 44: 3 (1990): 123-124.

Barstow, Susan Torrey. "Ellen Terry and the Revolt of the Daughters." Nineteenth Century Theatre 25 (1997).

Bingham, M. "Henry Irving and the Victorian Theatre." Economist 267 (1979): 116.

Booth, Michael R. "Irving's Faust," in Victorian Spectacular Theatre, 1850-1910 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981): 93-126.

oth, Michael R. "Pictorial Acting and Ellen Terry," in Shakespeare and the Victorian Stage, ed. Richard Foulkes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Booth, Michael R. "The Acting of Henry Irving." Theatre Notebook, vol. 59, no. 3 (2005): 123-143.

Brusic, R. "Beyond the Third Pillar: Sherlock Holmes's Belated Encounter with Sir Henry Irving." Baker Street Journal 50: 3 (2000).

Davis, Jim. "'Jingle' Without 'The Bells'." Dickensian 81: 3 (1985): 175-180.

DeLong, Kenneth. "Stanford, Tennyson, and Irving at the Lyceum Theatre 1876-93." Victorian Studies Association of Western Canada Newsletter 10:1 ( 1984): 24-27.

DeLong, Kenneth, and Denis Salter. "C. V. Stanford's Incidental Music to Henry Irving's Production of Tennyson's Becket." Theatre History Studies 3 (1983): 69-86.

Foulkes, Richard. Church and Stage in Victorian England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. [chapter on Henry Irving]

Glick, Claris. "Hamlet in the English Theater: Acting Texts from Betterton (1676) to Olivier (1963). " Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1. (Winter, 1969): 17-35.

Goodman, Jennifer R. "The Last of Avalon: Henry Irving's King Arthur of 1895." Harvard Library Bulletin. 32: 3 (Summer 1984): 239-255.

Goodman, Jonathan. "First Knight of the Stage." Contemporary Review  266 (June, 1995): 310-312.

Holmes, C. J. "Bastien-Lepage's Portrait of Sir Henry Irving." Burlington Magazine 17 (April-September 1910): 178.

Hughes, Alan. "Henry Irving's Tragedy of Shylock." Educational Theatre Journal 24 (1972): 249-268.

Hughes, Alan. "Henry Irving's Finances: The Lyceum Accounts, 1878-1899," Nineteenth Century Theatre Research 1.2 (Autumn 1973): 79-87.

Hughes, Alan. "The Lyceum Staff: A Victorian Theatrical Organisation." Theatre Notebook 28: 1 (1974): 11-17.

Hughes, Alan. "'A Poor, Infirm, Weak and Despised Old Man': Henry Irving's King Lear." Wascana Review 12:1 ( 1977): 49-64.

Hughes, Alan. "Henry Irving's Artistic Use of Stage Lighting." Theatre Notebook 33 (1979): 100-109.

Hughes, Alan. "Limelight: Control and the Independent Lighting Designer." Theatre Survey 26 (1985): 182-185.

Hughes, Frances. "Henry Irving." Speech and Drama Autumn 2005: 4-9.

Jackson, Russell. "The Lyceum in Irving's Absence: G.E. Terry's Letters to Bram Stoker." Nineteenth Century Theatre 6 (1978): 25-33.

Kachur, B.A. "Ellen Terry's Last Shakespearean Comedy: The Merry Wives of Windsor at His Majesty's Theatre, 1902-1911," Nineteenth Century Theatre 20.1 (Summer 1992): 5-33.

King, W.D. "An 'Exquisite' Memory: Henry Irving and Bernard Shaw at 'Waterloo'" in Bert Cardullo, ed., Before His Eyes: Essays in Honor of Stanley Kauffmann. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1986: 35-49.

King, W.D. "When Theatre Becomes History: Final Curtains on the Victorian Stage." Victorian Studies 36: 1 (Fall 1992): 53-61.

Leggio, James. "Irving and Chaliapin." Theatre Notebook 32 ( 1978): 32-37.

McConkey, Kenneth. "The Bouguereau of the Naturalists: Bastien-Lepage and British Art." Art History 1 (September 1978): 371-82.  [extended discussion of the artist's portrait of Henry Irving]

Manvell, Roger. "The Highest Paid Woman in Victorian England." Listener 80 (August 15, 1968): 208-209.

Mayer, David. "Nineteenth Century Theatre Music" Theatre Notebook 30: 3 (1976): 115-122.

Meisel, Martin. Realizations: Narrative, Pictorial, and Theatrical Arts in Nineteenth-Century England. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983. [chapter on Irving and artists]

Miller, John. "The Legacy of Henry Irving." Listener 105 (1981): 200.

Moore, Edward M. "Henry Irving's Shakespearean Productions." Theatre Survey, 17:2 (November 1976): 195-216.

Nicholson, H. "Henry Irving and the Staging of Spiritualism." New Theatre Quarterly, vol. 16, no. 63 (2000): 278-87.

O'Neill, Norman. "Music to Stage Plays." Proceedings of the Musical Association, 37th Session (1910-1911): 85-102.

Pick, John. "How Sir Henry Managed It," Plays and Players No. 393 (June 1986): 12-13.

Poulson, Christine. "Costume Designs by Burne-Jones for Irving's Production of King Arthur. " Burlington Magazine 128 (1986): 18-24.

Richards, Jeffrey. "The Lyceum Theatre, London." History Today, Vol. 38 (October 1988): 61.

Rosenberg, Marvin. "Henry Irving's Edition of Othello." Notes and Queries CXCV, 260 (

Rosenfeld, Sybil. "An Irving Collection." Theatre Notebook 4:2 (1950): 63.

Rowell, George. "A Lyceum Sketchbook." Nineteenth Century Theatre Research, 6:1 (Spring 1978): 1-23.

Salter, Denis. "Henry Irving, the 'Dr. Freud' of Melodrama," in James Redmond, ed., Melodrama. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992: 161-82.

Schulz, Stephen C. "Toward an Irvingesque Theory of Shakespearean Acting." Quarterly Journal of Speech 61 ( 1975): 428-138.

Stewart, Ian. "Voicing an Opinion About Irving." Country Life 164 (1978): 446.

Storm, William. "Impression Henry Irving: The Performance in the Portrait," Victorian Studies (Spring 2004): 399-423.

Tetens, Kristan. "'A Grand Informal Durbar': Henry Irving and the Coronation of Edward VII," Journal of Victorian Culture 8.2 (Autumn 2003): 257-291.

Tetens, Kristan. "Commemorating the French Revolution on the Victorian Stage: Henry Irving's The Dead Heart," Nineteenth Century Theatre and Film, vol. 32, no. 2 (Winter 2005): 36-69.

Valente, Joseph. "Bram Stoker and the Metrocolonial Gothic," Modern Fiction Studies, 46 (2000): 632-45.

West, E. J. "Irving in Shakespeare: Interpretation or Creation?" Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4. (Autumn, 1955): 415-422.

Young, Alan R. "Henry Irving's Hamlet: Some Visual Sources," Nineteenth Century Theatre and Film, vol. 32, no. 2 (Winter 2005): 3-19.

Young, William C. "Henry Irving," in Famous Actors and Actresses on the American Stage: Documents of American Theatre History. Vol. 1, A-J. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Basehart, John Richard. "The Development of Henry Irving's Shakespearean Staging During His Early Years at the Lyceum Theatre." Dissertation Abstracts International, (35) 3157-3158A, Ohio State University, 1974.

Beck, Martha Ryan. "A Comparative Study of Prompt Copies of Hamlet Used by Garrick, Booth, and Irving." Dissertation Abstracts International (17/2 parts) 1412, University of Michigan (56), 1957.

Berg, Sylvia Alexa. "The Interpretation of 'Romeo and Juliet' from Garrick to Bridges-Adams: An Historical Study of Tradition and Innovation in English Shakespearean Production." PhD dissertation, University of Alberta, Canada, 1989.

De Lapp, Rene. "Henry Irving in America: Critical Reactions to His Shakespearean Productions." University of Wisconsin, 1977.

Earp, Cheryl R. "Henry Irving and the Forming of His Lyceum Theatre Company (1871-1878)." MA Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1975.

Engass, Agnes Joan Logue. "A Reconstruction of the Hamlet Productions of Sir Henry Irving, 1874 to 1885." Dissertation Abstracts International (38) 6405A, University of Michigan, 1977.

Fort, Timothy Ward. "Incandescence and the Birth of Modern Lighting Design." PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, Canada, 1989.

Gardner, Joseph Tate. "Hawes Craven, William Telbin and Joseph Harker: An Analysis of the Scenographic Practices of Henry Irving's Principal Scene Painters at the Lyceum Theatre, 1878-1898." Dissertation Abstracts International (38) 7027A, Florida State University, 1977.

Haines, Meredith C. "The Nonconformists and the Nonconformist Periodical Press in Mid-Nineteenth Century England." Dissertation Abstracts International (27/2 parts) 2117A-2118A, Indiana University (66), 1967.

Haas, Thomas Booth. "Kean, Irving, Tree: Shakespearean Production Aesthetics." PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1963.

Kern, R. C. "A Study of Sir Henry Irving as Actor-Manager with Special Reference to His Shakespearean Productions." Miami University, 1949.

Kershner, William Robert. "The Theatre as a Social Institution: A Study of Harley Granville-Barker's Theories of Theatrical Art." PhD dissertation, University of Southern California, 1981.

Kline, Herbert Walter. "Henry Irving and the Lyceum Theatre Company in America." Dissertation Abstracts International (28/3 parts) 3291A, University of Illinois (67), 1967.

McCachren, Hoyt McKee, Jr. "The Dramatic Criticism of C. E. Montague." PhD dissertation. University of Georgia, 1981.

Macdonald, Paul Alan. "Macready, Irving, and Beerbohm-Tree: Image and the Play Scene from ' Hamlet. '" MA Thesis, Acadia University (Canada), 1995.

McIntosh, A.A.K. "The Business Manager at Irving's Lyceum, 'An Individual Who Calls Himself Bram Stoker, Who Seems to Occupy Some Anomalous Position Between Secretary and Valet,' or the Forefather of Theatre Administrators?" Dissertation. (42/Pt.3) 940, Glasgow, M.Litt. (91), 1993.

Mazer, Cary Merrill. "Shakespeare and Edwardian Scenography: The Evolution of a Theatrical Style." PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1980.

Novick, Julius Lerner. "Henry Irving and 'Natural' Acting." Dissertation Abstracts International (43) 589A, Yale University (1966), 1982.

Nyberg, Benjamin Matthew. "Tennyson's Becket: A Critical Comparison of the Arrangement for the Stage by Henry Irving with the Original Version." University of Arizona, 1958.

Oakley, Lucy Alice. "Edwin Austin Abbey's Shakespearean Paintings, Illustrations, and Costume Designs, 1888-1909." PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1995.

Peffers, R. E. "Henry Irving in Cincinnati, Ohio: A Theatrical Investigation of His Tour of 1883-84." Miami University, 1965.

Reynolds, Kirk Mallory. "A Stage History of 'The Merchant of Venice,' 1596-1982." PhD dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1987.

Rouder, Wendy Phyllis. "Henry Irving's Macbeth." Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1971.

Rozmovits, L. "Private Revenge, Public Punishment: The Merchant of Venice in England, 1870-1929." DPhil, Sussex, 46-250. 1995, A8c.

Salomon, Roger B. "George Bernard Shaw and Henry Irving: The Impact of the New Theater on the Actor-Manager Tradition." Thesis (AB, Honors)--Harvard University, 1950.

Salter, Denis William. "A Stylistic Analysis of Henry Irving's Non-Shakespearean Productions 1870 to 1905." Dissertation Abstracts International (42) 4205A University of Toronto (1981), 1982.

Schaffer, Byron Smith, Jr. "The Stage Management of Henry Irving in America, 1883-1904." PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 1967.

Schulz, David V. "Theme and Variation: A Comparison of the Much Ado About Nothing Productions of Henry Irving and Edward Gordon Craig." Ohio State University, 1989.

Simon, Nancy Lynn. "Henry Irving and Ellen Terry in Macbeth : Lyceum Theatre, 29 December 1888." Dissertation Abstracts International ( 37) 700A., University of Washington (1975), 1976.

Smith, Ellis Lee. "A Critical Analysis of the Role of Iago, As Performed by Edmund Kean, Edwin Booth, Henry Irving, and Laurence Olivier." University of Maryland, College Park, 1968.

Van Riper, Charles. "Costume Practice at the Lyceum under the Management of Henry Irving, 1878-1902." University of Texas at Austin, 1975.

Willems, Virginia Alison Wright. "Henry Irving and the Meininger." Dissertation Abstracts International (31) 6211-6212A, University of Wisconsin, 1971.

Wilson, Anne Young. "The Staging of 'Cymbeline': 1688-1988." PhD dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, 1990.

Irving, Terry, and the Lyceum in fiction

Andrews, Val. Sherlock Holmes and the Longacre Vampire. London: Breese Books, 2001.

Conan Doyle, Arthur. "The Sign of Four" (chapter 3). A Sherlock Holmes story first published in 1890. The Lyceum's front portico is used as a meeting spot as the audience arrives for an evening performance.

Cunningham, Terry. Bram Stoker's Irving. Stagedoor Publishing, 2004.

Meyer, Nicholas. The West End Horror: A Posthumous Memoir of John H. Watson, MD. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1976.

Robert J. Randisi, Curtains of Blood (New York: Dorchester Publishing Co.), 2002. London, 1888: the Whitechapel murders are terrorizing the East End. At the Lyceum, Irving is producing Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and portraying the latter so convincingly that Scotland Yard thinks he may be the perpetrator of the Ripper crimes. When the production is shut down, Bram Stoker goes in search of the real killer. Among the characters are Arthur Conan Doyle, Joseph Harker, Ellen Terry, Oscar Wilde, W. E. Gladstone, and Walter Collinson, with a cameo appearance by Fussie, Irving's Jack Russell terrier. Includes several scenes at the Lyceum, including two Beefsteak Room dinners.


British Library Publishing: "Voices of History 2: Arts, Science & Exploration." Two-disc audio CD, ISBN 0712305238, published in 2005. Irving reads from Richard III; Ellen Terry reads multiple parts from Hamlet. Available from the British Library bookshop and online.

Taylor, George. "Henry Irving at the Lyceum." Part of the Theatre in Focus series edited by Richard Cave and produced by ProQuest. Includes book and about fifty 35 mm slides. For information, see http://www.proquest.co.uk/.

"Great Historical Shakespeare Recordings" (Naxos audiobook); a two-CD set with tracks selected and provided by Eliot Levin. ISBN 962634200 (CD 1 is N2200012; CD 2 is NA2200022).  On CD 1, Ellen Terry reads Ophelia, Juliet, and Portia. Also on CD 1, Henry Irving reads Cardinal Wolsey and Richard III. On CD 1, Bransby Williams does a version of Irving as Mathias in The Bells. "Eric Jones-Evans once told me that Williams's imitation was very faithful to the original, a production he had seen scores of times, as had Eric," says Denis Salter of McGill University.

"Ellen Terry: A Reminiscence" (sound recording) with John Carroll and Sybil Thorndyke. 1972.

Recordings of Irving and Terry:

Henry Irving - Richard III - "Now is the winter..." - 1898 [1:39]




Ellen Terry - The Merchant of Venice - "The quality of mercy..." - 1911 [1:46]




Ellen Terry - Much Ado About Nothing - "I have brought Claudio..." [MP3; will open in player] [2:27]
Audio file courtesy of Denis Salter, Professor of Theatre, McGill University


The Irving Society
The Irving Society was established in 1996 to bring together individuals and organizations interested in promoting the understanding and appreciation of the theatre in the age of the actor-manager Sir Henry Irving (1838-1905), and of his cultural and artistic contribution to the Victorian era. Site includes articles and biographical information.

PeoplePlay UK Henry Irving Page
Provides a brief overview of Irving and Terry's Lyceum partnership, with illustrations and audio clips. Produced by the Theatre Museum (UK).

"J. Comyns Carr's King Arthur " Page
A website created in 2001 by David Howland, a student at the University of Rochester (New York). Includes information on Irving, Terry, Edward Burne-Jones, and Arthur Sullivan; the full text of the play; a scanned facsimile of the souvenir program; and reviews.


Henry Irving Archive: Home

This site is managed by Kristan Tetens (Michigan State University) in partnership with the Irving Society (UK), which promotes the study of the life of the English actor-manager Henry Irving (1838-1905), his artistic achievement at the Lyceum Theatre with partner Ellen Terry (1847-1928), and his contribution to Victorian culture. For more information on Victorian theatre history, including bibliographies and links to online resources, visit the Victorian Theatre Research Web at www.msu.edu/~tetenskr/index.html.