Complex and diverse rupture processes of the 2018 Mw 8.2 and Mw 7.9 Tonga-Fiji deep earthquakes

Abstract

Deep earthquakes exhibit strong variabilities in their rupture and aftershock characteristics, yet their physical failure mechanisms remain elusive. The 2018 Mw 8.2 and Mw 7.9 Tonga-Fiji deep earthquakes, the two largest ever recorded in this subduction zone, occurred within days of each other. We investigate these events by performing waveform analysis, teleseismic P-wave back-projection, and aftershock relocation. Our results show that the Mw 8.2 earthquake ruptured fast (4.1 km/s) and excited frequency dependent seismic radiation, whereas the Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured slowly (2.5 km/s). Both events lasted ~35 s. The Mw 8.2 earthquake initiated in the highly seismogenic, cold core of the slab and likely ruptured into the surrounding warmer materials, whereas the Mw 7.9 earthquake likely ruptured through a dissipative process in a previously aseismic region. The contrasts in earthquake kinematics and aftershock productivity argue for a combination of at least two primary mechanisms enabling rupture in the region.

Publication
Geophysical Research Letters